Skip to main content

Full text of "The English malady, or, A treatise of nervous diseases of all kinds : as spleen, vapours, lowness of spirits, hypochondriacal, and hysterical distempers, &c., in three parts: Part I. Of the nature and cause of nervous distempers : Part II. Of the cure of nervous distempers : Part III. Variety of cases that illustrate and confirm the method of cure : with the author's own case at large"

See other formats

72 /* dtat J7i Tszstd 

& J&aeAn , a. 'Ttisfc-i- 
/Jaur- //( &0u 'U c&rtt duo pad/tt /&- 

./au // a /ft- Jty /?7as/&. 

t2auff//4A <?/,et pox as&ot qt/hl-* 
J%cU>Ata yW/tf/, a/><3t/-? 

£ J7-J, 6a*/^d/t vT£? 

/7?^ yfAfit a/i/ays s4a&>-/y ■ ■ 

c^t a n <4. > v /&// 



y 000.000 DIAMOND. 



Fire operations on his eyes wit h in the 
last three years have rendered the retire- 
ment of Mr. Streeter, the veteran jeweller 
and expert in precious stones, imperative." 

In announcing this fact to a “ Daily 
Mail ” representative last night, Mr. 
Streeter talked interestingly of his remark- 
able experiences. Has establishment in 
Bond-street is as well-known as the Bank, 
and sometimes nearly as valuable. 

Beneath the shop is a capacious safe which 
often contains as much as a million pounds' 
wortu of valuables. It stands on a base of 
concrete to prevent tunnelling, and is fitted 
with four steel doors, to disturb which 
means the ringing of alarm bells in all parts 
of the building. A guard of men sleep near 
it every night, and a powerful dog prowls 
round its iron walls. 

Hr. Streeter has in his possession -what he 
considers to be the finest diamond in 
the world. It was once the property 
of the Emperor of Delhi, and is valued 
at £14,000. The largest diamond he 

has ever seen weighed about one 

thousand carats, and is owned by a syndi- 
cate of dealers. Its value complete would 
be about ,£5, 000,000, but it is now being cut 

c \ 
't&r/jtoa/ : 


jfcr y&xSTt/tf/z 


The^son of Henry Russell, who was origi- 
ally Mr. Streeter’s partner, once owned the 
’hole of the site of the present Kimberley 
hamond Mines. After working it at con- 
.derable profit Russell and his partner sold 
~is ground for £500. It is now worth prob- 
dy £300,000,000. A small shanty which 
ie miners had erected was sold separately 
.or a lew pounds. It was subsequently dis- 
covered that the mud with which its walls 
were plastered was literally full of diamonds 
^n tee rough. 

®"*I have probably,” said Mr. Streeter, 
the finest collection of opals in the world. 
It is m the form of a necklace and pendant, 
the latter being a single stone Him by lin. most remarkable point with reference 
to this unique collection is that it was cut 
* j ? ! 790°” 9 s °ud opal. It is worth 

Jr connection Mr. Streeter tells an 
h ow o pals were dis- 



- aadxa aioj ppri'e^jeo puk 
Om_ 4 04 esefjseqd ojoux gi 

‘4S3[OIJO JO SUOlfl 
4qhrs ou a ['{X'lj 

‘uarasjeg jooj joj saqnj 

•■KVjnOlBO JUZeg 'B'lUU 

- -®® J 9 ia rv 1 [ pjaoAi. 944 4 r 4 j. tusuuqj®q jx 
*n sj^ ^edoang" jo uoge 

re. JI four ■ n : r- .!X.H 

- 4 * 


CngUCl) jWalatop 


O F 

Nervous Difeafes of all Kinds, 

A S 

Spleen, Vapours, Lownefs of Spirits, 
Hypochondriacal, and Byfterical 
Diftempers, &c. 


Part I. Of the Nature and Caufe of Nervous 

Part II. Of the Cure of Nervous Diftempers. 
Part III. Variety of Cafes that ill'uftrate and 
confirm the Method of Cure. 

With the Author’; own CASE at large . 

Facilis defcenius Averni, 

Sect revocare Gradum , fuperafaue evade re ad Jltirasy 
Hie Labor, hoc Opus eft. Fauci quos JEquus amavit , 
Jupiter, aut ardeyis evexit ad FEthera Virtus 
Dis Geniti pot tier e . ViRG. 


Fellow of the College ofPhyJzcians at Edinburg , and F. R. S. 

L O N D G N : 

Printed for G. Strahan in Cornhill , and 
J. Leake at Bath . m.dcg.xxxih. 

To the Right Honourable the 

Lord BATEMAN, &c. 

Knight of the mod Honourable Order 
of the BATH. 

My Lord, 

Beg leave to prefect to 
your Lordjhip this 
Treatife, which, while 
in Manujcript , you fo 
kindly and warmly 
dcfired to fee in ‘Print. 
The chief Defign of thefe Sheets is to 
recommend to my Fellow Creatures 
that plain Diet which is mod agreeable 
to the Purity and Simplicity of uncor- 
rupted Nature, and unconquer’d Reafen . 
Ill would it fuir, my Lord , with fuch 
a Defign to introduce it with a Dedi- 
A % cation 


cation cook’d up to the Height of a 
French or Italian Tafte. Addreftes of 
this Kind are generally a Sort of Ra- 
gans and Olios , compounded of Ingre- 
dients as pernicious to the Mind as fuch 
unnatural Meats are to the Body. Ser- 
vile Flattery, fulfome Compliments, 
and bombafl Fanegyrick make up the 
naufeous Compofition. But I know 
that your Lordfhip’s Tafte is too deli- 
cate, and your Judgment too chafte to 
be able to bear fuch Cookery. Your 
taking thefe Sheets into your Patronage 
will probably be a Poft not to be main- 
tained without fome Difficulty.* Fre - 
judice , Interejl , and Appetite are power- 
ful Antagonifts, which nothing but 
good Senfe, folid Virtue, and true 
Chrijlian Courage are capable of op- 
pofing. Was not your Lordjhip emi- 
nently endued with thofe invaluable 
Qualities, I fhould not have been fo 
fond of thrufting this, almoft Orphan- 
Work out into the World under your 
fafe Condud. But your Pradice, my 
Ford, has long engaged you on the 


Side of Temperance, Sobriety, and 
Virtue, and I hope you will not think 
it a difagreeable Task to avow and 
juftify thofe Principles to the Publick, 
by which you have hitherto been guided 
fo much to your Advantage in private. 
I dare aflert, my Lord , that in defend- 
ing this Caufe you will fight under the 
Banner of Truth: and be theOppofition 
of Prejudice, Error, or Malice, ever fo 
mighty, I know that Patience and Per- 
feverance will be fufficient to render the 
Conqueft: fecure. The promoting, ac- 
cording to my beft Abilities, the Eafe, 
Health, and Welfare of Mankind in ge- 
neral, and of my fellow-fufFering Vale- 
tudinarians in particular, has been the 
whole and foie View with which I have 
once more dared to appear in ‘Print. 
Your Love of the Defign will, 1 hope, 
make you blind to the Imperfections 
and Weaknefs of the Execution. The 
Protection of fuch a Work, my Lord, 
is properly yours. Your Humanity and 
Benevolence are always engaging you 
in the Purfuit of the fame Ends, tho’ 



by different means. If you ftill think, 
after a mature Revifal of thefe Papers, 
that thefe my poor Endeavours may be 
ufeful to the Tublick, I know you will 
be their generous Advocate, merely 
upon Principle, and even in Oppofition 
to Party. The Continuance of your 
Approbation will give me a moft lincere 
Pleafure, as your Condefcenfion in per- 
mitting me to do myfelf this Honour , 
will always be efteemed one of the many 
Obligations you have fo kindly conferred 

My Lord, 

Tour Lordfhip’s 

Mofi Obliged , Faithjul , 

Humble Servant, 

Geo. Cheyne, 


H E Title I have cloofen for 
this Treatife, is ^ Re- 
proach univerfally thrown 
on this Ifland by Foreign- 
ers , and all our Neighbours on the Con- 
tinent, by whom nervous Diflempers , 
Spleen, Vapours, and Lownefs of Spi- 
rits, are in Derijion^ called the ENG- 
LISH MAL ADT. And l wifi 
there were not fo good Grounds for this 
Rejletfion. 'The Moifture of our Air, 
the Variablenefs of our Weather, {from 
our Situation amidji the Ocean) the 
Ranknefs and Fertility of our Soil , the 
Richnefs and Heavinefs of our Food , 
a the 


the Wealth and Abundance of the In- 
habitants from their univerfal ‘Trade ) 
the lna<ftivity and fedentary Occupations 
of the better Sort ( among whom this 
Evil mojlly rages) and the Humour of 
living in great , populous and confe- 
quently unhealthy Towns , have brought 
forth a Oafs and Set of Hiflempers , 
with atrocious and frightful Symptoms, 
fcarce known to our Ancejlors , and never 
riling to fuch fatal Heights, nor afflitfing 
fetch Numbers in any other known Na- 
tion. Jhefe nervous Difeorders being 
computed to make almojl one third of the 
Complaints of the ‘People of Condition 
in England. 

II. This Work has lain finifedd hy 
me , as it now appears ( at leaf in the 
main) thefe fever al Tears paft , and 
was intended as a Legacy and Dying- 
Speech, only to my Fellow-Sufferers 
under thefe Complaints. And had 
certainly never appear d ( till its Au- 
thor had difappeard) had it not been 
for the ferhaps indifereet Zeal of 


fame of my war me (l Friends , who 
(; upon the late Frequency and daily 
Encreafe of wanton and uncommon 
Self-murderers, produc’d moftly by this 
Diftemper, and their blafphemous and 
frantick Apologies grafted on the Prin- 
ciples of the Infidels, and propagated by 
their Difciples) extorted it from me , 
to try what a Utile more juft and folid 
Philofophy, join’d to a Method of Cure, 
and proper Medicines could do, to put 
a Stop to fo univerfal a Lunacy and 

III. Some good natur d and inge ~ 
nious Retainers to the Profeffion, on 
my Publication of my Book of long Life 
and Health, proclaim’d every where 
that I was turn’d mere Enthufiafl, and 
refold’d all Things into Allegory and 
Analogy, advis’d People to turn 
Monks, to run into Defarts, and to 
live on Roots, Herbs and wild Fruits 5 
in fi ne , that I was at Bottom a mere 
Leveller, and for dejlroying Order, 
Ranks and Property, every one’s but 

a 1 my 



my o' wn. But that Sneer had its 
Day, and vanifh’d into Smoak. Others 
fwore I had eaten my Book, recanted 
my Doctrine and Syftem (as they were 
pleafed to term it) and was returned 
again to the Devil, the World and the 
Flefh This Joke I haw alfo flood. 
I have been fain again and again, both 
in Verfe and Proie 3 but I thank GOD 
I am pill alive and well . 

IV. But to cut off all Occafions of 
Mifake, and every Handle of Mifre- 
prefentation of my Meaning and Inten- 
tion, as far as in me lies , I here 
folemnly declare it, as my Judgment 
and Opinion (if it be worth the know - 
ing) founded on the Experience and 
Obfervation of many Tears : 1 ft, That 

the Diet and Manner of Living of the 
middling Rank, who are but moderate 
and temperate in Foods of the common 
and natural Troduff of the Country , 
to wit in animal Foods plainly drefsd, 
and Liquors purify d by Fermentation 
only, without the Tortures of the Fire, 




or without being turned into Spirits, is 
that intended by the Author of Nature 
for this Climate and Country, and 
confeopuently the mofi wholefome and 
jittefl in general , for prolonging Life, 
and preventing Diftempers, that the 
Ends of Providence and the Conditions 
0/ Mortality will admit. idly, That 
no wife Man, who is but moderate and 
temperate in this manner , ought on any 
Account to alter the Kind and Quality 
of his Diet while his Elealth and Ap- 
petite are good. 1 dly, That no wife 
Man, even when he has fallen into , or 
is threatened with a Diftemper, ought 
to change the Quality of his Diet, till 
he has duly and fujficiently try d, what 
proper Medicines can do , by the Advice 
of the moji experienced and knowing 
Phyficians. 4. 1 hat the Changes that 
are advisd to be made , ought to be 
duly and maturely confided d, and enter d 
upon by Degrees, whether from a higher 
to a lower, or from a lower to a higher 
Diet. 5. That firong high animal 
Foods and generous defecated fpirituous 

a 3 Liquors, 



Liquors, as begetting warm, full , and 
enliven'd Juices , urgeing on the Cir - 
culation with Force , and the Secre- 
tions with Vigour , /» young, vobujl y 
healthy Conflitutions , are fittefi and 
mojl effectual for Mechanical and ani- 
mal Strength, Force , Action and 

Labour'. And fo abfolutely necejjary for 
Handy- Crafts, great Fatigue, and mili- 
tary Frowefs. But thefe are not the 
Matter in ghtefiion here, which is 
about preventing and cureing Dijiem- 
pers already brought on y brightening 
the Faculties , and fitting them for intel- 
lectual and fe dent ary Furpofes, and 
lengthening the natural Life. 6. IF at 
a proper and fpecifick Diet for each 
Diflemper, is as neceffary to be known 
and prefcrib'd by an honcft and faithful 
Fhyfician, as proper and fpecifick Me- 
dicines \ ( for in thefe two only, the very 
Effence of the Science confifls, not fepa- 
rately hut conjointly) $ and 7 . That only 
in thofe Thjlempers commonly reckon’d 
incureable, the Reproach of Phyfick and 
Phyficians, and which are in their own 



'Nature, either mortal or infupportahly 
painful, fuch as tortureing , habitual 
Gouts, confirm cl Cancers, ohfiinate Ve- 
nereal Diflempers , the Stone in the 
Kidneys, or in the Bladder ( when Li- 
thotomy cannot he adminifirated ) $ a 
Pulmonick Phthifis, a Nervous Atrophy, 
the Epilepfy, and the other higher and 
inconquer able hyfierick and hypochon- 
driack Diforders , a fettled Hedtick 
( from Ulcers ) an Eiephantiafis and Le~ 
profy, a humorous Afthma, a chronical 
Diabetes, an incurable Scrophula and 
a deep Scurvy. I fay, in thefe only, 
and only in thefe when they are be- 
come manifefi, have refified all other 
common Methods, and the Datients 
are rather growing worfe than bet- 
ter under them, is a total and ftridt 
Milk, Seed and Vegetable Diet, proper 
or to he attempted 5 and that in other 
more fimple and flight Cafes, and even 
in the firft Stages of thefe mentioned 
Diflempers , a common moderate and 
temperate animal Diet , and well-chofen 
Medicines, will he.fujficient. Now if 

a 4 after 

after all this , any one is chfpos’d to 
le merry with me, / ought not , / 
flail not grudge them their Diver- 

V. I think truly, a thin , poor, cool , 
low J)let as improper and unnatural to 
a rob u ft, adtive, ftrong, healthy Man, 
as a grofs, full, high Diet, is jor a poor, 
thin , low, -valetudinary Creature . i'or 
the whole Art of Bhyfck, and the 
Wifdom of animal Life, confifs in ad- 
juring Diet and Medicines to the 
Habit and the Diflempers. for the 
Diet that woud make a Nightingale 
healthy and gay, woud Jtarve qnd kill 
a Kite, and on the contrary : But it 
is. odds if a Free- drinking, or Free-think- 
ing Fhfcian be not as improper to advife 
a poor weak, low, dying Creature , as 
a Free- drinking, Free-thinking Cafuifl is 
to advife a fcrupulous and tender Con- 
ference. Men of all F r of eflions think, write 
and advife Themfelves, and their own 
Characters, and imprefs their- own Sig- 
natures on every thing they do, fay , 



and advife ; which , / hope , 

Ap°l°gy/or Me y if in any thing I have 
over •foot the Golden Mean, which I 
am pretty certain I have not , to thoje , 
who reafon and think , and prefer Healthy 
Cheerfulnefsy and Jong Life , to a jhort 
Life and a merry . 

VI. After, ally I would not have it 
thought y that I am of Opinion that none 
ever fail d or diedy who enter d on a 
Milk, Seed, and Vegetable Diet under 
thefe mention d Diftempers. The noble 
Organs may be fpoilt or irretrievably 
objlrufiedy which the wifejl Thyfician 
alive cannot abfolutely foreknow j the 
Time remaining and necejfary for a total 
Cure of fuch tedious T)feafes y may not 
be fufficient in the common Duration of 
Life. All I affirm therefore y is, that 
fuch a Diet in the mention’d Diftem- 
pers, with the ufual proper MedicineSy 
duly per fifed in, will do the Whole that 
Art can fojjibly doy or Mortality will 
admit 5 and infinitely more than the 
fame Medicines under a full and free 




Diet of Animal Foods and Spirituous 
Licjuors 5 and at the very leaf , will 
make their Tains and Sufferings Jefs 
both in Life and Death. 

VIE What I pretend to have done 
in fome Degree in the following Trea - 
life , is, That I hope I have explain’d 
the ISature and Caufes of Nervous Dif- 
tempers ( which have hitherto been rec- 
kon'd Witchcraft, Enchantment, Sor- 
cery and Poffeffion, and have been the 
conjlant Refource of Ignorance ) from 
Principles eafy , natural and intelligible , 
deduc’d from the bejl and foundef Na- 
tural Philofophy • and have by the 
plainef Reafoning , drawn from thefs 
Caufes and this Philofophy, a Method 
of Cure and a Courfe of Medicines 
fpecifically obviating thefe Caufes, con- 
firm’d by long Experience and repeated 
Obfrvations, and conformable to the 
Praffiice of the ablef and bejl Writers 
on thefe Difeafis. 




VIII. The rncji material Objefiion 
my ableft Friends have made to this Piece 
is , That much of it is a Repetition of 
what I have already faid in Trint , and 
fome of it but a lame and imperfect 
Reprefentation of what is much better 
faid by others. But as this Objection 
regards only myfelf and my Reputation 
as an Author, / will fuffer it to have 
its whole Effehi. There can be no 
greater Evidence of the Truth of Prin- 
ciples, than their being fimple and few, 
and readily applicable to jfblve all the 
pojfeble appearances. Nature produces 
many and various Effects in different 
Circumjlances y from one and the fame 
Caufe. Truth is Jimple and one in its 
Root and Source , but various and manit 
fold in different Situations and Circum- 
flances. And 1 fhall not think it Tau- 
tology, to prefs and inculcate the fame 
Methods of Cure, even in different 
SDifiempers , from the fame Caufes , if it 
be done from different Views and Confe- 
derations , 




IX. There are two Sorts of Rea- 
ders I have not the mojt remote Hopes 
of convincing or giving Satisfaction to 5 
viz. the Voluptuous and Unthinking. 
< Thofe who value Life only for the Sake 
of good Eating and Drinking, and thofe 
whofe thinking Faculties and Organs 
have never keen truly form'd or duly 
cultivated ; neither of thefe will ever 
hear or can receive any Conviction or 
Re a foning from fuch Principles as I lay 
down. But the Laws of Nature, and 
the immutable Relations of Things, are 
too Jiubborn to bend to fuch Gentlemen $ 
and I fhould not chufe to fludy fuch a 
Sort of Particulars, to learn incorrupted 
Nature , its Laws and Order, no more 
than I fhould apply to a monftrous 
Production to learn the Genius of a 
Tribe, or a Species either 0/" Vegetables 
or Animals. Bofjibly even they them - 
felves may be convinc’d , at leaf in fome 
me afure , when their proper Time is 
come ; and fooner or later it may come , 
unlefs the Minute Fhiloiophy prevail , 


PREFACE. xiii 

and become the Standard. For probably 
when they begin to feel violent Pain, 
long Sicknefs, habitual Low Spirits, or 
enter upon the Limits of both Worlds, 
they may be convinced. For , in the 
main , I believe the Caufe of thefe L )if- 
tempers here affignd , juft and adequate, 
and on the Succefs of the Methods of 
Cure laid down in geyieral ( in Cafes 
where any thing would fucceed) I could 
venture my Reputation, Fortune and 


X. If any of your Authors without 
Names, who wound in the Dark ; your 
Hackney- Scribblers, who want only to 
give their Lucubrations Sale • your pro- 
fane and bold Wits, who fight behind 
J ingle and Rhime 5 your Philomaths, 
who, without Experiment or Ob ferv ac- 
tion , want only to floew away $ or your 
Peftle-and-Mortar Men, ' who have 
more Time on their Hands than Rufi- 
nefs , think Jit to try their Parts on this 
Performance 5 for their Encouragement , 




they need only confider the Author as 
gone to his long Home, or his Faculties 
(as they could wifh ) impair d or extinB. 
But if any Sober and Serious Ferfon , 
who has Nature in View, and is in 
Search of Truth only, ready to embrace 
it on what Side of the Vfueflion foever 
it lies, has any Difficulties or Doubts^ 
he may find fome one or other who may 
give him all the Satisfaction he can de- 
jfire 5 if it be true (as it moft certainly is) 
that where the Philofopher ends , there 
the Phylician begins. If I could choofe, 
I floould name only thofe for my Judges, 
who to a competent Knowledge of the 
Laws of Nature and Meehan ifm, have 
join d an Acquaintance with the befl 
Natural Philofophy, the latefi CDifco - 
veries in Natural Hiftory, and the 
Powers and Virtues of Medicines, and 
had been long converfant in the Brattice 
of Phyfick and Attendance on the Sick 
and Difeafed : And by their Judgment I 
floould ffand or fall. But fmee I have 
not the moft remote Frofpetl to hope , or 



the Jeajt Vanity to flatter myfelf either 
to prevail on but a very few of the 
Sufferings Sick and [ Difeafed , or to 
choofe my Readers and Judges 5 1 muff 
be contented to ffand my Fate., be it what 
it will- 

XI. For how this Work may he 
received by the Publick in general , 
l think I have 110 further Concern , 
than as its bad or good Reception 
may affeCt the Publick, by difappointing 
the Good it might do y or encour ageing 
the Evils it might prevent. I flat- 
ter'd myfelf it might entertain , inffruCt 
and direCt the Ingenious Delicate Va- 
letudinarian, and give at leaf; the un -> 
prejudic'd younger Phyfician a different 
way of thinking in thefe Didempers 
from the Common, which has been 
the Reverie of my Dodirine. I am 
myfelf come to that Time of Life 
when Hopes and Fears ought to be 
contracted into a very narrow Com - 
pafs. I have done my bell, and pur- 





fi d in my own Cafe the fame Rules 
/ haw given to others , and have at 
prefent , I thank God, inward Peace, 
Health and Freedom of Spirits. 

Inveni Portum, Spes 5c Fortuna Valete. 


[ xvii ] 






Of the Sources and Caufes of Chronical Dif- 
tempers in general. 

The Caufes of Chronical Di (tempers of three 
Sorts, i. A Sizynefs or Vifcidity in the 
Fluids, i. A Sharpnefs or corrofive Qua- 
lity in the Fluids. 3. A Laxity or Want 
% of due Tone in the Fibres er Nerves 6 
The necejfary Effects of fuch Caujes. 8 

b CHAP. 

xviii Contents. 

chap. ir. 

Of the general Caufes of the Diforders of the 

1 . Want or Excefs of Humidity in the Solids i o 

2. Concretions of Salts 1 1 

3. ,7 he Interruption or Interception of the Vi- 

brations of the Nerves by the Vijcidity of 
the Juices 1 2 

4. He Weaknefs or Laxity of their Pone 13 
What Difeafes are properly call’d Nervous ib. 


\ - - . 

Of the General Divifion of Nervous Dis- 

Nil Nervous Cafes but the feveral Steps or 
Stages of the fame Di (temper 14 

Nervous Di (tempers of three Kinds . 1 . Such 

as are attended with a partial or total Lofs 
of Senfation for fome Pime ij 

2. Such as are attended with the Lofs of 

voluntary Motion in any particular Organ 
or Limb 16 

3 . Such as are attended with Spafns , Cramps , 

or Convulfons 17 

Another Diftintdion of nervous Diforders , into 
original and acquir’d 1 8 

Phe Misfortune of original weak Nerves may 
be the Cauje of greater Felicity 20 




Ferfons of original weak Nerves incapable of 
ever intirely obtaining the fame Strength and 

Vigour with thoje of frong Fibres ibid. 

Such Ferfons, if they get over the Meridian 
of Life, commonly live Healthy to a great old 
Age 11 

How nervous Diforders are acquired 23 


That what is fwallowed down and received 
into the Habit is the firft and chief efficient 
Caufe of all that Mankind fuffer in their 

That Men bring upon themfelves all their Mi - 
feries 1 5 

That what is received into the Habit is the 
Caufe of aU Difeafes, prov’d from the Me - 
chanifm of the human Body , and the Laws 
of the Animal O economy. 16 


Of the furprizing and wonderful Effe&s of 
Salts, efpecially of the volatile, urinous, 
or animal Salts, upon Human Bodies and 

Of the great Energy and Activity of Salts in 
general 3 f 

Of the Caufe of their Energy and Jffivity 38 

c Of 



Of mineral Salt , and the various Changes it 
fuffers by entring into vegetable and animal 
Subfauces 3^ 

Why mineral and vegetable Salts have more im- 
mediate and fenjible Ejffefs than animal Salts 

4 * 

Of the Effects of Salts in general upon human 
Bodies 42 

Shat rich Foods and generous Wines owe their . 
Boignancy and high Tajte to the Salts with 
which they abound 44 

f licit the mentioned Properties of Salts arije 
only from their Size , Shape y and Attrac- 
tion of their Particles 4 6 


Of the Frequency of nervous Diforders, in 
Jater Years, beyond what they haye been 
obferved in former Times. 

A vulgar Mi flake in accounting for the Fre- 
quency of thefe Diforders in later Tears 48 
The true Caitje affign’ d, viz. 1. Luxury 49 

2. An unatfive^ fe dent ary ^ or fudious Life 52 

3. Living in great and populous Cities 54 
Difeafes introduced among the Greeks and 

Romans by the fame Caffes 56 

That all Difeafes are remotely derived from the 
fame Principles 57 

Nervous Difeafes known in fGme Degree to the 
Ancients 58 



Contents. xxi 


Of the true Nature of the Fibres and Nerves. 

What is meant by a Fibre , and what are its 
Properties 60 

Oj the Structure of the Solids in an animal 
Body 62 

Of the different Sorts of fenfble or compound 
Fibres ibid. 

Of their Nature and Properties 64 

Elafticity neceffary in Fibres. 66 


Of the Ufe of the Fibres and Nerves, and 
the Manner and Caufes of Senfation, and 
of Mufcular Motion. 

fhe intelligent Principle of a different Nature 
the orzanical Machine which contain / 

6 \& 

How the Senfations are performed 70 

Of the Nature and Cauje of Elasticity 7 2 

Of Mufcular Motion 74 


Of the Exiftence of animal Spirits, and of 
their Ufe to account for animal Motion, 
and the other animal Fun&ions. 

ffhe various Opinions of Writers on this Sub- 
ject 77 




c 2 

xxii Contents. 

The Objections commonly made againf the Ex- 
it ft e nee of animal Spirits 78 

The Impojfbility of their Exi fence fhewn from 
other “Principles 81 

The Abfurdity of attempting to account for 
nervotis Difeajes by the Exifence of animal 
Spirits 83 

Of the various Sy ferns of Fluids 85 

Of the Nature of the Brain and Nerves , and 
the Manner in which their Functions are 
performed 88 

G II A P. X. 

Of the Generation, Animation, Nutrition? 
and Growth of the Solids and Fluids of 
Animals, and fome other Fun&ions of the 
animal Oeconomy. 

That there is a felf-a Clive and felf motive 
Principle in all Animals po 

Of the Generation of Animals pi 

That the Organs of an Animal are in Number , 
in fome Senfe , infnite , at leaf indefnite pa 
Some Propoftions containing the Nature , Ge- 
neration, Nutrition , and other Functions of 
the animal Oeconomy P3 





Of the Signs and Symptoms of a too relaxed, 
loofe, and tender State of Nerves. 

Weaknefs of the Nerves difcoverahle from the 
Pulfe and Nature of the Circulation pp 
From the Nature and Colour of the Hair i oo 
From the Mitfcles and Colour of the Skin i o i 
Fatnefs or Corpulence a Sign of weak Nerves 102 
Preternatural Evacuations ibid. 

Coldnefs in the Extremities of the Body 103 
Stammering , Difficulty of Utterance, Deafnefs , 
&c. 1 04 

That a Laxity and Want of due Tone and 
Elaflicity in the Solids , produce vifcid and 
(harp Juices , and on the contrary 1 o 5 

c 3 


xxiv Contents. 

part II. 


Of the general Method of Cure of nervous 

nH HE frjl Intention , to thin , dilute , and 
fweeten the Fluids 1 1 a 

The fecond Intention , to break and diffolve the 
faline Concretions in the fmall Vejfels 1 1 3 

The third and la ft Intention, to wind up and 
contrail the Fibres of the whole Syflem 1 1 4 
That each Intention ought to be purfued fepa - 
rately 1 1 5 

Of the Time necejfary for each Intention 116 

Of the various Changes of the Blood under 
Difeafes of all Kinds 1 1 8 

Of the State of the Blood in nervous Dijor- 
ders 122 





Of the Method and Medicines proper for the 
firft Intention. 

What Sort of Medicines are fitt eft to attenuate 
the Juices ; 124 

The Neceffty of beginning with Evacuations 

. 125 

The Medicines of the firft Intention fpecifed 


Calomel , how to be adminiftred 120 

Of TEthiops Mineral , AEjhiops Antimon. 
Mercurius Alcalifatus , Prcecipitat per fe, 
and Jzhiickfilver, &c. 128 

The great life of all Mercurial Preparations in 
chronical Cafes , and the Preparations proper 
for each particular Cafe 130 

Of the wild Valerian 136 


Of the Medicines proper for the fecond In- 

The Medicines for the frfi Intention may be 
compounded with thoje for the fecond 137 
A Wive and volatile Medicines ft tef for the fe- 
cond Intention 138 

The Medicines for the fecond Intention fpecifed 

l 39 

Of Affa-fcetida 140 

Of Ammoniac urn, Sagapenum , &c. 141 

c 4 CHAP. 



Of the Medicines proper for the third In- 

7 he Medicines proper for the third Intention 
of the afiringent Kind, fhefe Medicine's 
J feci fed 1 44 

oj the Jefuits Bark y and its great Ffifcacy in 
nervous Cafes 

Of Bittersy chalyheat MediclneSy and mineral 
ch alyl eat Waters 1^6 


Of the Regimen of Diet proper for nervous 

A proper Regimen of Diety much ufed by the 
Ant lent s in the Cure of Difeafes ; and why 
it Is Jo little regarded at prefent 140 

fhat the Boods and Fhyjick proper to the 
middling Sort in each Country is the heft 

The Benefit of the Loathing and Inappetency 
that attends Diforders 1 fy 

That Difeafes are cured by the contrary Me- 
thods to thofe which produced them 1 j8 

Of the Qualities of the Food proper in nervous 
Diforders ibid. 

Of the Quantity of the Food ifo 


Contents. xxvii 

That different Degrees of Temperance are nc- 
ceffary , as the Symptoms are more or lefs 
violent 1 6r 

What Cafes require a total Abfinence from 
animal Food and fermented Liquors 162, 
That a total milk and vegetable Diet is not 
proper in all Difeafes 

The Advantages of a milk and vegetable Diet 
above any other, in Cafes wherein it is pro- 
per , and on the contrary 1 68 

The Caufes of thefe Advantages or Dif advan- 
tages 1 69 


Of the Exercife proper for nervous Dis- 

The Meceffty of Exercife to Health in general 


The great XJfe made of Exercife by the Antients 
in the Cure of Dijlempers 174 

The great Reneft of Exercife confrmed from 
Rea/on as well as Experience 177 

What Kinds of Exercife are bef 180 

The Reneft of Amufement 1 8 1 


xxviii Contents. 

chap. VII. 

Of fome of the more immediate and eminent 
Caufes of nervous Diforders. 

All nervous Diforders proceed from fome glan- 
dular Difemper , either fcrophulous or fcor - 
hutical 183 

A vitious Liver or Spleen one of the primary 
Caufes of nervous Diforders 185 

Knotted Glands in the Mefentery or Guts 
another Caufe 188 

Cutaneous Diforders productive of nervous 
Difempers 1 8p 

Some other Caufes affigned 1*90 


Of the Spleen, Vapours, Lownefs of Spirits, 
Hyfterical or Hypochondriacal Diforders. 

Lke Symptoms of thefe Diforders , whence to 
he deduced ip3 

What Symptoms properly belong to Vapours ip4 
Of the different Kinds or Degrees of Vapours 

1 95 

Of the frfl Degree of Vapours , and the Symp- 
toms attending it 1 y 6 

Of the fecond and third Degrees of Vapours 
and their Symptoms ipp 

Of the Difference between acute and chronical 
Difeafes , in their Origin and Production aoi 




That Vapours are the frf Symptoms of all 
Chronical Difeafes 203 


Of the Cure of the Symptoms of Vapours, 
Hyfterical and Hypochondriacal Diforders. 

Gentle Vomits an effectual Remedy for all the 



Of Refllejfnefs and Inquietude of Spirits 208 
Of Lownefs not attended with Sicknefs or 'Rain 

10 9 

Of the frequent Difcharge of limpid pale Water 
by Urine 2 1 1 

Of the Spitting or Salivation common in nervous 
Di [tempers 212 

Of fome other Symptoms attending Vapours 213 
Of tranfient Diforders of this Kind incident to 
healthy Rerfons 214 


Of the nervous Diforders of the Convulfive 
Tribe, particularly of Hyfterical and Hy- 
pochondriacal Fits, and thole other Pa- 
roxyfms that attend nervous Diforders. 

Of the Nature and Caufe of Ccnvulficns in ge- 
neral 2 1 7 

Of the Caufe of Convulfons in nervous Cafes 2 1 9 

Of Childrens Convulfons , and their Cure 220 
Of Convulfons in the Sex. 222 

Of nervous Fits in grown Rerfons 22 q 

C H A 1 \ 

tfxx Contents, 

chap. XI. 

Of nervous Fevers, Cholicks, Gouts, Afthmas, 
Rheumatifms, and other Diftempers deno- 
minated nervous. 

Of the Difference between nervous and inflam- 
matory Dif orders 226 

Of the Nature and Symptoms of nervous Fevers 


Of the Cure of nervous Fevers 230 

Of the Nature and Symptoms of the nervous 
Cholick 133 

Of the Cure of the nervous Cholick 234 

Of nervous Gouts , Rheumatifms , and Aflhmas 



Of the Palfy, St. Vitus’s Dance, and other 
Paralytick Diforders. 

Of the Caufe and Cure of partial Failles 238 
Of the Nature and Caufe of Palfies 239 

Of the Cure of Palfies 242 

Of St. Vitus’ s Dance 244 


Of the Apoplexy and Epilepfy. 

Of the Nature and Caufe of the apoplexy in 
general 243 

Of the different Kinds of apoplexies 246 

Of the more common Sort of Apoplexy, and its 
Caufe - ^48 

Ofth e Cure of Apoplexies 249 

Of the Nature of the Epilepfy 231 

Of the Cure of the Epilepfy 253 




part in. 

— — — - — * 


F thofe whofe nervous Complaints were 
cured by Medicine , under a common , tho” 
temperate Diet. 


Of nervous Cafes , requiring a mix'd or trim - 
ming Regimen of Diet , viz. of tender , 
young, animal Food , <0 //'///<? 

Water one Day , other only Milk , 

Seeds , and Vegetables 273 


O/" nervous Cafes , requiring a frill and total 
Milk , < 5 W, Vegetable Diet 2.84 


xxxii Contents." 

chap. IV. 

The Objections againjl a Regimen , efpecially a 
Milky Seedy and Vegetable Diety conjidered 

2 97 

Vhe Cafe of the Hon. Col. Townfliend 307 
rfhe Cafe of the learned and ingenious Dr. Cran- 
ftoun, in a Letter to the Author , at his 
Defrey in Dr. Cranftoun’j own JVords 311 

3 2 S 


fhe Cafe of the Author 
fhe Conchfion 



CnsHflt) jldaUp.’ 

O R, A 


O F 

Nervous Difeafes of all Kinds, 

A S 

Spleen, Vapours, Lownefs of Spirits, 
Hypochondriacal and Hyfterical 
Diftempers, &c. 



Of the Nature and Caufe of Nervous 

Nec te qu re fiver is extra. 



Fellow of the College ofPbyJiciam at Edinburg^ and F.R.S. 


Printed for G. Straha n, and J. Leak e. 


[ * ] 




i jl Malady. 


H E Spirit of a Man can bear his 
Infirmities, but a wounded Spirit 
who can bear ? faith a Prophet. 
As this is a great Truth in the 7;^ 
tellectual World, fo it may allude 
to the Human Machin , to infinuate, that a 
Perfon of found Health, of ftrong Spirits, 
and firm Fibres, may be able to combat, 
ftruggle with, and nobly to bear and even 
brave the Misfortunes, Pains, and Miferies 
of this mortal Life, when the fame Perfon, 
broken, and dilpirited by Weaknefs of Nerves , 
Valours, Melancholy , or Age, fhall become 

B dejeffced, 

i Introduction. 

dejeded, opprefs’d, peevifh, and funk even 
below the Weaknefs of a Greenlicknefs Maid, 
or a Child. Of this every one who has liv’d 
any time in the World may have feen Inftances, 
from the Hero to the City Girl. This I have 
often obferv’d, and reflected on within myfelf, 
with much Pity of the Folly and Mifery, the 
Pride and Prefumprion of Human Nature , 
which could value, or think to fupport itfelf, 
upon its own natural Courage and Force. To 
expcd Fortitude , Patience , 'Tranquillity , and 
Refignation , from the moil Heroick of the 
Children of Men, under fuch Circumftances, 
from their natural Force or Faculties alone, 
is equally abfurd as to exped to fly without 
Wings, or walk without Legs ; the Strength 
of the Nerves , Fibres , or Animal Spirits (as 
they are call’d) being the neceflary Inftruments 
of the former, as thefe Members are of the 
latter. Different natural Complexions of the 
Soul and IntelleBual Faculties, and different 
Improvements from Education, Philofophy , of 
Religion , may make fome fmall Odds in the 
Behaviour of different Perfons under thefe 
Diforders. But this depends much upon the 
Degrees of the. Diftemper, and the original 
Frame and Make of the Body, even more 
than can be readily imagin’d, as I have often 
had undeniable Evidences to conclude. And, 
of all the Miferies that afflid Human Life, 
and relate principally to the Body, in this 
Valley of Tears, I think, Nervous Diforders, 


Introduction. 3 

in their extream and lad Degrees, are the 
mod deplorable, and, beyond all companion, 
the word:. It was the Obfervation of a learned 
and judicious Phyjician , that he had feen Per- 
fons labouring under the mod: exquifite Pains 
of Gout, Stone , Ckolick , Cancer , and all the 
other Diftempers that can tear the human 
Machin, yet had he obferv’d them all willing 
to prolong their wretched Being, and fcarce 
any ready to lay down chearfully the Load of 
Clay, (we will except thofe who were fuperna- 
turally fupportedj but fuch as labour’d under 
a condant, internal Anxiety, meaning thofe 
mod: finking, fuffocating, and drangling/V^r- 
vous Diforders j it is truly the only Mifery 
almod, to be dreaded and avoided in Life, if, 
by any means, it can pofiibly. Tho’ other Evils 
be Burdens, yet an eredted Spirit may bear 
them, but when the Supports are fallen, and 
cover the Man with their Ruins, the Defola- 
tion is perfedt. I greatly fufpedt, (and have 
adtually feen it in fome) that mod of thofe 
who make away with themfelves, are under 
the Influence of this didradting Evil , if it pro- 
ceeds not fometimes from high Paflions arifing 
in Conditutions naturally too fenfible, and 
fuch are the mod readily expos’d to the Infults 
of thefe Didempers. Having differ’d once 
and again under all the Varieties of the Symp- 
toms of this Dilorder, partly from my own 
Indifcretion, and partly from a grofs Habit of 
Body, and an original State of weak Nerves, 
B 2 and 

4 Introduction. 

and having tried ih my own Perfon almoft all 
the poffible Means, Reliefs, or Medicines, that 
Phyficians , Books of Phyfck , or PhiloJ'ophy , 
could fuggeft, befides my own Obfervations 
on many others, who have come to this Place 
for Relief for thefe Thirty Years, and being 
once and again perfectly refcu’d from them by 
the fame Means, it will be a great Satisfaction 
to me, if I can at leaf: alleviate and mitigate 
the Sorrows and Miferies of my Fellow-Suffer- 
ers, by the Experience I have fo dearly bought. 

Those who are defirous to read the enfu- 
ing Treatife only for their Relief and Cure, 
may pafs over thofe Parts (which may be learned 
by the Index) that are merely PhiloJ'ophical, and 
defign’d only to gratify their Curiofity, they 
having no neceffary Connection with what is 
Direttory or Pr attic ah 

These need only fuppofe, that the Human 
Body is a Machin of an infinite Number and 
Variety of different Channels and Pipes, filled 
with various and different Liquors and Fluids, 
perpetually running, glideing, or creeping for- 
ward, or returning backward, in a conftant 
Circle , and fending out little Branches and Out- 
lets, to moiften, nourilh, and repair the Ex- 
pences of Living. That the Intelligent Prin- 
ciple, or Soul , refides fomewhere in the Brain, 
where all the Nerves, or Inftruments of Senfa- 
tion terminate, like a Mujician in a finely 


Introduction. £ 

fram’d and well-tun’d Organ-Cafe ; that thefe 
Nerves are like Keys , which, being ftruck on 
or touch’d, convey the Sound and Harmony 
to this fentient Principle, or Mufician. 

O r, in a more grofs Similitude, the Intelli- 
genPrinciple is like a Bell in a Steeple, to which 
there are an infinite Number of Hammers all 
around it, with Ropes of all Lengths, termina- 
ting or touching at every Point of the Surface of 
the T runk or Cafe, one of whofe Extremities 
being pull’d or touch’d by any Body whatfoever, 
conveys a meafur’d, and proportion’d Impulfe 
or Stroke to the Bell, which gives the proper 
Sound. Thefe, or fuch like Similitudes, tho’ 
Lame and ImperfeCt, are all, I doubt, was 
ever defign’d for the Generality of Mankind 
in the Knowledge neceflary towards Health 
and Life, in fuch Matters. Thofe acquainted 
with the beft Philofophy , Natural HiJlor)\ The 
haws conflantly obierv’d by Bodies in their 
Actions on one another, and the eflablifh’d 
Relations of Things, will, 1 hope, meet with 
fuller Satisfaction, if they confider the follow- 
ing Treadle, without Prejudice or Partiality. 

C H A Pc 

*the Englifh Malady. 



Cf the Sources and Caufes of Chronical 
SDiJiempers in general. 

§. I. r B"1 H E molt univerfal and com- 
prehenlive Sources and Caufes 
of Chronical Diftempers are, 
ift. A Glewinefs , Sizynefs , 
ViJ'cidity , or Grofsncfs in the Fluids, either 
accidental, or acquir’d by thofe Perfons who 
were born with found or good condition’d 
Juices; or original and hereditary, in thofe 
who have brought them fo difpos’d into the 
World with them, from the ill State of Health 
and bad State of Humours of the Parents, 
which, poffibly, they may have had tranfmitted 
to them from theirs, and fo on for many Ge- 
nerations backwards. A rotten ana corrupt 
Tree can produce nothing but bad Fruit, nor 
can any natural Caufehave a better Effed than 
its Principles, or Natural Qualities can pro- 

Caufes of Chronical Dtflempers. 7 

duce. idly. Some Sharpnefs or corrofive Qua- 
lity in the Fluids, arifing from a J’aline or 
other deftruCtive Mixture thrown into them, 
or from fome grols Concretions not fufficient- 
l)r broken and divided by the digefUve Powers 
in the Alimentary Tube, retarding or flop- 
ping the Circulation in the fmall Vefiels, 
whereby the ftagnant Juices become fharp 
and corrofive, and the Salts have Time, by 
their innate attractive Quality, to cryftalize 
or unite in greater Clutters, and exert their 
deftrudtive Force on the Solids; and this will 
be ftill more pernicious and fatal, if the Food 
is not only in too great a Quantity for the 
concodtive Powers to break and divide it fuf- 
ficiently, but is likewife too high, ftrong, 
and full of Salts, from which the moft ter- 
rible Symptoms will enfue. 3 dly, A too great 
Laxity or Want of due Tone, Elafticity and 
Force in the Fibres in general, or the Nerves in 
particular. There is a due Degree of Strength, 
Power and Springy nefs required in the Fibres 
or Solids, not only to make the Juices circu- 
late, and carry on their Motions backwards 
and forwards in a continual Rotation thro’ 
the whole Habit, but alfo to break, divide, 
and fubtilize them further, that they may be 
able eafily to pafs, not only thro’ the Fender 
and finer Tubes of the papillary Vefiels, but ( 
alfo through the Strainers of the Glands , either 
fo throw off thofe Recrements and grofler 
B ^ Parts* 

8 The EngliOi Malady, 

Parts, which are not required for the ani-* 
mal Fundtions, or to feparate thofe Juices 
W 7 hich are required for the Prefervation of 
the Individual. Thefe are the moft effedtual, 
general and immediate Caufes of all chronical 
Diftempers, of which, when any one is, in 
any eminent Degree, become habitual, the 
other two fpring up, or follow very foon, and 
join with it in producing the various Symp- 
toms of thefe Diforders. Other Specialities 
and Circumftances may concur with them, 
but they would have little EfFedt, if thefe 
could be fuppofed abfent or removed. 

§. II. T he ftrji Caufe mentioned will ob- 
ftrudt and poffibly burft the fmall and capil- 
lary Veffels that carry about the Fluids, pro- 
ducing ■ Tumours , Swellings, and Ulcers , and 
will not only tumify and afterwards relax and 
fpoil the whole almoft infinite Set of Glands , 
external and internal, but efpecially thofe 
which are properly called Ernnnffory ones, 
and fo flop the Secretions, and fill the Body 
with vicious and morbid Juices. This De- 
tention, Swelling and Hardnefs of the Glands 
and fmajl Veffels, will like wife prefs upon the 
Nerves, flop and intercept their Vibrations or 
tremors, or whatever elfe be their Adtion, and 
confequently fpoil their natural Fundtions. 
The Jccond will not only rend, tear and fpoil 
the Veffels, creating acute Pains, and produce- 

Sources of Chronical Di (tempers. p 

ing corrolive, Scorbutick and Cancerous Ulcers 
and Sores, in all Parts of the Body, but will 
alfo, by twitching and vellicating the Nerves 
or nervous Fibres, produce Convullions, Spafrns, 
and all the terrible Symptoms of that Tribe 
of nervous Diftempers. The lafi mentioned 
Caufe will not only weaken and deftroy volun- 
tary Motion, and the Force and Freedom of 
the intelleBual Operations (for the Exercife of 
which, as long as the Union lads, material Or- 
gans and their Soundnefs and Integrity fee ms to 
be required as well as for the animal Fundtions) 
but will alfo retard and weaken the Circu- 
lation, flop the Perfpiration, and confound and 
disorder the Secretions, and all the Functions 
that belong to either Part of the Com- 


The Englifh Malady. 




Of the General Caufes of the TUf- 
orders of the Nerves. 

§. i. rpHE Solids, and confequently 
the Fibres and Nerves whereof, 
-A- they are woven and compli- 
cated , are fubjed to feveral 
Diforders which may interrupt and entirely 
ruin their Functions. As, fir ft, by become- 
ing either too dry, or too moift, that is by 
Want, or Excefs of Humidity, Moifture or 
Nourifhment to keep their Parts in a due or 
proper Tone or Elefiicity. The firfi general- 
ly arifes from a too hot, dry, and as it were 
corrofive Nourifhment, which renders them 
too crifp, over elaftick , and brittle, and fo 
forces on the Circulation, and fends about 
the Juices with too great Force, Rapidity, 
and Violence, inftead of that calm and uni- 
form manner, in which the Functions, and 
Secretions of the animal O economy, are natu- 
rally perform’d, and that due Balance, which 
ought, naturally to be between the Solids and 


%)iforders of the Nerves. i i 

Fluids. And this probably has a great Share 
in the Production of inflammatory Diforders, 
high Fevers, and the other acute Diflempers 
of ftrong Conflitutions. The J'econd from too 
great a Quantity of oily and nutritious Juices 
thrown on them more than the Expences of 
living require, foaking and relaxing the So- 
lids, renders their ACtion languid, and has a 
greater Share in the Productions of flow and 
cold Difeafes. 

§. II. Secondly , By improper, hard, folid and 
noxious Particles getting into their Subfian- 
ces, which may gradually alter, fpod and flop 
their natural Texture and Functions what- 
ever that happen to be, whether Vibration , 
bit eft ins Adlion , and Reaction or Collijion of 
their fmall Parts, or however they aCt or 
are aCted upon, to convey and propagate the 
Senfations or Influences of external Bodies, to 
the Seat of the intelligent Principle : For 
when the Juices are fpoil’d, and the Blood de- 
clines from its due Fluidity and Balmynefs , 
the nutritive Juices mufl neceffarily partake 
of their general Nature, and become crowd- 
ed and filled with hard, large Concretions, 
of a different Nature from the genuine and 
natural Condition of the Blood and Juices, in 
their healthy State, which whencefoever they 
may arife, or whatever different Qualities 
they may be endued with ; I choofe to call 
by the general Name of Animal Salts. The 


m The Englifli Malady. 

Nerves and Fibres being thus unnaturally 
nouridied and repair’d, mud, in fuch a State, 
either entirely dop and bring no Senfation at 
all to the intelligent Principle, and convey no 
Adtion from it to the Mufcles and Organs of 
Animal Motion, or at lead: falfe, imperfect and 
delufory ones ; for thefe Salts, and fuch like 
hard, folid, compadt and angular Particles, will 
be more readily infinuated into the tender 
Threads of the Solids, having a greater De- 
gree of Attraction in proportion to their 
Bulks, than the more rare, foft, and fpongy 

§. III. Thirdly , From the Interruption, In- 
terception and Stoppage of their Vibrations , 
Tremors , and the intedine Adtion of their 
component Particles, by the greater Prediire 
of too vifcid Juices in the Blood Veflels, and 
the other Tubes that contain the animal Juices, 
furrounding thefe Fibres or Nerves : For it’s 
well known, that a more glutinous and vifcid 
Fluid, circulating in an eladick or didradtile 
Canal, will bulge it up, and prefs upon its 
Sides more drongly than a thinner and more 
rare Fluid one, an'd fo the Sides of the Canal 
will become more drait and tumified, pref- 
dng thereby on the Nerves , as if it were 
a JVedge or folid Body, and interrupting 
their natural Adtions. The fame is to be 
concluded from the Tumefadtion, Indura- 
ration, and Swelling of the Glands , which 

i Difirders of the Nerves. 1 $ 

being extremely numerous over all the Body, 
muft greatly endamage the Nervous Syjiem. 

§. IV. Fourthly , From the natural or ac- 
quired Weaknefs and Laxity of their Tone 
and Elasticity, whether from a natural or ac- 
cidental ill Structure or Formation of them- 
felves or the other Organs of the Body, or 
from any external Injury received on them : 
And fuch is the Cafe of thofe who are bom 
of weakly or old Parents, or whofe Parents 
have long labour’d under the Gout , Scurvy , 
Elephantiajis , Leprojy , Venereal or Nervous 
Diforders ; thofe who have had a Contufion 
on the Head, Back-bone, or any other Part 
of the Body, where there are the greateft 
Collection of Nerves , and laftly , thofe who 
have a Hump, or any preternatural Diftor- 
tion or Excrefcence, efpecially on the Trunk 
of the Body. 

§. V. And the’ all thefe general Caufes, 
mentioned in the former and this Chapter , 
concur in all chronical and nervous Diftempers 
whatsoever, in fome Degree or other, and 
perhaps fome other more minute Circum- 
ftances, which are not fo readily found out, 
or much to be regarded, yet Difeales differ 
and have received their Names by Phyjicians , 
according as the Symptoms arifing from this 
or that general Caufe mentioned, are more 
evident, numerous or flronger. But thefe 


14 The Englifli Malady. 

Difeafes are chiefly and properly called Ner- 
vous, whofe Symptoms imply that the Syftem 
of the Nerves and their Fibres, are evident- 
ly relax'd and broken. The Brevity I intend 
in this Treatife, will notallow me to detail 
all the Kinds of Nervous Diftempers that 
have been obferv’d and named ; they are fuf- 
ficiently known, or may be learned from 
Books of Phyjick , and I think may be re- 
duced to the following general Heads. 


Of the General Divijion of Nervous 

§. I. A L L Nervous Diftempers whaf- 
foever from Yawning and 
-“■ Stretching , up to a mortal 
Fit of an Apoplexy, feems to me to be but 
one continued Diforder , or the feveral 
Steps or Degrees of it, arifing from a Re- 
laxation or Weaknefs, and the Want of a 
fufficient Force and Elafticity in the Solids 
in general, and the Nerves in particular, in 
Proportion to the Refiftance of the Fluids, in 



*Dtvifion of Nervous Diftempers . 1 5 

order to carry on the Circulation, remove Ob- 
ftru&ions, carry off the Recrements, and make 
the Secretions. In treating of Nervous Dis- 
tempers, the D if orders of the Solids are chiefly 
what are to be had regard to j yet they rare- 
ly or never happen alone (except perhaps in 
thofe Nervous Diforders that proceed from 
acute Difeafes, preternatural Evacuations, ex- 
ternal Injuries, or a wrong and unnatural 
Make and Frame) but even in original ner- 
vous Diftempers there is always Some Vifci- 
dity or Sharpnefs attending them from the 
bad Conftitutions of the Parents, from whom 
they have derived their material Organs. This 
is evident from the nervous Diforders that at- 
tend fcrophulous and fcorbutick Perrons. And 
from long and conftant Observation, I am un- 
der a Conviction, that no deep and eminent 
Degree of nervous Diforders happens to young 
Perfons, but from a manifeft or latent fcro- 
phulous or fcorbutick Taint, which implies 
both Vifcidityand Sharpnefs in the Juices: nor 
any great Degree to adult Perfons, originally 
found, but from an acquired fcorbutick Habit 
or Cachexy. 

§. II. The moft natural and general Di- 
viflon of bervous Diftempers will therefore be 
thus. ] ijl. Into thofe Difeafes, that befides 
their other Symptoms, are attended with a 
partial or total Lofs of Senfation for fome 
Time. This Branch will not only compre- 

1 6 The Englifli Malady.’ 

hend all thofe nervous Diforders from Low- 
nefs of Spirits, lethargick Duilnefs, Melan- 
cholly and Moping, up to a compleat Apo- 
plexy, but alfo thofe fainting Fits, fo com- 
mon in Perfons of weak Nerves. As a Con- 
fequence from this Interruption of Senfation, 
partial or total, there will neceflarily follow a 
Sufpenfion of voluntary Motion^ The intel- 
ligent Principle, under this Inability of the 
Nervous Syjlem being bereaved of proper Or- 
gans to convey its Orders to the Mufcles, tho' 
thefe laft fhould remain fufficiently fitted for 
their proper Offices. This Clafs of nervous 
Diforders feems chiefly to arife from a Grofs- 
nefs , Glewynefs or Vifcidity of the animal 
Juices (fetting afide at p refen t the Confidera- 
tion of their Sharpnefs and Acrimony, which 
is never totallv abfent, when thefe others are 
in any eminent Degree, e'fpecially in our 
Northern Climates) which obftrudts the Glands f 
the ferous Pipes, and the capillary Blood- 
vefiels, and thereby breaks, interrupts and 
weakens the Vibrations and Tremors, or what- 
ever elle is the Adtion of the nervous Fibres 
properly fo called. 

§. III. Secondly, Those nervous Diforders, 
which are attended with a Lofs of voluntary 
Motion or Shakeing, in any particular Organ 
or Limb, or in all the Infhruments of volun- 
tary Motion. Such are all thofe of the para- 
lytick Kind. From an univerfal PalJy , a 


i Dwijion of Nervous Dijlempers. 1 7 

Hemiplegia (or Palfy of half the Body) or 
of a particular Limb, to a Deadnefs, Numb- 
nefs, Weaknefs, or Coldnefs upon any of 
the Parts, external or internal. This Clafs 
of Difeafes feems to ow its Origin to a 
Weaknefs, Imbecility, and Lofs of due Tom 
in the Nervous Syftem, or an Interruption 
of their Vibrations or proper ACtion, (what- 
ever it be) whereby the Soul is difabled to 
communicat its Energy or Principle of Mo- 
tion to the Mufcular Fibres, 

§. IV. Those Nervous Diflempers that 
are attended with Spafms , Cramps, Convul- 
fions, or violent Contractions of the Mufclcs. 
Of this kind are all of the Convuljive Tribe 
from Hypochondriacal and Hyjlerical Fits, or 
the Convulfions of the Epileptick Kind, 
down to Yawning and Stretching. Thefe 
feem to be produced by fome hard-pointed 
Concretions, faline Particles, or fome noxi- 
ous Acid or acrimonious Steam, Wind, or ob- 
llruCted Perfpiration, lodged in the fmall 
Veffels, or upon any Place where there are 
the greateft Collections of Nerves , viz. in 
the Alimentary Tubes, the Cavities of the 
Brain, the Trunk of the Body, or the Inter- 
ftices of theMufcles, where twitching, ftimu- 
lating, and wounding the Nerves, or their 
Membranes, it raifes a general Diforder in the 
whole nervous or fenfible Fibres, whence the 
fame is derived upon the whole Mufcular 

G Syftenij 

18 Tie Englifli Malady. 

Syftem, and there provokes violent Throw.?,, 
Contractions, Cramps, and Spafms, until tor- 
menting and wearying out the elaftick Fibres, 
at laft, by their Stragglings and Efforts, the 
deftru&ive Matter is difcharged or removed : 
Much in the manner of that Struggle which 
we oblervc from fulphureous, bituminous, 
vitriolick, and ferrugineous Particles, uni- 
ting, and fermenting in the Bowels of the 
Earth, and thereby acquiring fuch Force,, 
Violence, and Impetuofity, as to make 
Houles, Palaces, and Cities fhake and 
tremble, overturn Hills and Mountains, and 
make Rivers, Lakes, and the Sea itfelf, to 
boil and heave ( till they have forced a 
Breach and Rupture for their Palfage into 
the Air and Day,) fwallowing up all around, 
and leading Defolation and Ruin, as far as 
their Influence can reach. But (to return 
to my Subject) where the offending Matter 
is fo pent up in fuch great Quantity, or fo 
violent (as in the violent Hyllcrick or Epilep- 
tick Fits) as quite to overpower the weak 
and feeble Solids, fainter Stragglings fuc- 
eeed, and the Patient lies almofl: dead, 
with few or languid Motions, and fometimes 
foaming at the Mouth : till the Difeafe is quite 
fpent, or after a few repeated Struggles, the 
Contefl: ends in Death. 

§. V. Thep.h is another common Divifion, 
or rather Piltin&ion of Nervous Diforders, 


jDivl/ion of Nervous ‘Diflempers . s 9 

into original and acquir'd: But thefe differ-* 
ing only as old Age does from Manhood. I 
ihall juft mention them. It is to be fup-* 
poled (at leaft, at the moft remote Diftance 
of Time) that Mankind were originally 
made fo, as not to differ (in any eminent 
Degree, at leaft, below that Standard re- 
quired for good Health) in their Gonftitutions^ 
Original Nervous Diforders, therefore, muft 
have had the fame Source and Caufe with 
acquir’d ones. The Children, as to their 
Bodies and bodily Difeafes being punifhed 
for the Faults, Follies, and Indifcretions of 
their Parents. The Streams or Outlets muft: 
partake of the fame Qualities with the Spring 
or Fountain Head. The wife Author of 
Nature, in the prefent State of Things, 
feems to have eftablilhed Laws and Orders, 
by which fecond Caules are to ad upon, and 
influence one another ; which Laws, natu- 
ral and material Bodies conftantly obferve in 
their Effeds and Produdions, and which He 
never feems to violate by any uncommon 
or fupernatural Influence, except for intel- 
lectual or moral Purpoles } and therefore to 
govern and dired thefe Laws, He has given to 
his intelligent Creatures, Underftanding and 
free Will. So that a poor Creature, born fubjed 
to Nervous Diftempers, has no more Reafon 
to complain, than a Child, whofe Father has 
fpent his worldly Fortune, and left him 
poor, and deftitute. 

r * 

$. VI, 

lo The Englifh Malady. 

Jf. VI. It is. a Misfortune indeed, to be 
born with weak Nerves, but if rightly us’d 
and manag’d, even in the prefent State of 
Things, (1 meddle no further) it may be 
the Occafion of greater Felicity : For, at 
leaft, it is (or ought to be) a Fence and 
Security againft the Snares and Temptations 
to which the Robuft and Healthy are ex- 
pos’d, and into which they feldom fail to 
run ; and thereby reduce themfelves to the 
fame, or, perhaps, a worfe State than thofe 
whofe Misfortune happen’d to be, the being 
born thus originally fubjedt to Nervous Dis- 
orders. Thofe who have originally bad 
Nerves, I lhall diredl in the beft Manner I 
can afterwards. 

§. VII. I shall only here obferve two 
things in regard to them. The fir ft is, that 
they are never to expedt the fame Force, 
Strength, Vigour, and Adfivity, nor to be 
made capable of running into the fame In- 
difcretions or Excefs of fenfual Pleafures 
(without buffering prelently, or on the Spot) 
with thofe of ftrong Fibres and robuft Con- 
ftitutions. No Art hitherto known, can make 
an Eagle of a Wren, (for tho’ a Wren, by Art 
and Management, maybe made, as it were, a 
Nightingale, yet never a Carrion Crow or 
Kite) ; but for all the innocent Enjoyments of 
Life, (at leaft, for Freedom from Pain and tor- 

‘Divijion of Nervous Qiftempers. 2 1 

turing Diftempers, for Chearfulnefs and Free- 
dom of Spirits, for intelledual Pleafures, 
mental Enjoyments, and Length of Days) 
they (confidering the Temptations and Mi- 
feries of this mortal State) generally have, 
and may always have, the Advantage of 
thefe others. (I always except extreme De- 
grees of Nervous Difeafes ) As for intel- 
lectual Pleafures, the Cafe is without all 
manner of doubt, (without fome notable 
Error, or in extreme Cafes) poffibly, be- 
caufe the Organs of thefe Operations being 
in their own Nature delicate and fine, when 
wafted or fcrap’d, (by Chronical Difeafes 
not mortal) and thus communicated to their 
Pofterity, thefe naturally fubtil Parts thus 
become more fine and fenfible, are hinder’d 
by the natural Weaknefs of Children, in 
their tender Years, to incralfate and grow 
ciumfy, and fo are longer preferv’d in 
their Senfibility and Refinement ; at leaft 
the Cafe is generally in fad fo, (as I have 
obferv’d in moft originally tender Perfons, 
well educated and difeiplin’d) Infinite Good- 
nefs and Power bringing Good out of inno- 
cent Evil. (For the common Proverb is juft 
and true, that a Venice Glafs will laft as long,, 
if well look’d after, and even fhine more 
bright, than a more grofs and coarle one.) 
But to leave thefe Poffibilities, and pals 
£ 0 , 

C 3 §. VI If 

2% The Englifh Malady. 

$. VIII. The fecond thing, which is, thav 
thofe who have originally weak Solids, and 
have carefully avoided theExceffes and Sen- 
fual Pleafures which reduce the Robuft to 
that Cafe, and have follow’d the Dire&ions 
that may be iearn’d, for ftrengthening their 
Fibres and preferving them from being over- 
laid, if they get over the Meridian of Life 
(or their thirty-fifth or thirty-fixth Year) 
without any mortal Diftemper, have a fair 
Chance to get into a firm State of Health, 
Vigour, and Spirits afterwards, and to hold 
it on without any Rub (if they be fo wife 
then to keep from Excelfes, or immoderate 
Senfual Pleafures) to a great and green old 
Age, as I have conftantly obferv’d. So true is 
the common Obfervation (that every wife Man 
has a Touthhood once in his Life, if not in his 
early and tender Years, at leaft, in his old Age: 
And this feems not only confifient with the 
Wifdom of Providence, but the Neceflity of 
Things, and the Order of Nature ; for let us 
fuppofe that crazy putrified Parents fhould 
bring into the World fuch a Child as I have 
mentioned, the Parent’s Juices, for want of 
fufficient Time, or proper Means, are not 
rectified. The Child’s, on the contrary, 
from the Necellity of its low Diet, and the 
Length of its Nonage, (cfpecially if proper 
Methods be us’d, and proper Medicines 
join’d) niuii: neceifarily become fweeter and 

purer : 

2 livifion of Nervous Dijlempsrs. 2 5 

purer : And if none of the great Organs be 
fpoil’d fo, as gradually to infect the whole 
(which generally begins to fhew itfelf, when 
the Growth or Unfolding of the Solids comes 
to its greateft Heighth and Extenfion, or 
about the mention'd Period of the Meridian 
of Life) the Juices then becoming fweet, will, 
by Degrees, have their Effect upon the 
Solids, fo that about the Time when others 
decline, thefe, on the contrary, begin to re- 
vive and fpring ; and enjoy that Youth which 
others have furviv’d : And thus Age (which 
naturally hardens and ftiffens the Fibres in 
others) recompences the Caution, Care, and 
Sufferings of their younger Days, by a 
greater Degree of Strength, more Chearful- 
nefs, ftronger Spirits, and a greater Length 
of Days than is common. 

§. IX. Those, who^ being born found 
and healthy, of a ftrong Conftitution, and a 
firm State of Nerves, have acquir’d the con- 
trary State, may have brought it on either, 
frft, by Occidents , as I have before, men- 
tion’d, fuch as a Wound, Bruife, Difloca- 
tion, or Fra&ure, which o may introduce 
Humps, Diftortions, &c. and alter the na-* 
tural good Configurations of the Parts, whofe 
Cure ranft depend upon the Surgeon' 1 s Art, 
by his endeavouring to reduce thefe to their 
original State: to which Jikewife Remedies 
may be fuggefted for the prefent Relief of 

C 4 the 

24 ‘Fke Englifli Maladx. 

the Nervous Diftempers thence depending, 
in the Dire&ions afterwards to be given. 
Secondly , By a bad, corrupt, or a too poor and 
low Diet,indifcreet Excefs of bodily Labour, 
or having expos’d themfelves too much to 
the Injuries of the Weather, whereby the 
Juices have been defrauded of that due Pro- 
portion of Heat, Nourilhment, and Ballam, 
the Fibres become weak and relax’d, the 
Mufcles flabby and flaccid, and Lownefs of 
Spirits, Melancholy, and all the Degrees and 
Complications of Nervous Diftempers have 
enfued. Such are thofe of the poorer Sort, 
who are deprived of the due Neceflaries and 
Conveniences of Life, thofe who have gone 
long and dangerous Voyages, who live in 
Prifbns, or travel in Delarts, or thofe who are 
confin’d to Monafteries and Hermitages. But 
as this Country is pretty free from fuch 
Cafes, and the Remedy is obvious, I need 
fay no more of them. Thirdly , By Intem- 
perance, want of due Exercife, rioting in 
fenfual Pleafures, cafual exceflive Evacua- 
tions of any Kind, Fevers and other acute 
Difeafes not duly manag’d, by which the 
Juices have been made fizy or corrofive, 
and the due Tone, Spring and Elafticity of 
the Nerves or Solids relax’d and broken, 
whereby the true acquir’d Nervous Diforders 
are produc’d. To reftore fuch to a found 
State of Health, and a good Conftitution, or, 
at leaft, to relieve their Symptoms, as far 


Efficient Caufe of all 7)ifempers. 2 j 

as my poor Abilities can effedd, fhall be 
my fincere Endeavour in the following 


! That what is fwallow’d down , and 
received into the Habit y is the 
fivfi and chief efficient Caufe of 
all that Mankind fujfer in their 
Bodies . 

i.rpHO- I think it pretty evident, 
that this terreftrial Globe, and 
the State of Things in it, and 
about it at prefent, is not defign’d merely 
for a Paradije of Delight j, and the ultimate 
End of the intelligent Creatures which in- 
habit it, and that for one good Reafon, that 
lies within my prefent Province, to wit, our 
carrying about us corruptible Bodies, in 
their own Nature perilhable, fubjedt to Ac- 
cidents, Difeafes, and, at laft, to Death it- 
felf ; yet can I never be induc’d to believe 
that the omnipotent and infinitely good Au- 
thor of it, could, out of Choice and Election, 


z 6 The Englifli Malady. 

or by unavoidable Neceffity, much lels from 
Malice or Impotence, have brought fome 
into fuch a State of Mifery, Pain, and Tor- 
ture, as the molt cruel and barbarous Ty- 
rant can fcarce be fuppos’d wantonly to in- 
flid, or be delighted with, in his molt 
treacherous Enemies or villainous Slaves ; 
For to fuch a Heighth of Pain and Torture, 
and higher if poflible, have I feen fome 
brought from mere natural Difeafes. No ! 
none but Devils could have fuch Malice ; 
none but Men themfelves, or what is next 
themfelves, I mean their Parents, who were 
the Inftruments or Channels of their Bodies 
and Conftitutions, could have Power or 
Means to produce fuch cruel Effeds. In 
itfelf this Law and Eftablifhment of Nature 
has infinite Beauty, Wifdom, and Goodnefs : 
viz. by this progreffive and continual Suc- 
ceftion from one Root, that the Healthy and 
Virtuous fnould thereby be growing con- 
tinually healthier and happier, and the Bad 
continually becoming more miferable and 
unhealthy, till their Punifhment forced them 
upon Virtue and Temperance; for Virtue 
and Happinefs are literally and really Caufe 
and Effed. 

§. II. When I fee Milk, Oil, Emulfion, 
mild watt y Fluids, and fuch like foft Li- 
quors, rur through Leathern Tubes or Pipes 
(for fuch Animal Veins and Arteries are 


’Efficient Caufe of all Diflempers. iy 

indeed) for many Years, without wearing 
or deftroying them : And obferve, on the 
other Hand, that Brine, inflammable or uri- 
nous Spirits, Aqua fortis, or Regia, and the 
like acrimonious and burning Fluids, cor- 
rode, deftroy, and confume them in a very 
fhort Time : When I confider the rending, 
burning, and tearing Pains and Tortures of 
the Gout , Stone , Cholick , Cancer , Rheuma - 
tj'm , Convulftons , and fuch like infufferably 
painful Diftempers : When I fee the Crifls 
of almoft all acute Diftempers, happen either 
by rank and foetid Sweats, thick, lateritious, 
and lixivious Sediments in the Urine, black, 
putrid, and foetid Dejections, attended with 
livid and purple Spots, corroftve Ulcers, 
Impoftumes in the Joints or Mufcles, or a 
Gangrene and Mortification in this or that 
Part of the Body ; When I fee the lharp, 
(even to the Tafte, as I have often tried) 
the corroding and burning Ichor of fcorbu- 
tick and lcrophulous Sores, fretting, galling, 
and bliftering the adjacent Parts, with the 
Inflammation, Swelling, Hardnels, Scabs, 
Scurf, Seales, and other loathfome cutaneous 
Foulnelfes, that attend fuch ; the white, 
gritty, and chalky Matter, the hard, ftony, 
or flinty Concretions, which happen to all 
thofe long troubled with fevere Gouts , 
Gravel , Jaundice, or Cholick: the Obftruc- 
tions and Hardnefles, the Putrefa&ion and 
Mortification that happens in the Bowels, 

The Engliflb Malady. 

Joints, and Members in fome of thefe Dif- 
eafes : and the Rottennefs in the Bones, 
Ligaments, and Membranes that happen in 
others; all the various Train of Pains, 
Miferies, and Torments * that can afflift 
any Part of the Compound, and for 
which there is fcarce any Reprieve to be 
obtain’d, but by fwallowing a Kind of 
Poifon (fuch I take Opiates to be, upon 
taking great Dofes, or continuing them for 
any long Time.) When I behold, with 
Pity, Compaffion, and Sorrow, fuch Scenes 
of Mifery and "Woe, and fee them happen 
only to the Rich , the Lazy, the Luxurious , 
and the Unatfive, thofe who fare daintily 
and live voluptuoufly, thofe who are fur- 
nifhed with the rareft Delicacies, the richeft 
Foods, and the raoft generous Wines, fuch as 
can provoke the Appetites, Senfes and Paflions 
in the moft exquifite and voluptuous Man- 
ner : to thofe who leave no Defire or Degree 
of Appetite unfatisfied, and not to the Poor, 
the Low , the meaner Sort , thofe deftitute of 
the NecejTaries, Conveniencies, and Pleafures 
of Life, to the Frugal, Induftrions, | the 

* Vide Plutarch. Sympofiae Lib. vm. Cap. ix. Seneca ConfoL 
ad Helviam 8c Epift. 9f. 

| Jofephiis obferves, that the Effenes [a Kind of Solitaires 
among the Jews'] lived commonly to too Years, by reafon of 
the Simplicity ot their Diet, and their regular Life. Cap, 
De Bello Judaic. 


Efficient Canfe of ail Dijtemptrs . 1 9 

Temperate, the Laborious, and the A&ive : 
to thofe inhabiting barren, and unculti- 
vated Countries, Defarts, Forefts, under 
the Poles or the Line , or to thofe who are 
rude and deftitute of the Arts of Ingenuity 
and Invention. I mtift, if I am not refolved 
to refill the ftrongeft Convidion, conclude, 
that it mull be fomething received into the 
Body, that can produce fuch terrible Ap- 
pearances in it, fome flagrant and notable, 
Difference in the Food, that fo fenfibly diftin- 
guifhes them from thefe latter. And that 
it is the miferable Man himfelf that creates 
his Miferies, and begets his Torture, or, at 
leaft, thofe from whom he has derived his 
bodily Organs, 

III. Both the End and Rule , the De - 
jign and Meajure of Eating and Drinking, 
could be no other but the Supply of the 
Waite of Attion and Living. The Friciion 
and Collision that necelfarily follows upon 
the Impenetrability of Matter, the Commu- 
nication of Motion, and the Imprellions of 
the Bodies that furround us, mull necelfarily 
rub off, and wear out fome Parts from our 
bodily Machin. The necelfary Collisions 
that are made in our Juices, in breaking and 
fubrilizing their Parts, to render them fit for 
the Animal FnnBions : the various Secretions 
of what is not proper to be retained, or 
what is necelfary for the Preferyation of the 


go The Englifli Malady.' 

Individual, make a continual Wafie of our 
Subftance. To fupply all which, it was 
abfolutely necelfary, that a due and equal 
Proportion of proper Nourifhment fhould be 
defign’d us. There is alfo eftablilhed by 
the Rules of the Animal 0 Economy, a Bal- 
lance between the Force or Elafticity of the 
Solids, or the moving Organs and Channels, 
and the Refiftance of the Fluids mov’d in 
them (or rather the firft ought a little to 
exceed the latter ) And whenever any of 
thefe Rules are long and notably tranfgrefs’d 
by either taking down more than the Sup- 
plies of Action and Living require in Quan- 
tity, or Things ftronger in Nature, and of a 
greater Refinance in Quality, fo that the 
active and concoctive Powers of the Solids, 
are not fufficient for them, the Individual 
muft fuller Difeafes, Pains, and Miferies, 
in Proportion to the Greatnefs of this Over- 

§. IV. Let us fuppofe, that a Child is 
born Sound, Healthy, and Vigorous, (as 
much as the Conditions of Mortality permit) 
of Parents Healthy and Sound, and in ihe 
full Vigour of their Days, and that this 
Child has continued thus to the Age of 
‘Puberty, ’bating the Difeafes of Childhood, 
which generally render the Cafe better (fuch 
asaRalh, Meafles, or Small-Pox, which are 
feldom dangerous in thofe whole Parents are 

Efficient Caufe of all 'Dijlempers . 3 1 

fuch as I fuppofe, or who have lived in any 
fober way.) In the Name of Wonder and 
Afonijhment , How is it poffible that fuch a 
Perfon lhould come to fuffer under fuch ter- 
rible Miferies as I have defcrib’d, by any 
other Means, than fome notable and obfti- 
nate * Error in the Matter or Quantity of 
what he takes down, or introduces into his 
Habit. For as fuch Mifery and Tortures 
are internal and intimate, fo muft the pro*- 
dudive Caufe be. A bad, noxious, or 
poifonous Air , the Inclemencies of the Sea- 
Jon and Climate, violent Fatigue, and ex- 
ceffive bodily Labour, Accidents, Wounds, 
and Bruifes, are what Mortality is fubjed 
to. But as the Influence and Operation of 
thefe Caufes is feldom fo long continued, 
as that of the other Caufes I have formerly 
. mention’d, fo thofe who are moft fubjed 
to the unhappy Confequences of fuch Ex- 
eelfes, are generally well guarded and pro- 
teded againft any Hurt from thefe men- 
tioned Accidents, which accordingly hap- 
pen more frequently to thofe of the lower 
Rank. It is is true indeed, when the fame 
Excefles of thofe of a high Condition, 
are join’d to the other Perils and Hard- 

* Nobody will ever be feiz’d with a Difeale, who takes 
fufficient Care not to fall into Crudities or Indigellion [i. e. 
that eats no more than he can ealily digeft,] Galen Lib. i. 
Ds Cibii Bon. & Mai. Su.ce. 


32 The Englifii Malady. 

fhips of the lower Rank now mentioned, ft 
makes the Diftrefs and Pain the greateft of 
all, and is the proper Scene where fuch tra- 
gedies are afted to the utmoft Perfe&ion of 
Mifery and Woe. But as fuch extraordi- 
nary Circumftances rarely fall out, they are 
not properly the fubject Matter of what we 
are chiefly concern'd about. To proceed 
then, let us fuppofe fuch a Perfon as I have 
defcrib'd, rioting and wallowing in Luxury 
for fome confiderable Time, his Fibres, 
Nerves, and Motive Organs being yet firm 
and unbroken. The moft natural Effed of 
fuch a Courfe, will be, to fill the Blood and 
Juices with an Excefs of fuch oily, fulphu- 
reous, and inflammatory Particles, as arc 
moft readily turn’d into red Globules, which 
make the fibrous Part of the Blood. Such 
an inflammatory Blood (the Solids being yet 
tenfe and firm) will neceflarily be driven about 
with too great Force and Violence, and forced 
into the fmall and capillary Veflels, defign'd 
for the Lymph or thinner Fluids only, and 
thus inflammatory and acute Difeafes are 
produc’d, with all the Varieties and Degrees 
of the;r Symptoms: fuch as Fevers of all 
Sorts and Kinds, the Gout , Eryfipelas y Rheu- 
matifim , and the like. If thefe fmall lym- 
phatick Veflels, by the Force of the Circu-* 
lation, and the Grofsnefs of the Fluid, driven 
into them, are broken and torn, then fol- 
low ImpoftumeSy Gangrenes , Mortifications , 

Efficient Caufe of all Dijiempers. \ \ 

and all their Train of Miferies, efpecially, 
if, together with thefe mention’d Conditions, 
great Store of animal or urinous Salts are 
brought together in great Quantities (which 
never fails under fuch a Courfe) and unite 
and combine in larger Clufters and Concre- 
tions, whereby the Solids are corroded, eaten 
and deftroy’d, the natural Fun&ions of the 
Nerves fpoil’d and perverted, and the ex- 
treme Degrees of Torture, Malignity, and 
Duration are added to the other Symptoms 
of thefe inflammatory Diftempers. 

V. This will neceflarily be the Cafe in 
a young robuft Body and Conftitution, when 
fuch Exceflfes are violent, quick, and long 
continued, and the Solids have not yet loft 
their Tone and Vigour, whereby the Indi- 
vidual will be quickly brought into thofe 
acute, inflammatory, and violent Diftem- 
pers \ and then, by continu’d violent Con- 
flicts, Nature, after many Struggles, will 
either break, divide, and fubtilize thefe 
numerous, fiery, and inflammatory Globules, 
and thofe fharp-pointed, hard, and acrimo-* 
nious Salts, and drive them out of the Habit 
by fuch Crifes as I have defcrib’d ; and the 
Conftitution being purified, the Patient will 
gradually return to his former Health and 
Soundnefs: Or if this cannot be effected, by 
reafon of the Strength of the Difeale, or the 
Greatnefs of the Obftru&ion in the frnall 

D Veffdsj 

34 ‘The Englifli Malady. 

Velfels, the Perfon mult unavoidably fub- 
mit to Fate. But if fuch a Courfe be pur- 
fued more flowly, and by more moderate 
Degrees, and Lazinefs or Want of Exercife 
is joined with it, fo that the Acrimony of 
the Salts, and the Stock of the Humours, 
gradually encreafe as the Solids are relaxed 
and weakened : then the flower, colder, more 
humorous and chronical Difeafes are produced, 
with all the Pains, Miferies, and Torments 
arifing in this low, funk, and deje&ed State 
of the Conftitution. From all which it is 
evident, that thel'e monftrous and extreme 
tortures, are entirely the Growth of our 
own Madnefs and Folly, and the Produd of 
our own wretched Inventions, from the 
Poifon and Ordure, with which, for the 
fake of a little fenfuaf Pleafure, we forcibly 
and tyrannically cram our poor pallive 


Surprizing Effects of Salts. 3 5 


Of the furprizing and wonderful 
Ejfetfs of Salts , efpec tally of the 
volatile , urinous , or animal Salts t 
upon human Bodies and Conftitu* 

§. I.'lT T may perhaps feem incredible, nay* 
S impoffible, to thofe unacquainted 
with the furprizing and wonderful 
Effeds of faline Concretions, efpecially of 
thofe call’d volatile , urinous , or animal Salts> 
upon human Bodies and Conftitu tions, to 
imagine how they fhould be fufficient to 
produce and account for thofe terrible Effeds 
and Appearances, which I have defcrib’d in 
the former Chapter. But he who has con- 
jfidered and is acquainted with the furprizing 
Energy , Force, and Adivity of Salts of all 
Kinds, together with the Tendernefs and 
Delicacy of animal Fibres and Solids, if he 
at all afcribes them to natural and fecond 

D 1 Caujes y 

The Englifli Malady. 

Caufes , and does not altogether run into 
Fatality, and refolve every thing immediate- 
ly into Miracle , Witchcraft , Enchantment , 
or Omnipotence , muft acknowledge that there 
is nothing elfe among all the minute Bodies, 
or their Sy ferns, that furrounds us, or have 
any conliderable Influence upon animal Con- 
ftitutions, that can fo readily and effectually 
produce the mention’d Appearances. 

§. II. This will be more evident to thole 
who have confider’d the wonderful Effeds of 
'Nitre, and its Compofition Gun-poivder ; the 
furprizing Appearances of kindled Camphire, 
and the like congeal’d chymical OIL, the 
ft range Energy of the urinous , and other Kinds 
of Phofphoruss , the Effervefcence, Fireing, 
and Detonation of feveral chymical Mixtures: 
In a Word, all the ftrange Appearances 
refulting from the Mixture of pure Light (or 
the fame imprifon’d in its more grofs Vehi- 
cles, viz. the feveral Sorts o f Sulphurs, Oils , 
M’alfams, and Bituminous Concretions) with 
Acids and vegetable, or mineral Salts , pro- 
ducing in the Bowels of this our Globe, 
Earthquakes , Eruptions, and Volcanos , over- 
turning Cities , Hills , and Mountains , and 
Tailing new IJ, lands in the Bofom of the 
Ocean , and in the Air generating thunder. 
Lightening, Meteors, and all the Wonders of 
the Atmojphere. But that which makes 
more immediately for our Purpofe, is the 


Surprizing Effetfs of Salts . $ 7 

terrible, violent, and Hidden Defolation and 
DeftruCtion, Pain and Torture, produced by 
* Plague, Peflilence , (potted and purple 
Fevers , Small-Pox , Venereal, Cancerous , and 
Leprous Difeafes, and all the other Epide- 
mical and Infectious Diftempers, with all 
their numerous Train of naufeous, loath- 
lome, and painful Symptoms, their Scabs, 
Ulcers, Corrofions, and Putrefactions, which 
by Reafon or juft Philofophy, can be afcrib’d 
to no other intelligible or natural Caufe, but 
Corrofive and Cauftick Animal Salts. If to 
thefe we add the quick and fenftble Effects 
of Cantharides , Spirit and Salt of Hartfsorn , 
and fuch volatile and urinous Salts, the 
Power of Spirits, urinous or inflammatory , 
of Aromaticks, Emeticks , the Preparations of 
Mercury , and Antimony , the fenfible EffeCts 
of external Applications of the feveral Sorts 
of aCtive CataplaJ'ms , Plaiflers , and Sitiapifms y 
but efpecially of d" Poijons, Animal , Vege- 
table or Mineral upon human Bodies, (all 
which, as well as thofe beforemention’d, 
plainly ow their EffeCts to Salts of one 
Kind or another, combin’d with Oils and 
Sulphurs) there will be found little Difficulty 
in this Matter, 

♦ Vide Mead on the Plague, 
f Ibid, on Poifons. 

The Englifli Malady. 

$. III. It is plain there is a Mineral 
Source of Salts lodged in the Bowels of the 
Earth, (to which the .Sea owes its Saltnefs) 
which tranfmits its Steams or fmaller Par- 
ticles to Minerals, Plants, and Vegetables, 
and feems to be the common Mother and 
Origin of all the feveral Kinds of form'd Salts 
orfaline Concretions, according to its different 
Mixture with the other Elements, to wit, 
thofe of Earth, Water, Sulphur, (or perhaps 
imprifon’d Light) and Air : There are like r 
wife, poffibly,two Kinds of moft adive Fluids, 
(Air, Water, and Mercury, being combin’d 
with the other paffive Subftances) one we 
know very little of, more than what I fhall 
mention in a following Chapter. The 
other is that of Light , which aduates and 
enlivens the whole material Syjlem of Bodies 
here below, without which they would 
languiih, deaden, chill, and be motionlefs, and 
this feems to be the adive energetick Principle, 
(together with that other, which is fuppos’d 
to be the Caule of their attradive Quality, as 
well as that of all Matter, and of all the fub- 
tile Appearances of fmall Bodies on our Globe.) 
Salts of one Kind or another, feem to be its. 
paffive Inftruments, which being driven and 
aduated by it, (and the other adive Fluid 
mention’d) produce the Appearances wo- ob- 
ferve from them. Form’d Salts alfb are hard, 
and diffolYible only by Water, and from it^ 

poffibly 2 

Surprizing Effects of Salts. 3 9 

poffibly, in a great meafure, they originally 
fpring 'f. They generally form themfelves 
into regular, and Iharp, or angular Figures, 
* whereby they become more piercing and 
penetrating : And this Regularity of their 
Figures makes it probable, that their Parti- 
cles have plain Surfaces, which accounts for 
their extreme Degree of Union, or their 
running eagerly into one another’s Embraces, 
as is evident from their Congelations and 
Cry ft all zat ions. The Volatility and Acti- 

vity of Salts, feems to arife from feveral 
Sources : As lirft, from the Smallnefs of their 
Parts, and the Sharpnefs of their Angles : 
Secondly, from their greater Degree of At- 
traftion^ than is common to other Bodies of 
the fame Bulk: And thirdly, from their 
Union with Light , Sulphur , and other ful- 
phureous Bodies, when they become Urinous 
or Animal. It is not my Affair to detail 
their Laws, or the Mzchanifm of all their 
Addons, my Defign being only to give fuch 
a Sketch of the Matter, from the beft Ac- 
counts of Philolophy, as may be fufficient to 
give my Reader a general Notion of the 
Force of this Argument. 

§. IV. Mineral (or the Mother) Salt 
is, probably, Ample, and of the plaineft 

-f- Vide Newton’s Opticks. 

* VidcGulielmini de Salium Natura. 

P 4 


40 The Englifli Malady: 

Figure (perhaps a Tetrahedron of an equila- 
teral, triangular Baje ) which, with its Dif- 
iolubility in Water, and the Influence of the 
active Principle of Light, fits it to be readily 
introduc'd firft into the Subftance of Vegeta- 
bles, where, by the A&ion and Attraction of 
their Tubes and Solids, and its Union with the 
Sulphurs and Earths of Plants, it is advanced 
one Degree farther in A&ivity and Volati- 
lity, its Angles are rendered more Acute, 
and it becomes, by Crylfalization a Vegetable 
or fix’d Salt: But adly , it acquires a yet fur- 
ther Degree of Smallnefs and Agility, when 
introduc’d into animal Bodies as Pood, being 
there again ground and fubtiliz'd'by the Force 
of animal Fibres and Solids, and blended with 
animal Oi Is and Sulphurs, and thereby becom- 
ing what we call properly urinous Salt: And 
3dly, the laft and higheft Degree of Subtility 
and Volatility is produc’d, when this Salt, now 
in its urinous Form, becomes Food for Birds 
and Beafts of Prey, or for human Creatures, 
being there mix’d with, and agitated by the 
lightefl: and moil fubtil of all Oils and Sul- 
phurs : And when introduced into the Habit, 
in great Quantities, and urg’d or actuated 
by the higheft Oils and Spirits, (as happen 
to the European Nations chiefly, and to thofe 
of the Eaftern , who follow their Methods, 
in Riots and ExcefFes of animal Food and 
fpirituous Liquors) they become too llrong 
&nd powerful for the tender and delicate 

Surprizing Effects of Salts . 41 

Fibres, and produce the difmal * Appearance 
I have deferib'd. 

§. V. The Reafon why mineral and 
vegetable Salts, ‘Voijons and Cau flicks, have 
fuch immediate and fenfible Effects beyond 
animal Salts, feems chiefly to be owing to 
their Firmnefs and Solidity, whereby a 
greater Quantity of Salts is contain’d in the 
Fame Space or Volume, than can polfibly be 
of animal Salts, becaufe the Cement of the 
iirft (even when fubtiliz'd) being Earth or 
earthy Particles, a greater Quantity of them 
are combin’d in a fmaller Space than can be 
of animal Salts, which are united with a 
great Quantity of a porofe and light Sulphur 
only, and fo can neither become fo com- 
pact, nor lodge fo great a Quantity of Salts 
or attra&ive -Particles in an equal Space. 
For thefe others, when admitted into animal 
Bodies, become true Caaflichs , and burn up 
the internal, as Cau flicks do the external 
Parts of Animals, as we fee in Jrfenick , 
Vitriol , Alum , &c. But after the feveral 
Degrees of Alcoholization and Subtilization 
formerly mention’d, the natural Salt being 
thus levigated and refin’d, and its Angles 
thereby render’d more acute, and its at- 
tractive Quality greater, (by the leffening 
of its Bulk) when Motion and Volatility is 

f Vide Tkilojofb. Tranf. N° 433. A Letter from Mhheli Pinelli, 


42 The Englifh Malady. 

added to it, by its Mixture with the feveral 
Oils and Balfams, of Animals, Vegetables, 
and Cannibals , (pardon the Expreftion) it 
becomes fo fubtil and agile, as to be able 
eafily to enter into the fmalleft Tubes, 
and there exert its Fury, which the grofter 
Salts, efpecially when mix’d with Earths, 
are either, by their Groflhefs, incapable of, 
or, by the Violence of their Addon on the 
Parts they firft touch, are thrown out, upon 
their firft Approach, by the digeftive Organs 
in convulfive Vomitings. 

VI. The Sum of this prefent Argument 
is thus, /A# Salt, in its Origin, is but one; 
that by Divifion its Angles are made fmaller 
and fharper, and its attractive Virtue greatly 
increafed ; that though it be the moft pene- 
trating and attractive among little Bodies, 
or their Syflems , and becomes, as it were, 
like a Lancet or Razor , yet can neither hurt 
nor deftroy, when fheath’d, or not put in 
ACtion by fome moving Principle ; that this 
Motion or ACtion is communicated to it by 
the moft aCtive and energetick of all Fluids, 
Light or Sulphur, Oils or Spirits ; that 
when its Particles are cemented only by an 
earthy Matter, fo that the greateft Number 
of them poffible, may be crowded into the 
fmalleft Volume; it has its moft deleterious 
or deftruCtive Power on animal Bodies, but 
under that Form is incapable of being re- 

Surprizing Ejfetfs of Salts. 4 $ 

ceiv’d or retain’d long in the Body for that 
Effect ; that after two or three Divifions 
and Subtilizations, its Parts become fo ex- 
ceeding fine, that it is thereby render’d 
capable to be readily introduc'd into the 
inmoft Receffes of animal Bodies, (when 
thus fheath’d with animal and vegetable 
Oils) and in fmall Quantities, is not only 
fafe, but abfolutely neceffary for exciting 
the innate Adion of the Fibres and Solids, 
to wit, Contradion : But that when crowded 
in great or infinite Numbers and Quantities, 
and received into the fmalleft and fineffc 
Tubes, and there having Time and Leifure 
to drop its Oils, it unites and cryftalizes in 
greater Volumes and Clufters, and it thereby 
acquires the Nature and Qualities of the 
firft mention’d Salts or Poifons, that is, be- 
comes hard, compact, and deleterious, and 
ads as Poijons, or a Can flick , upon animal 
Fibres and Conftitutions. But I am weary 
of this Subjed, and its tedious Detail ; thofe 
who have Philofophy enough to underhand 
or receive this Dodrine, will be convinced 
and fatisfied by what has been faid ; or, if 
they want any further Confirmation, may 
have it from what Sir Ifaac Newton has faid 
of the Adions of little Bodies, * as explain’d 
by Dr. Keil , and from the Explication of 
chymical Appearances of Dr. Freind , in his 
(fbymical Preleffions , or from the late inge- 

* Vide Sir Ijaac Newt pits Optic ks. 


44 The E’nglifli Malady. 

nious and accurat Performance of Dr. Bryan 
Robinfon , the Reverend and Ingenious Mr. 
Hales , in his Vegetable Staticks, or even 
Mr. Miller's Di&ionary of Gardening , and 
the other Philofophical Gardeners, together 
with the Memoirs of the Academy Royal , and 
efpecially the Philofophical Vr an factions. 

VII. I shall only now add, (to ap- 
ply what has been faid to the prefent Pur- 
pofe) that it is pall all Doubt, from * Ex- 
periment, that rich Foods, high Sauces, 
Aromaticks, Delicacies, fine Flavours, and 
rich and generous Wines, ow all their 
Poignancy , high Talle, and Gratefulnefs, to 
their abounding with fuch Salts and SuU 
phurs , in a much greater Proportion than 
thofe other Foods that have a lelfer Degree of 
fuch Qualities : T'hat ^ young and tender 
Plants and Vegetables have fcarce any Salts, 
and few Oils or Spirits at all, at leaft, that 
can in any Quantity be extracted out of 
them ; that Plants have them only when 
they come to Maturity, or rather in their 
Decline; and Animals moll as they advance 
from Youth, thro’ Maturity towards old 
Age, and fo are more or lefs grateful to the 
Palate or Talle, as thefe Salts and Sulphurs 
abound in them ; that Aromaticks , the Juices 
of vinous Fruits or Plants, ow their Virtue, 

* Vide Boyle's Chymical Works. Lemcry, on Foods, and 
Tournefort’s Plants about Paris. 

f Vide Philofophical Tr anf actions , 


Surprizing Ejfetfs of Salts, 45 

Flavour, and Delicacy, to their abounding 
more eminently with fuch Salts and Oils, 
but efpecially to the Spirits extraded out 
of them, when the groffer Parts are thrown 
off by Fermentation and Diftillations. Now 
if all thefe Conliderationsput together, are not 
fufficient to make out the true remote Gaufe, 
and give an Account of the Origin of thefe 
Difeafes, even of the moft excruciating Na- 
ture, (tho’ a great deal more of the fame 
Kind might be added) I defpair of any Sup- 
cefs with my Reader on this Subjed. To 
conclude, Salts , of one Kind or another, 
feem abfolutely neceffary to carry on the 
Animal Life and Fundions in the beft Manner 
poflible for our prefent Situation on this Globe ; 
and it is not poffible to have any Food with- 
out them, fince even Water itfelf, with a Parti- 
cle of Earth, if not theOrigin and foie Matter of 
Salt, yet, at lead, is never without it • but whe- 
ther * Animal or Vegetable Salts are moft pro* 
per, every one muftjudge from his own Feel- 
ings, his Conftitution, and the Difeafes he is 
moft fubjed to, or from the Judgment of his 
Phyfician; to make which judgment I fhall 
aftift the Reader in the beft Manner I can 
afterwards ; I think there is no Doubt to be 
made, that Salts of any Kind, when too 
many in too large Clufters, and of the moft 

* Vide Plutarch de Sanitate tuenda Sc de Efu. Carnium. 


4* The Englifh Malady. 

pungent, provoking, and deleterious Nature, 
have the greateft Share in the Production of 
thofe Difeafes to which Mankind are expos’d 
in this Life. And that therefore, in fome 
Difeafes, it is extremely fit and convenient, 
to fupport Nature with thofe Foods which 
abound in them lea ft, and where they are of 
the moll benign Nature. 

§. VIII. But left any one Ihould mifun- 
derftand what has been here faid, by fup- 
pofing that I confider Saifs, according to the 
particular Qualities that diftinguilh one Kind 
of Salts from another, or their different Pro- 
perties, whether Acid, Alkalin , or having this, 
or that particular EffeCt upon the Palat : or the 
Appearances arifing upon the ACtions of the 
feveral Kinds of Salts upon one another, and 
the other Appearances obferv’d from chymical 
Managements (all which peculiar and diftin- 
guifhing Properties and Appearances, pro- 
bably arife only from the different Mixtures 
and Proportions of the other Elements in 
their particular Compofition, or their dif- 
ferent Degrees of Attraction.) For fince that 
particular Formation or Union with the other 
Elements, and thefe different Qualities refult- 
ing thereupon, are moftly deftroy’d as foon 
as they enter into an animal Body, and are 
mix’d and blended with the animal Juices ; 
(at leaft, no fuch different Kinds of Salts are 
to be extraded out of thefe Juices) or that 


Surprising Effetfs of Salts. 47 

have fuch particular Appearances and Effeds, 
as they had before they were received into 
the Habit: Therefore, I fay, that there 
may be no Room to miftake my Meaning on 
this Head, 1 lhall here add, that I confider 
Salts only in their general Nature, as Angular, 
Hard, and Attradive, and confequently adive 
lolid Particles of Matter, and make ufe of 
thofe general Properties only, that are exiftent 
in all Kinds of Salts, whatever other pecu- 
liar and diftinguifhing Qualities any particu- 
lar Kinds may have, fince tho’ thefe may 
remain in them while they are in the Stomach 
and Guts, where they are fometimes to be 
found, yet (as I have juft now faid) they 
are all confounded, foon after they have 
enter’d the Habit, and mix’d with the 
Juices ; for which Reafon I haVe rejeded 
the Confideration of the violent and fudden 
Effeds of fome Kinds of Salts, and have 
only obferv’d of Salts in general, that they 
are Hard, Solid, Sharp, and Angular Bo- 
dies, highly Attradive, and diffolvible by 
watery Fluids, and capable of being fubti- 
lized or divided into fmaller Parts, and ren- 
der’d fharper and more volatile by different 
Mixtures and Managements, which are equal- 
ly applicable to all Kinds of Salts, and from 
thence deduce the Effeds they have, or 
produce in the Fluids, or upon the Solids of 
Animals, when receiv’d into the Habit. The 
ether Confideration of fpecifick Salts may 


\ • s 

48 7 ^ Englifli Malady. 

frave their fpecifick Effe&s on one another 
without the Animal. But they feem more 
proper and adapted for philosophical than 
medical Difqutfition. 


Of the Frequency of Nervous Tdiforders 
in later Tears , beyond what they 
have been ohferved informer Times, 

I. TT F what I have advanced in the for-* 
8 mer Chapter have any Truth or 
VeriJjmilitude , it well be no hard 
Matter to account for the Frequency of 
Nervous Diftempers obferv’d of late Years, 
beyond what they have been in former 
Times, There • is nothing mote common, 
than to hear Men (even thofe, who, on 
other Subjects, reafon juftly and folidly) 
afcribe their Diftempers, acute or chronical , 
to a wet Room, damp Sheets, catching 
Cold, ill or under-drefs’d Food, or eating 
too plentifully of this or the other Dilh at a 
certain Time, and to fuch like trivial Cir* 
cumftances, being unwilling to own the true 
Caufe, to wit, their continu’d Luxury and Lazi- 
nefs, becaufe they would gladly continue this 


Increafe of Nervous Diforders . 4 9 

Courfe and yet be well, if poffible. And 
there have not wanted learned Phyficians, 
who have afcrib’d the Frequency of thefe 
Nervous Diftempers of late, elpecially among 
the Fair Sex, to Coffee, Tea , Chocolate , and 
Sniff: I would not affirm, that there could 
be no Abules of thefe, otherwife innocent 
Foods or Amufements, or that thefe men- 
tion'd Circumftances, and Accidents may 
have no Effe&s, but they are fo Weak, In- 
fenfible, and Tranlitory, if they meet with 
Conftitutions tolerably Clean and Healthy, 
that whoever would attribute any confider- 
able Diforder to them, argues with as much 
Reafon and true Philofophy, as he who afcribes 
his good Liquor intireiy to the Yeft or other 
Helps of its Fermentation, or the Death of 
a Man kill’d by a Gun-ffiot to the Paper or 
Tow that held down the Bullet: Health 
and Life, however Frail and Brittle, are too 
flrong Forts to be taken or deftroy’d by 
fuch puny and infufficient Pop-gun Artillery. 
The Matter, as I take it, hands thus : 

J. II. Since our Wealth has increas’d, 
and our Navigation has been extended, we 
have ranfack’d all the Parts of the Globe to 
bring together its whole Stock of Materials 
for Riot, Luxury, and to provoke Excefs. The 
Tables of the Rich and Great (and indeed 
of all Ranks who can afford it) are furniffi’d 
with Provifions of Delicacy, Number, and 

E Plenty, 

jo The Englifli Malady. 

Plenty, fufficient to provoke, and even gorge, 
the moft large and voluptuous Appetite. The 
whole Controverfy among us, feems to lie in 
out-doing one another in fuch Kinds of 
Profufion. Invention is rack'd, to furnifh 
the Materials of our Food the moft Delicate 
and Savoury poftible : Inftead of the plain 
Simplicity of leaving the Animals to range 
and feed in their proper Element , witht heir 
natural Nourifhment, they are phyfick’d 
almoft out of their Lives, and made as great 
Epicures , as thofe that feed on them ; and 
by Stalling , Cramming , Bleeding , Lameing , 
Sweating , “Purging, and Throwing down fuch 
unnatural and high-feafon’d hoods into them, 
thefe Nervous Difeafes are produced in the 
Animals themfelves, even before they are 
admitted as Food to thofe who complain of 
fuch Diforders. Add to all this, the tor- 
turing and lingering Way of taking away 
the Lives of fome of them, to make them 
more delicious ; and the Dreffing of them, 
by culinary Torments while alive, for their 
Purchafer’s Table : All which muft necefla- 
riiy Iharpen, impoifon, corrupt, and putrify 
their natural Juices and Subftances. The 
Liquors alfo that are ufed for Vehicles to 
fuch Food, are the higheft and moft fpiri— 
tuous, the moft fcorched by the Solar Beams, 
or inflam’d by repeated Diftiliations, to carry 
off the prefent Load, and leave a Difpofition 
and Graying for a new one in the ftiorteft 


Increafe of Nervous ^Diforders. 5 1 

iTime poffible. Any one who has but a 
tolerable Knowledge in Fhilofophy, or is 
acquainted with the Animal O Economy , can 
eafily tell what the necelfary Confequence 
of fuch a Diet muft be in naturally weak 

J. III. Not only the Materials of Luxury , 
are fuch as I have defcrib’d, but the Manner 
of Drefiing or Cooking them, is carried on 
to an exalted Height. The ingenious 
mixing and compounding of Sauces with 
foreign Spices and Provocatives, are con- 
triv’d, not only to rouze a fickly Appetite 
to receive the unnatural Load, but to ren- 
der a natural good one incapable of know- 
ing when it has enough. Since French 
Cookery has been in fuch Repute in England , 
and has been improv'd from Spain , Italy, 
Turkey, and every other Country that has 
any thing remarkably delicious, high, or 
favoury in Food; fince Eajlern Pickles and 
Sauces have been brought to embellilh our 
continual Feafts. Drefiing, which was de- 
fign’d to aflift the Labour of Digeftion, as it 
is now manag’d, not only counter-ads that 
Defign, but is become the moffc difficult, 
curious , ingenious, and, at the fame Time, 
one of the moll profitable Trades 

* TI \ "" " u 1 '-T' 

* Do you wondtr that Difeafes are innumerable? 

Number the Cooks. —— Seneca Epift.p/. 

Ei $. IV. 

52 The Englifli Malady. 


IV. Sue k a Courfe of Life muft necef- 
fariiy beget an Ineptitude for Exercife, and 
accordingly jlfiemblies, Mu/jck Meetings, 
Plays , Cards and Dice, are the only Amule- 
ments, or perhaps Bufinefs follow’d by fuch 
Perfons as live in the Manner mention’d, 
and are moft fubject to fuch Complaints, on 
which all their Thoughts and Attention, 
nay, their Zeal and Spirits, are fpent. And 
to convey them with the lead Pain and Un- 
eafinefs pofhble from Motion, or flavifh La- 
bour, to thefe ftill and bewitching Employ- 
ments : Coaches are improv’d with Springs, 
HorJ'es are taught to pace and amble, 
Chairmen to wriggle and Iwim along, to 
render the Obftrudlions more firm and fix’d 
in the fmall Vcfiels, and to prevent all the 
Secretions that would any ways lighten the 
Burthen. Is it any Wonder then, that the 
Difeafes which proceed from Idlenefs and 
Fulnefs of Bread, fhould increafe in Propor- 
tion, and beep equal Pace with thofe Im- 
provements of the Matter and Caufe of Dif- 
eafes ? 

§* V. It is a common Obfervation, (and, 
I think, has great Probability on its Side) 
that Fools , weak or flupid Perfons, heavy and 
dull Souls , are feldom much troubled with 
Vapours or Lownefs of Spirits. The intel- 
lectual Faculty, without all manner of 


Increafe of Nervous Diforders. 5 3 

Doubt, has material and animal Organs, by 
which it mediately works, as well as the 
animal Fun&ions. What they are, and 
how they operate, as, I believe, very few 
know, fo it is very little necefiary to know 
them for my prefent Purpofe. As a philo- 
fophical Mufician may underftand Propor- 
tions and Harmony, and yet never be in a 
Condition to gratify a Company with a line 
Piece of Mufick, without the Benefit of 
Sounds from proper Organs, 16 the intel- 
lectual Operations (as long as the prelent 
Union between the Soul and Body larts) can 
never be perform’d in the bell Manner with- 
out proper Inflruments. The Works of Ima- 
gination and Memory , of Study , l'hi-nking, and 
Reflecting, from whatever Source the Prin- 
ciple on which they depend fprings, mult 
necefiarily require bodily Organs. Some 
have thefe Organs finer, quicker, more agile, 
and fenfible, and perhaps more numerous 
than others; Brute Animals have few o? 
none, at leaft, none that belong to Re - 
fleCtion ; Vegetables certainly none at all. 
There is no Account to be given how a 
Difeafe , a Fall, a Blow , a Debauch , Puiflns , 
violent Pajjions , aftral and aerial Influences, 
much Application, and the like, fhould 
poffibly alter or deftroy thefe intellectual 
Operations without this Suppofition. It is 
evident, that in nervous Diffcempers, and a 
great many other bodily Difeales, theie 

E 3 Fa- 

54 The Englifh Malady. 

Faculties, and their Operations, are impair’d, 
nay, totally ruin’d and extinguiihed to all 
Appearance ; and yet, by proper Remedies, 
and after Recovery of Health, they arc 
reftor’d and brought to their former State, 
Now fince this prefent Age has made Efforts 
to go beyond former Times, in all the Arts 
of Ingenuity , - Invention , Study , Learning , and 
all the contemplative and fedentary Pro- 
feffions, (I fpeak only here of our own Na- 
tion, our own Times, and of the better Sort, 
whofe chief Employments and Studies thefe 
are) the Organs of thefe Faculties being 
thereby worn and fpoil’d, mull affed and 
deaden the whole Syfiem , and lay a Foun- 
dation for the Difeafes of Lownels and 
Weaknefs. Add to this, that thofe who 
are likelieft to excel and apply i ft this Man- 
ner, are moft capable, and moll in hazard of 
following that Way of Life v/hich I have 
mention’d, as the likelieft to produce thefe 
Difeafes. Great JVits are generally great 
Epicures, at leaft, Men of Tafle . And the 
Bodies and Conftitutions of one Generation, 
are Itill more corrupt, infirm, and difeas’d, 
than thofe of the former, as they advance in 
Time, and the Ufe of the Caufes affign’d. 

VL T o all thefe Confiderations, if we 
add the prefent Cuftom of Living, fo much 
in great, populous, and over-grown Cities ; 
London (where nervous Diftempers are moft 


Incveafe of Nervous Difor&ers. 5 5 

frequent, outrageous, and unnatural) is, for 
ought I know, the greateft, moll capacious, 
clofe, and populous City of the Globe , the 
infinite Number of Fires, Sulphureous and 
Bituminous, the vaft Expence of Tallow and 
fetid Oil in Candles and Lamps, under and 
above Ground, the Clouds offtinking Breaths, 
and Perfpiration, not to mention the Or- 
dure of fo many difeas’d, both intelligent 
and unintelligent Animals, the crouded 
Churches, Church-yards and Burying Places, 
with putrifying Bodies, the Sinks , Butcher - 
Houfes , Stables , Dunghils , SCc. and the 
neceffary Stagnation, Fermentation, and 
Mixture of fuch Variety of all Kinds of 
Atoms, are more than fufficient to putrify, 
poifon, and infeed the Air for twenty Miles 
round it, and which, in Time, muft alter, 
weaken, and deftroy the healthieft Conftitu- 
tions of Animals of all Kinds ; and accord- 
ingly it is in fuch like Cities, that thefe 
Diftempers are to be found in their higheft 
and mo ft aftonilhing Symptoms, and feldom 
any lafting or folid Cure is perform’d till the 
Difeafed be ruflicated and purified from the 
infectious Air and Damps, tranfubftaniiated 
into their Habits, by a great City, and till 
they have fuck’d in and incorporated the 
fweet, balmy, clear Air of the Country, 
and driven the other out of their Habit. 
For by innumerable Experiments it is cer- 
tain, that the Nitre or Acid of frefh, new 

E 4 Air, 

5 6 The Englifli Malady. 

Air, is as neceffary towards Life and Health 
as frefh balmy Food. 

f. VII. All thefe together will, I think, 
be fufficient to account for the Frequency 
of Nervous Dijlempers of late. And, in 
fad, the fame Caufes pretty near, have been 
affign’d by all Obfervers, Phyficians, and 
Philofophers, in all Ages and Countries, to 
have produc’d fimilar Effe&s. The Egyptians, 
as they feem to have been the firlt vvho cul- 
tivated the Arts of Ingenuity and Politenefs, 
fo they feem likewife to have been the firft 
who brought Phyfick to any tolerable Degree 
of Perfection. Theantient Greeks , while they 
lived in their Simplicity and Virtue were 
Healthy, Strong, and Valiant : But afterwards, 
in Proportion as they advanced in Learning, 
and the Knowledge of the Sciences, and 
diflinguifhed themfelves from other Nations 
by their Politenefs and Refinement, they 
funk into Effeminacy , Luxury , and Difeafes , 
and began to fiudy Phyfick , to remedy thofe 
Evils which their Luxury and Lazinefs had 
brought upon them. In like manner, the 
Romans fell from their former Bravery, 
Courage, and keroich Virtue , which had 
gain’d them the Empire of the World. As 
Celfus observes, where he is giving fome 
Account of the Rife and Improvement of 
Phyfick, according to the Prevalency of thele 
tvyo general Caufes of Difeafes, Idlenefs and 

Intern - 

Increafe of Nervous Diforders. 57 

Intemperance, That thefe two had firfl fpoil'd 
the Con ftitut ions of the Greeks, and after- 
wards thofe of his own Countrymen the Ro- 
mans, when become Mafers oj the Luxury as 
well as the Country of thofe polite People. 

VIII. I t were eafy to (hew, from the 
beft Philofophy, confirm’d by the raoft 
folid Experience, that Diftempers of all 
Kinds ow their more remote Origin, Caufe, 
and Rife to the fame Principles : And that 
the Pains and Trouble fome have taken 
to fearch and difcover from Hiftory , the 
Occafions and Times of the Appearance of 
fuch and fuch Diftempers, ends only in 
gathering and colle&ing fome new Names, 
which Mankind have arbitrarily beftow’d 
upon fome particular Symptoms, Degrees, 
orParoxyfms of univerfally known Difeafes; 
and that thefe Enquiries tho’ they may 
divert and amufe the Enquirer and the Rea- 
der, like any other Pieces of Hiftory : are of 
no further Ufe or Advantage to the World, 
than in fo far as they at the fame Time dif- 
cover the Means and Medicines by which 
fuch Symptoms or Degrees of Diftempers 
were remedied or overcome. For, I think, 
it is plain to a Demonftration, that all Dif- 
eafes whatfoever, by whatever Names or 
Titles dignified or diftinguilh’d, fo far as 
they are natural and internal Diftempers, 
and not caus’d by Accident, muft in the 


58 The Englifli Malady. 

main proceed (if we fuppofe, as we mhft, 
that Mankind at firft, were Healthy and 
Sound) from Intemperance, or fome Error 
in the Quantity or Quality of their Food, 
and Lazinefsor Negled of dueExercife: by 
which as the Solids and Juices of the Parents 
have been fpoil’d, fo their Pofterity by con- 
tinuing the fame Courfes have gradually fuf- 
fer’d higher and more extreme Diforders or 
Symptoms, arifing from the fame general 
Caufes : which upon their firft: Appearance 
receiving new Names by their Oblervers, as 
new and particular Diftempers, have in- 
creas’d to fuch a Number, as to exhibit that 
numerous Train of Miferies with which our 
Books of Phyfiek and Bills of Mortality are 
fill’d : And as the Age grew worfe, and 

the fame Caufes have been continued, and 
confequently the Conftitutions more de- 
prav’d, not only more numerous, but higher 
and more terrible Symptoms have arifen, till 
they have come at laid to fuch a Degree of 
Malignity, as to infed and contaminate by 
mere Touch or Contad; nay, even by the 
Smoak or Steam emitted from fuch dileas’d 
Habits. Not that I would deny that Sea - 
fans , Climates , aflral and aerial Influences, 
and many other Circumftances, had any Effed 
or Influence in begetting or propagating 
thefe Diftempers, but that thefe are flight, 
partial, and occaftonal Caufes only, in refped 
of thofe others mention’d. And he that 


Increnfe of Nervous Diforders . 59 

will confult Hiftory, will find fufficient 
Arguments to draw the fame Conclufions. 

IX. All Difeafes have in fome Degree 
or other, or in Embryo, been extant at all 
Times, at leaft, might have been, if the 
efficient Caufes, Idletiejs and Luxury , had 
been fufficiently fet to work , which were 
chiefly in the Power of Men themfelves. 
What we call Nervous Diftempers, were 
certainly, in fome fmall Degree, known 
and obferv’d by the Greek , Roman , and 
Arabian Phyficians, tho’ not fuch a Number 
of them as now, nor with fo high Symptoms, 
fo as to be fo particularly taken Notice of, 
except thofe call'd Hyfterick, which feem to 
have been known in Greece , from whence 
they have deriv'd their Name : But as they 
were probably a ftronger People, and liv’d 
in a warmer Climate, the flow, cold, and 
nervous Difeafes were lefs known and ob- 
ferv'd ; the Diftempers of all the Eajiern 
and Southern Countries being moftly acute. 

§. X. When thefe general Caufes I 
have mention’d, came to exift in fome more 
confiderable Degree, and operate in the 
more Northern Climates, then thefe Nervous 
Difeafes began to fhew themfelves more 
eminently, and appear with higher and more 
numerous, and atrocious Symptoms. Syden- 
ham y our Countryman, was the Phyfician of 


6 o The Englifli Malady. 

Note who made the moft particular and full 
Obfervations on them, and eftablilh’d them 
into a particular Clafs and Tribe, with a 
proper, tho’ different, Method of Cure from 
other chronical and humorous Diftempers, 
tho’ their true Nature, Caufe, and Cure has 
been, lefs univerfally laboured and known, 
than that of moft other Difeafes, fo that 
thole who could give no tolerable Account 
of them have call’d them Vapours, Spleen , 
Flatus , Nervous , Hyjlerical , and Hypochon- 
driacal Diftempers. 


Of the true Nature of the Fibres and 

§. I. rp H E Fibres are /'mall, tranfpa- 
i rent, Jolid, and elaftick , or 
~*®‘- fpringy Threads or Filaments. 

By Fibres, I mean here the leaft and 
fmalleft Threads in the Compofition, of 
which many unite to make one fenfible 
Fibre. Our Hairs, which are a Kind of 
Fibres, may be divided and fplit into a great 


Nature of Fibres and Nerves. 6 1 

Number of fmall ones, evident to the naked 
Eye ; but Leewenhoeck , by his Glaffes, has 
difcover’d five or fix hundred of them in 
one vifible Fibre. They are tranfparent y 
as is evident, when fufficiently wafh’d and 
cleans’d from the Skins, Humours and Fluids 
that adhere to them. The laft and ultimate 
Fibres muft ofNeceflity be Solid ; for a Fibre 
that has a Cavity muft confift of feveral 
others that go to make up its Coat ; but 
even the fmalleft compound Fibres may be 
likewife folid , and confift of the fimple ones, 
as a Silk Thread is made up of the Filaments 
of the raw Silk ; for the beft Glades difco- 
ver no Cavity in them, at lead, they are 
not fairly prov’d to be Tubular or Hollow 
by the Appearance they give of fome Cavi- 
ties, when view’d thro’ a Microfcope, fince 
what appears to fome to be fo, may be no 
other than the Interfaces between them ; as 
feems highly probable from their lying ob- 
lique to the Length of the Fibres , to which 
they ought to run parallel, if thefe Fibres 
were Tubular. But other Arguments to 
confirm this fhall be aflign’d in their proper 
Place. They are elajlick or fpringy, as ap- 
pears by a Fibre , or a Mufcle’s contracting 
(when divided) towards both Extremities ; 
and that Heat and Pun&ure flimulate them 
into involuntary Spafms and Conyulfions. 

§■ ii. 

6 1 The Englifli Malady: 

§. II. All the Solids of the Body, when 
duly prepar’d, refolve themfelves, or may 
be feparated into fuch Fibres at laft. They 
are probably platted and twilled together in 
the Manner I have defcrib’d, to make the 
larger fenfible Fibres: And thefe again are 
either united in Bundles to form the Mufcles, 
Tendons , Ligaments , SCc. or woven into a 
fine fVeb , like Cloth, to make the Mem - 
hranesy the Coats of the YelTels, &c. only in 
fome the longitudinal, in others the tranl- 
Verfe Fibres are larger and ftronger ; or 
thefe laft are rolled fpirally , according to the 
particular Office or Function defign’d to be 
perform’d by them. The Strudure of the 
Bones fcems to be like that of a Piece of 
Linen roll’d upon a Cylinder , thro' which 
a vaft Number of Pins are ftuck perpendi- 
cular to the Surface, to keep it from unrol- 
ling. Thefe, and doubtlefs many other, 
Methods of Texture are made ufe of by the 
Infinitely- wife Author of Nature, in the Fa- 
brick of the Solids of the Animal Machin. 
We mull content our felves, in the Explica- 
tion of the Works of Nature, with Allu- 
'fions to thofe of Art, that come neareft the 
Cafe where philofophick Nicety is not in- 

$. III. The fenfible or compound Fibres , 
as they are found in the Strudure of an Ani- 

Nature of Fibres and Nerves. 6 $ 


mal Machin, are of three Kinds. Fir ft ^ 
Some are of a loofer and fofter Texture, or 
of a weaker Spring and Elafticity, contrad- 
ing eafily and readily, and requiring only a 
fmall Force to diftend them, being moiftened 
with a greater Quantity of Blood ; (which 
makes them look red) and luch are all the ~ 
Mufcular Fibres , which are employed in the 
Compofition of the Inftruments of voluntary 
or animal Motion, whofe greater Adion 
requires a greater Quantity of balmy, warm 
Moifture, to preferve their due Degree of 
fenfion, and repair their cafual and ordinary 
Decays. Secondly , Others are of a clofer and 
more compad Difpofition, thefmaller Fibres 
whereof they are compos'd, being more 
firmly and intimately united, and crowded 
or comprefs’d into a fmaller Space, in con- 
fequence of which their elajlick Force is 
greater, they contrad with greater Strength 
and Quicknefs, and are with more Difficulty 
diftended, being moiften’d with a thinner, 
more rare, milky and watery Fluid, becaufe 
of their iolid Texture, to keep them from 
growing rigid or hard, and fuch are the 
Fibres of the Membranes, Tendons and 
Nerves, whofe Compadnefs and clofer Union 
of Parts, feems to be the Reafon of the 
greater Degree of Senfibility they are evi- 
dently endued with above thofe of the firft 
Kind. The Motion or Imprellion commu- 
nicated to them, .being thereby lefs inter- 



6 4 The EngliOi Malady. 

rupted, broken or loft ; and the laft of thefe 
particularly, to wit, the Nerves , are made ufe 
of to communicate thelmpreflion they receive 
from outward Objefts, or the mufcular Fibres 
to the Senforium in the Brain, and by it to the 
fentient Principle or Mufic'tan , and from it to 
the Organs. Thirdly , There is yet another 
Sort of thefe compound Fibres of a hard and 
rigid Make, whole Elaflicity is like that of 
Steel, and not of the fo diftra&ile Kind, 
like thole before mention'd, and confequent- 
ly, being neither fit for Senfation or A&ion, 
they are only employ’d as a Support or 
Security for the tender Solids, requiring only 
a little Oil to keep them from growing too 
dry or brittle ; and of this Kind are the 
Fibres of the Bones. Every fingle Fibre has 
a particular Membran involving it, like the 
Bark on a Tree, and fome particular Clufters 
have another Membran binding the Whole. 

§. IV. From this Account of the Fibres 
in general, if juft, it is plain, that in their 
original Conftitutions they are much the 
fame, and that their different Properties and 
Appearances arife only out of the various 
Methods of Texture employ’d in their Com- 
pofition, according to the Ufes they were 
intended for. It is likewife probable, that 
all the Fibres of the Body (except thofe of 
the hard and rigid Kind, whereof the Bones 
are compos’d) are fenfible, more or lefs, 


Nature of Fibres and Nerves'. 6 j 

according to their Denfity or Clofenefs of 
their Texture, or the Degrees of their e hjlick 
or di/iraffile Force, confequent thereupon, 
and their Communication with the Brain ; 
the Nerves being only feme of thefe Fibres 
the moft fufceptible, by their Structure of 
communicating Action and Motion, made 
life of to convey fuch Impreffions, as they 
receive from outward Objects, or the other 
Fibres (however this Intercourfe is carried 
on between them, whether by Engrafting, 
like the Blood Veffels, or otherwife, I fhall 
not determin) to the Seat of the Intelligent 
or fenfitive Principle, and to carry back from 
thence the firft Tendency of Adion to the 
Mufcular Fibres , when they contract or relax, 
in order to the feveral Fundions of the Ani*. 
mal O Economy. To tell precifely in what 
Manner this is perform’d, is, perhaps, impof- 
fible, I am fure very difficult ; nor do I 
think it any ways necelfary to what I have 
to propofe, concerning the Nature and Cure 
of Nervous Diftempers , commonly fo call’d, 
I am of Opinion, that thefe Diforders do not 
fo properly depend upon one Kind of Animal 
Fibres , that particularly of the Nerves , as 
is commonly fuppos’d, unlels it be in fmall 
and Topical Diforders of the nervous Kind : 
but that when there are general internal 
Difeafes, and that many of the Fibres and 
Nerves fuffer, the whole Syfiem, or all the 
Solids of the Body (except thofe which are 

F firm 

66 T’he Englifh Malady. 

firm and hard) i'uffer together in fome De- 
gree or other. 

V. That there is a certain 7one , Con- 
Jiftence , and Firmnefs, and a determin’d 
Degree of ElajUcity and Fenfion of the Nerves 
or Fibres, how fmall foever that be, (for it 
mu ft be in fome Degree even in Fluids them- 
felves) neceffary to the perfed Performance 
of the Animal Functions, is, I think, with- 
out all Queftion, from an Excefs over or 
Defed under which, in fome eminent De- 
gree, Difeafes of one Kind or another 
certainly arife. Thofe I am chiefly con- 
cern’d for in the following Treadle, are 
what proceeds from the Defed, or that De- 
gree which falls below the juft Mediocrity 
neceffary for perfed Health : That is, thofe 
Difeafes that enfue upon a too lax, feeble, 
and unelajiick State of the Fibres or Nerves: 
And that every one may, in fome meafure, 
judge whither this be their Cafe, I fhall 
hereafter enumerate the Signs and Symptoms 
that determin it, after giving the Reader 
fome Conjedures concerning the Ufe of the 
Fibres, and the Manner of their Fundions. 


Ufe of Fibres and Nerves, See- 6 7 


Of the Ufe of the Fibres and Nerves 5 
the Manner and Caufes of Senfation y 
and of Mufcular Motion . 

§. i.TT not being my Intent to run into 
1 philojophical or Ipeculative Difqui- 
fitions in a pra&ical Treatife, which 
I defign chiefly for the Ufe and Benefit of 
my fellow Sufferers under’ nervous Diftempers ; 
J lhail only, with all the Brevity and Perlpi- 
cuity I am capable of, reprefent to the 
curious Reader , what I have found moft pro*, 
bable among the Phyficians, Philofophers , 
and Mathematicians , upon this intricate and 
perplex'd Subject, having, I think, confider'd 
Impartially, and with fome Attention, all 
thofe who have offer'd any thing folid upon 
it; and on this Account chiefly, that the 
curious Redder may more readily relifh fome 
of the Reafons for A.dvices of lefs Moment 
which I fuggeft for treating of thefe Diftem- 
pers in the bdi manner my Obfervation and 
Experience have taught me. But I lay 
much greater Strefs upon tfie Experience 
F 2 and 

68 The English Malady. 

and Obfervations themfelves, than upon any 
philofophical Reafons I, or any other, can 
fuggelt ; tho*, I think, they may not be 
without their Evidence, when drawn from 
the real Nature of Things, or from the beft 
Accounts of the Animal OEconomy we have 
hitherto gain'd, and may fometimes ap- 
proach near to a Demonffration in Subjects 
more fimple, and more obvious to Senfe and 
Experiment than thofe I now treat of. 

§. IL I n the jirfl place, I take it for 
granted, that the intelligent ' Principle is of a 
very different, if not quite contrary, Nature 
from this organical Machin which contains it; 
and has fcarceany thing in common to them, 
but as they are Subftances. It is well 
known to Ehyficians what wonderful Effects, 
the EaJJJuns, excited by lucky or unlucky 
Accidents, (which arejuftly reckon’d Intel- 
lettual or Spiritual Operations) have on the 
Pulfc, Circulation, Perfpiration, and Secre- 
tions, and the ether Animal Fun&ions, in 
'Nervous Cafes efpccially, even to the re- 
ftoreing from Death, and deftroying Life, as 
innumerable Inftances demonftrate. I have 
felt a Pulfe languifhing, interrupting, and 
juft dying away, render’d ftrong, full, and 
free by a joyful Surprize, and on the con- 
trary. * Dr. Bryan Kobinfons Reafoning is 

* Vide Dr. Bryan Rcbinforts Animal OEc enemy, Prop, xxL 


Ufs of Fibres and 'Nerves, dec. 69 

eonclufive, and yet I fhall give one Xn- 
ftance, of which I myfeJf (with many others) 
was an Eye-witnefs, more coercive, where 
an Effort of the Mind • reftor’d to Life once 
and again (to all Appearances) extind Ani- 
mal Functions. Now if the Principle of 
both Parts of the Compound were one, or if 
the Whole had but a material or organioal 
Principle, or if there were only an external 
Spring of Motion and Action, the Functions 
dying, expireing,and going down, the Whole 
would always die and extinguifh. But Purely 
no different or independent Internal Princi- 
ple, could reftore, invigorate and actuate the 
dead or juft dying material and animal Func- 
tions, as in this laft Cafe *. I have for- 
merly fuggefted, that the beft Similitude I 
can form of the Nature and Actions of this 
Principle upon the Organs of its Machin, is 
that of a skilful Mujtcian playing on a well- 
tun J d Inftrument. So long as the Inftrument 
is in due Order, fo long is the Mufick perfect 
and compleat in its Kind. As it weakens 
or breaks, the Harmony is fpoifd or ftop’d. 
Some of the Parts of this Inftrument being 
more delicate than others, are fooner difbr- 
der’d or broken. The great and principal 
ones, which prefideover and actuate the leffer, 
are Strong and Durable, and require a greater 

'* Vide Part jd, the Gale of Col. Tcwr./byid, 

F 3 Force 

/o The EngliOi Malady. 

Force and Violence to diforder them ; but 
when once they are worn out, fpoifd, and 
ruin’d, the leffer and dependent ones are in- 
volv’d in their Fate, and the Mufician muft 
neceffarily Ihift his Place and Scene. It is 
the Nature of all material Organs to decay 
and be worn out by Time. The Divifibi- 
lity of Matter, the Fridion of the Parts upon 
one another, and the Adion of the Bodies 
that furround them, make this inevitable ; 
but Accidents, Violence, and Mifmanage- 
ment will quicken and forward their Ruin. 

§. III. Material Objeds can ad no 
otherwife upon material Inftruments, than 
by communicating their Adion and Motion 
to them, or, at leaf, to the Medium , Fluid, 
or fubtil Matter that furrounds them ; that 
is, material Objects can ad no otherwife 
upon animal Organs, but either immediately 
by communicating their Adion and Motion 
to thefe Organs, and putting their confti- 
tuent Parts into particular Vibrations, in- 
teftine Adion and Readion upon one an- 
other: or mediately by the Intervention of 
fome fubtil Fluid or Matter on which they 
imprefs their Adions and Motions, which 
are tranfmitted by the Medium , in the fame 
Manner to the Organ. Small Bodies ad 
upon one another in the fame Manner, and 
by the fame Laws and Mechanifm, that the 
Syflems of greater ones do: And he who 


Ufe of Fibres and Nerves , See. 71 

would underftand the Effeds of little Bodies, 
Fluids, or material Spirits upon greater Bo- 
dies, and the Nature of the Action of their 
Particles upon one another, has nothing to 
do, (if he realons juftly) but to referable 
fmall Bodies to great, under particular Laws 
and Conditions. To apply this general 
Dodrine to the Cafe in Hand : We may 
conclude, that Smelling , for Example, is 
nothing but the Adion of an odorous Body, 
or the Steam or Vapour emitted from it, 
giving, a determin’d Impulfe to the Nerves 
or Fibres of the Noftrils, which, by their 
Mechanifm , propagate this Vibration and 
Impulfe, thro’ their Length to the intelli- 
gent or Jentient Principle in the Brain (which 
I referable to the Musician). Again, Feeling 
is nothing but the Impulfe, Motion, or 
Adion of Bodies, gently or violently im- 
preiling the Extremities or Sides of the 
Nerves, of the Skin, or other Parts of the 
Body, which by their Strudure and Mecha- 
nifm , convey this Motion to the Sentient Prin- 
ciple in the Brain, or the Mufcian . Laftly, 
Seeing , or the Perception of the Bulk, 
Diftance, Situation, or Colour of Gbjeds, is 
nothing but the Adion of Light (a Fluid of 
its own Kind) receded or refraded from the 
Surfaces of Bodies or outward Objeds (fome 
of which fcatter the Rays from one another, 
in an infinite Variety of Angles, and fo by 
Experience determ in their Difiance and 
F 4 Bulk: 

yi The Englifh Malady.' 

Bulk : And tranfmit one Kind of Rays 
more copioully than another, to determin 
their Colour ) which being varioufly re- 
fraded in the Humours of the Eyes, are at laffc 
united on the Retina , fo as there to form an 
Image analogous to that of the outward Ob- 
jed, which by linking the Nerves of the 
Retina , (in the fame Manner that the Objed 
it felf would have done) is by them tranf- 
mitted to the fentient Principle. It is much 
after the fame Manner in all the other In- 
ftruments of the Senfations. 

IV. What is the true Caufe of Elafli - 
city in general, or that of the animal Fibres 
and Nerves in particular, is, I think, an un- 
explicable Problem , unlefs we admit of a 
centrifugal or repelling Fluid. Even the 
true Nature and Caufe of Cohejion and Con- 
tinuity it felf was uncertain till of late, and 
as yet is too general, as far as this Kind of 
Fluid or fubtile Spirit explains it/ The 
Principle of Attraction both in great and 
little Bodies, is evident from innumerable 
Experiments; but what the Laws of this 
general Principle may be, in all Syjlems of 
Bodies ; or what Limitations or Reftridions 
it may undergo, to folve the particular Ap- 
pearances, is, I fear, as yet impeded. Per- 
haps Generals, in Natural Philofophy, (as 
well as feme other Sciences) are all that we 
can attain to in our prefent State (for. it 


Vfe of Fibres and Nerves, &c. 7 5 

feems Precilion is a Contradidlion to Fini- 
tude), We fee indeed that Bodies of plain, 
fmoQth Surfaces, or in which many Points 
come into Contact, cohere molt ftrongly, 
which mull necelfarily follow from the 
Principle of Attraction. Sir IJaac Newton 
has Ihewn the Analogy of Bodies flying from 
one another; or their having a Principle of 
Re pul (ton, to negative Quantities, in Algebra 
and Geometry , and to fome other Appear- 
ances in Nature : whereby he hints a proba- 
ble Account of the Elafticity and the Com- 
preflion of the Air : And the fame Manner of 
Philofophifing, duly applied and fuited to 
Circumftances, will equally account for the 
Elafticity of all Fluids w hatfoever, and per- 
haps of Solids too. There are fome Experi- 
ments upon Bodies, that feem to prove 
the real Exiftence of fuch a Principle in Na- 
ture as Repuljion : for Example, (not to men- 
tion others, of which there are a great 
Numb*er, that enforce the fame Conclufion) 
Ahat whereby a fmooth ddrifm, rubb’d ftrong- 
ly, drives Leaf-Gold from it, and fufpends 
it till its Influence is withdrawn, Hawsbee’ s 
Experiments on an exhaufted Glafs Sphere or 
Cylinder violently turn’d on an Axis : Water 
rifing in a hyperbolick Line above the Sur- 
face, and Mercury fubfiding below it in the 
fame Curve, and a great many other fuch 
Experiments. We fee alfo, that a Body 
under a circular Rotation, has a conftant 

74 The EngliOi Malady. 

Tendency to fly off in the Tangent, which 
a certain late Author has made Ufe of to 
explain ElaJHcity by (tho’, I think, with 
indifferent iSuccefs). Now tho’ all thefe 
Appearances may poffibly be accounted for 
from other Principles, different from that of 
Efajlicity, yet, I think, they may be fuffi- 
cient to illuftrate this Principle of Repuljion. 
Animal and Vegetable Subllances, fucn as 
Ivory , iVhale-Eone , the Tendons and mufcular 
Subftances of Animals, Cork , Sponge, See. 
are the mo ft perfectly elaflick of any Bodies 
known, which makes it highly probable, 
that the. Actions,- Senfations, and Functions 
of Animals and Vegetables, are owing, in 
fome meafure, to this Elafticlty in the Solids: 
And Metalick and Mineral Bodies (as is well 
known) have their elaflick Properties in- 
creas’d and augmented by Animal and Vege- 
table Salts united with them while they are 
in Fujion by Fire. 

V. T h e moft difficult Problem in all 
the Animal OEconomy, is, to give any 
tolerable Account of Majcular ASlion or 
Animal Motion. The Similitude of a Ma- 
chin put into Adion and Motion by. the 
Force of Water convey’d in Pipes, was the 
readied Refemblance the Lazy could find to 
explain Mufcular Motion by. It was eafy, 
from this Refemblance, to forge a thin, im- 
perceptible Fluid; palTing and re-palling 


Exijlence oj Jntmal Spirits. 7 ^ 

(through the Nerves, to blow up the Mus- 
cles, and thereby to lengthen one of their 
Dimenfions, in order to Ihorten the ether. 
On fuch a flender and imaginary Similitude, 
the precarious Hypothecs of Animal Spirits 
feems to be built. But as their Exiftence is, 
I fear, precarious, fo, were it real, they 
are not fufficient to folve the Appear- 
ances, as fhall be more particularly con- 
fider’d hereafter. All I fhall further fay 
here, is, that' this and the other abftrufe 
Appearances in the Animal and Vegetable 
Kingdoms, particularly Vegetation , Elafli- 
city , CoheJjon , the Emifiion, Reflexions and 
Refradions of Light , Attraction in the 
greater and leffer Bodies, and all the other 
fecret and internal Adions of the Parts of 
Matter upon one another, are with fome 
fhew of Poflibility fufpeded, and by fome 
Obfervations (not otherwife to be accounted 
for) made not improbable by the late jaga- 
cioas and learned Sir Ifaac Newton *, to be 
owing to an infinitely fubtil, elaftick Fluid, 
or Spirit, (as he ftrongly expreffes that fubtil 
Matter) diftended thro’ this whole Syfiem , 
penetrating all Bodies with the greateft 
Facility, infinitely adive and volatile, but 
more condens’d in Vacuo , or Spaces void of 
grolfer Matter, than towards the Surfaces of 

* Opticks, Book III. 



76 The Englifli Malady. 

Bodies, or in them : And by this JEther, 
Spirit , or moft fubtile Fluid, the Parts of 
Bodies are driven forcibly together, and their 
mutual attra&ive Virtue arifes, and the other 
beforemention’d Appearances are produced. 
The Exiftence of this fubtil Fluid or Spirit , 
is made probable by what he has oblerv’d 
of Liquors, heating and cooling , Mercury 
riling and continuing rais’d, and fmooth 
Bodies clinging together, and requiring an 
equal Force to feparate them, in Vacuo , or 
in an exhaufted Receiver, as in Air: And a 
great many other Experiments have been fug- 
gefted not otherwise to be fo readily ac- 
counted for. And it is probable, that thofe 
other mention’d Appearances may be owing 
to the fame Caufe, fince we find always 
Jimilar Effects have ftmilar Caufes, and that 
Nature is frugal in Caufes , but various and 
manifold in EffeBs : But Sir Ifaac not having 
been able to make a fufficient Number of 
Experiments to determin all the Laws of 
this Fluid, nor indeed fufficient abfolutely to 
prove its Exiftence, he leaves it to the Saga- 
city of future Ages to determin them, and 
to apply them to the Appearances ; and 
finding nothing in the Writings of other 
Philofophers , Mathematicians , or Fhyficians , 
of equal Probability with this, tho’ imperfed 
Account of thefe Difficulties, I will offer the 
Reader no other. 


Exigence of Animal Spirits, yy 


Of the Exijlence of animal Spirits , and 
of their Ufe to account jor animal 
Motion , and the other animal Fun * 

I. V J "1 H E Dodrine of Spirits, to ex^ 
plain the animal Fundions and 
their Difeafes, has been fo 
readily and univerfally receiv’d from the 
Days of the ^fr^i^»Phyficians (and higher) 
down to our prefent Times, that Icarce one 
(except here and there a Heretick of late) 
has call’d this C-itholick Dodrine in queftion. 
And thole who perhaps had Courage or 
Curiofity enough to doubt of, or examine 
the Matter, either out of Lazinefs, or to 
avoid a tedious Way of expreffing them- 
lelves, have implicitly gone into the com- 
mon Dialed which is now very convenient. 
The Syfiem at firft was but rude and imper- 
fed, but having been adopted by Philojo - 
fhers and Mathematicians , as well as Phy- 
Jiciansy they have brought it to a more con- 
, Client 

7 8 The Englifh Malady. 

fittent and lefs abfurd 'Theory. BoreUt gave 
it a great Countenance, by receiving it to 
explain mtjcular Motion, in his Book De 
Motu Animalium. fVillis gave it all the 
Advantages of Eloquence and Metaphor. 
'John Bernoulli has added to it a Kind of 
Geometry and Calculation. And laft of 
all Monf. des Molieres , in the Memoirs de 
V Academie Royal for 1724, has added Plain- 
nefs, and fome Conformity to the Natural 
Appearances, and taken off moll of the 
common Objections. 1 fhall not tire myfelf, 
nor the Reader, by detailing the Syjlem at 
length, nor the feveral Steps by which it 
has been reformed and amended. Goelik e, 
Profeffor at Frankfort , in a fmall Treatife, 
has folidly expos'd and ridicul’d it as far as 
Borelli went, or the precedent or co-tempo- 
rary Phylicians : And that admirable Geo- 
meter Dr. Pemberton , has, I believe, geome- 
trically Ihewn the Infufficiency of what Ber- 
noulli has advanced to mend the Matter, in 
his Preface to Mr. Cowper’s Book on the 
Mufcles. I fhall therefore only fuggeft 
fome general Reflexions, which perhaps 
equally diftrefs this Syjlem , however improv’d 
or amended. 

(j, II. I will not urge, that the beft Eyes 
or Senfes, however afliffed, have not hither- 
to been able to difcover any Cavity in the 
Subftance of the Nerves, or in the fmall 


Exigence of Animal Spirits , 79 

Filaments into which they are divided. 
That, on the contrary, as far as Leewen - 
hoeck (the belt Obferver doubtlefs) or others 
who have examin’d the Matter with great 
Accuracy, could perceive : they appear lolid, 
tranfparent, and with broken Reflexions, even 
when dry, like crack’d Glafs-Wire , Horn , or 
any other folid Subftance, without any ap- 
parent Cavity. Nor that by comprefling 
them by Ligatures , flopping the Influx, or 
by ftroaking and milching their Lengths, 
are any Appearances to be obferv’d like 
thole in other Veflels, which we know do 
carry Fluids in them, more than muft necef- 
farily happen from comprefling the fmall 
Arteries that go along by them. It is true, 
that by flopping and tying the Trunks of 
the greater Nerves, the Mufcle it felf will 
turn Paralytic'k and Motionlefs, but it will 
equally do fo upon intercepting the Motion 
or Influx of the Blood, which concludes 
nothing but this, that thefe Nerves are 
necelfary towards the Adion of the Mufcles, 
whether from their carrying a Fluid, or 
from their own Tonick Nature, their internal 
Configuration, or any other Manner they 
may ad, is not thereby determin’d. And 
if Probabilities could any way influence a 
Fad, they muft lie on the other Side of the 
Qiieftion, fince that thin and foft Liquor, 
which feems only fit to keep them moift and 
lax, rather derogates from the Exiftence of 
3 any 

So Jhe Englifli Malady. 

any fpirituous Fluid in them proper for the 
intended End. Nor, thirdly , will I urge 
againft it Dr. GUJJbn* s Experiment of putting 
the Arm of a ftrong, brawny Porter into a 
large Tube full of Water, and fixing it clofe 
to hk Shoulder, that the Water might not 
get out, but afcend into a frnall conical "Tube, 
palling out of the Side of the larger one: 
whereby he found, that upon the ftrongcft 
Action of the Mufcles, the Water fubfided 
and fell in the fmall Tube, and rofe 
again upon their ceafing to ad ; from 
whence he concludes, that Mufcular Mo- 
tion is not performed by the Inflation or 
Swelling of the Mufcles, but that, on the 
contrary, when they are mov'd, they are 
contraded into a lelfer Figure, and more corn- 
pad Subfiance, or are hardened: which would 
fcarcely happen, if any Matter, how' fubtil fo 
ever, flow’d in the Nerves, and thereby was 
added to the Subftance of the Mufcles : For 
fince the Impenetrability of Matter is demon- 
Hrable, the leaf: fuch an Addition could 
effed, was, that tho’ the Fluidj by its Sub- 
tilty, would not fenfibly increafe the Bulk, 
yet Purely it could not leffen it. I fay, I fhall 
not urge thefe obvious Gbjedions againft this 
Dodrine ; becaufe, tho’ I think they cannot 
be folidly anfwer’d, yet they may be evaded ; 
but fhall proceed to offer a few Confidera- 
tions, which I think equally diftrefs it, in 

' all 

Exijlence of dnimal Spirits. 8 1 

all the Improvements that have been made 
on it, 

§. III. Some have imagin’d the Nature 
of this Fluid of animal Spirits , to have fome 
Refemblance with that of Light, (the moft 
fubtil, adive and penetrating Fluid appa- 
rent in this our Syftem) which would make 
them quickly penetrate, fly through, tear, 
break, and confume their rare and tender 
Prifons, which would be of no more Ufe 
to them, to determin them to regular 
and uniform Motions, than Glafs Tubes are 
to Light. And were they like urinous or 
inflammable Spirits ; yet neither would fuch 
Lender Prifons contain them any Time, or 
convey them uniformly for regular Purpofes. 
And laftly , if they were like Water or 
aqueous Fluids, they could neither have 
Adivity nor Subtilty fufflcient to folve the 
Appearances, nor could they move with 
Velocity enough to anfwer the Purpofes of 
Volition, Senfation, and voluntary or invo- 
luntary Motions, under that more grofs and 
fluggifh Form, and would even then ouze 
thro’ their containing Tubes* 

§. IV. In a Word, give them what Na- 
ture you will, they will never anfwer the 
animal Functions and Appearances. For 
fuppofe them to have any Refemblance to 
the other Fluids in our Syjlem ; if extremely 

G yola- 

The Englifli Malady. 

volatile and active, they would fly away 
and tear in a very fhort Time their contain- 
ing Tubes and Canals the Nerves, and could 
not receive regular Determinations from 
them } and yet fuch they muft be, to anfwer 
the Ends of Volition and Senfation : And 
if they were grofler, denfer and lels refin'd, 
they would not anfwer quick and fudden 
Motion, and its Ceflation. And they can 
never be fuppos’d to be extremely adtive 
and volatile, and grofs, and thick at the 
fame Time. We find in Dropjies , that a 
grofler Fluid, than they can be fuppos’d to 
be, will ouze in great Quantities thro’ Vef- 
fels of as clofe a Texture as theirs ; not to 
mention the fudden Effedts of all Kinds of 
Spirits (taken inwardly) upon the Nerves , 
which from this Appearance muft even be 
fuppos’d to penetrate the Subftance of thefe 
Nerves , and yet the nervous Fluid muft 
be, at leaft, as fubtil and penetrating as 

§.V. Qui ck and inftantaneous, ftrong, 
and violent Motions (increas’d by adding 
great Weights, as we know by Experience) 
feem abfolutely to have determin’d the Na- 
ture of animal Spirits, to that of the moil 
adtive and volatile Kind of Fluids imaginable, 
becaufe none elfe is capable of fo quick and 
ftrong Adtions, in order to determin the 
inftantaneous Obedience of the Mufcles to the 
3 Orders 

Exigence of Animal Spirits. 8 j 

Orders of the Will : And fuch ftrong, violent, 
and quick Motions mull neceffarily make a 
great Wafte and Expence of thefe animal 
Spirits, fo as to require a conflant Supply of 
fuch fine and fubtil Parts from the Food: 
And yet we find that aqueous, vegetable, and 
earthy Subfiances only, make up mofl of 
the Nourifhment of thofe who have the beft 
and ftrongelt Spirits, and live in a confrant 
Courfe of fuch Action 3 and the animal Heat, 
employ’d to generate them, rifes no higher 
than that of Vegetation or Incubation only, 
which is not fufficient for any other Kinds of 
Spirits, inflammatory or urinous. But how 
any Fluid at all, of what Kind foever, can be 
fuppcs’d or imagin’d to go backwards and for- 
wards in the fame indivifible Inflant almofl, 
(to convey Pain, for Example, to the fentient 
Principle, and mufcular Aftion at the fame 
Inflant, to fhut the Eyes upon Appearances 
of Danger, or to actuate all the Mufcles 
neceffary for running away under a Panicky 
and a thoufand other Inflances that may be 
given) feerns very hard to explain from the 
Nature of Fluids known here below. 

. §. VI. The Exigence of animal Spirits, 
has been chiefly contriv’d to folve the Appear- 
ances of nervous Dijiempers , viz. Obflrufticns 
of the Nerves, or their Incapacity to aft 
under fome Circumftances. Now if thefe 
Appearances can be accounted for, more 
G 2 con* 

84 The EngliOi Maladi. 

conformably to the Analogy of Nature without 
this Suppofition than by it, then the Difpute 
will be at an End, and they ufelefs. Of this 
lad: the Reader will be a better Judge, when 
he has confider’d the whole of this Treatife, 
As to the Obftrudtions of the Nerves , fince 
they are plainly cylindrical , (or nearly fuch) 
it does not feem agreeable to Mcchanifm , that 
any Fluid fhould readily be obdrrufted in 
them. For whatever Fluid, of whatever 
Nature, can enter the one Extremity in the 
Brain, will move on by the fame Impulfe to 
the other. For Example , a Ball of the fame 
or lefs Diameter than the Cavity of a cylin- 
drical Tube will move (by the Force firft im- 
prefs’d) from one End to the other, without 
Stop or Hindrance from the Tube; unlefs it 
be from external Accidents or Bruifes altering 
the Figure of the Tube; and the fame may 
be concluded of any Fluid : which makes Ob- 
jlruffiions pretty unaccountable in cylindrical 
Tubes : Befides, it is no fmall Prejudice 
againft any Fluids moving in the nervous 
Fibres, even that their Figure is cylindrical ; 
for we fee in all Tubes that contain Fluids, 
(as the Veins , Arteries , and Lymphedudls) 
to accelerate the Motion of the Fluid, 
their internal Figure is conical , or tapering, 
or nearly fo, which readily accounts for the 
Obstructions in thefe lad: mention’d VelTels ; 
and it is not improbable, that Nature, which 
is always dmilar or confident with k felf, had 


Exigence of Animal Spirits , 8 5 

the Nerves been defign’d to carry a Fluid, 
would have hollow’d them in this Form. 
And, on the contrary, the frequent Obftruc- 
tions that happen in thofe Veffels, which are 
of this mention’d conical Figure, and the 
Hardnefs of fuch Obftrutftions, may be fuffi- 
cient to account for the Obftruftions of the 
Nerves themfelves. From all which we may, 
I think, pretty firmly conclude, that the No- 
tion of animal Spirits is of the fame Leaven 
with the fuhjlantial Forms of Arijlotle , and 
the ccelejlial Syjlem of Ptolemy. 

§. VII. Perhaps there may be in Nature 
material Syftems of Fluids of feveral Degrees 
of Rarity and Subtilty, even indefinitely many 
and different. What makes it not impofiible, 
that there may be more fuch Syjlems of fubtil, 
elafirick Fluids, than that mention’d JEther 
defcrib’d by Sir Ifaac Newton , is, that the 
Plajlicity , Attraction , and other Qualities of 
this Newtonian JEther , muft necelfarily be 
caus’d by fome other more cetherial and fubtil 
Fluid, elfe we muft admit Elafticity , Attrac- 
tion, and Activity in the Particles conft itute- 
ing this Newtonian JEther without a Caufe 5 
or we muft: fuppofe thefe Qualities innate to 
them, and to have been imprefs’d on them 
immediately by the firfl and fupreme Caufe. 
And thus we are necelfarily thrown into one 
or other of the two Horns of this Dilemma, 
either to admit of Fluids defcending in infi~ 
G 3 nitum 3 

%6 The Englifli Malady. 

nitum , in Tenuity and Subtiky, to produce 
Elaflicity and .Attraction , or allow Particles 
of Matter imprefs’d with thefe Qualities in 
their Creation immediately by the Jupreme 
Being. It is true, this Newtonian AN her 
advances us one Step further into the Nature 
of Things; but here we muft neceffarily 
flop, the Works of God appearing literally 
Infcrutable to Perfection. A few of the firft 
Steps we may go in this infinit Progrcfiion , 
but in all the Works of God there is a ne plus 
ultra ; perhaps it may be in the inanimate 
material Syfiem of Things, as it is moll cer- 
tainly in the Animal Kingdom, that Nature and 
its Author, to diftinguilh. itfelf from finite 
Mechanifim , always operates by Syjlems and 
Organs in Number even infinite, if not infinite 
in the higheft Senfe, yet certainly indefinite or' 
infinite in a relative Senfe, and in Regard to a 
finite Caparity ; and thus he leaves I -mages and 
Signatures of himfelf on all his Works, as is 
manifeft in Quantity, Time , and Motion , and 
their Signs or Characters, infinite Divifibility, 
infinite Progrefiions , Eternity , Series’s, and 
Fluxions , &c. Mercury is groffer or denfer 
than Water, Water than Air, Air than Light, 
Light than AEther, and how far further Na- 
ture may go in defeending in Tenuity, Sub- 
tiky, and Refining of other Syfiems of Fluids, 
none alive can certainly tell. This as a Con- 
jecture the Analogy of Things, the infinite 
Divisibility or Encreafe of Matter, from finite. 

Ex fence of Animal Spirits. 87 

till it becomes infinitely great or fmall, at 
leaft, as to our Conceptions ; Nature’s never 
palling from Pojitive to Negative Quantities, 
till it goes thro’ the Medium of Nothing , or 
infinitely fmall of the fame Denomination; its 
never palling from Motion to Reft, but thro’ 
infinitely fmall Motion: In a Word, its never 
aching in Generals, by Starts , Jumps, or un- 
equal Steps ; I fay all thefe Hints feem to 
point out fomething like this. From all 
which, and a great deal more might be urg’d, 
it may not be improbable, that as in Quantity 
there is one or more Means between the leapt 
and th Qgreateji: fo in Subjlances of all Kinds, 
there may be Intermediates between pure , im- 
material Spirit and grofs Matter , and that 
this intermediate, material Subftance, may 
make the Cement between the human Soul 
and Body, and may be the Inftrument or Me- 
dium of all its Addons and Fundions, where 
material Organs are not manifeft: And may 
pofiibly be the Caufe of the other fecret and 
infcrutable Myjieries of Nature, and the fame 
(for ought I know) with Sir Ifaac Newtons 
infinitely fine and elajiick Fluid or Spirit , 
mention’d in a former Chapter; for lince he 
has not, I believe none ell'e will take upon 
him to determin its fpecifick Nature, or, in- 
deed, whether it adually be or not; The 
innumerable Appearances feem to imply fome 
fuch Thing. 

88 The Englifli Malady. 

§. VIII. T o conclude this dark Subject of 
animal Spirits , if they mu ft be fuppos’d, we 
may affirm they cannot be of the Nature of 
any Fluid we have a Notion of, from what 
we fee or know. Indeed, the large Size, the 
wonderful Texture, and the great Care and 
Security Nature has employ’d about the Brain , 
makes it probable it has teen defign’d for the 
noble ft Ufes, viz. to be the Temple or Sen- 
forium of the fentient and intelligent Prin- 
ciple. And its Refemblances, in many 
Circumftances, to the other Glands , which 
certainly feparate Liquors, makes it not im- 
poffible that it may have Ufes analogous to 
thole. But how to affign them, explain, or 
accord them with what has been fuggefted 
above, I know not. May not the J’entient 
Principle have its Seat in fome Place in the 
Brain, where the Nerves terminate, like the 
Mufician Ihut up in his Organ- Room ? May 
not the infinite Windings, Convolutions, and 
Complications of the Beginning of the Nerves 
which conftitute the Brain, ferve to determin 
their particular Pone, Penfion , and confe- 
quently the Inteftin Vibrations of their Parts ? 
May they not have interwoven Blood Veftels 
and Glands to feparate a milky Liquor, to 
foften, moiften, and continue their Elajlicity , 
and innate Mechanick Powers through the 
whole nervous Syftems ? And alfo to keep them 
in a proper Condition to play off the Vibra- 

tions 3 

Exi fence of Jnlmd Spirits. 89 

tions, Tremors , and Undulations made on them 
by Bodies, or their Effluvia ? May not thefe 
Vibrations be propagated through their Lengths 
by a fubtile, fpirituous, and infinitely elaftick 
Fluid, which is the Medium of the Intelligent 
Principle ? As Sound is convey’d thro’ Air to 
the Tympanum , and by it to this Medium or 
AEther, and from the Medium to the Intelli- 
gent Principle , and as Sight is perform’d 
through or by Light. And is not the Ana- 
logy of Nature and Things thus, in fome 
meafure, preferv’d ? I own it is much eafier 
to confute than eftablifh, and I fhould not be 
very * Sanguin about the Non-exiftence of ani- 
mal Spirits, but that I have obferv’d the 
dwelling fo much upon them, has led Phyficians 
too much to negledt the mending the Juices, 
the opening Obftrudlions, and the /Lengthen- 
ing the Solids, wherein only the proper andfolid 
Cure of nervous Diftempers confifts 5 and 
apply to Volatiles , Feet ids, and Stimulants : 
which, at beft, are but a Reprieve, and is not 
unlike blowing up the Fire, but at the fame 
Time forcing it to fpend fafter, and go out 
fooner ; for Volatiles , Aromatich , and Cor- 
dials, are much of one and the fame Nature, 
and all but Whips, Spurs, and pointed In- 
ftruments to drive on the rejiy and unw 

C H AP. 

po The Englifli Maladt. 

i u, 4 t'/l ■ y't '•"'-i }% '/'<■ ■ i-Yi e'i ?■"< V't <”A \»'/. '-■‘i/ w/ w 


0/ ffe Generation , Animation , 7V^- 
trition , Growth of the Solids 
and Fluids of Animals , yome 
other Functions of the Animal Oeco- 

§. I. TT Think it next to a DemonJlration y 
i that there is a felf-a5live and J'elf- 
motive Principle in all Animals what- 
foever, both in the perfect and imperfeSl. 
Mere Mechanifm (that is, Foreign imprefs’d 
Motions, according to certain Laws, and in 
Proportion to the Surfaces of Bodies only) 

- may poffibly account for the Appearances of 
Vegetation ; but it can never account for Ani- 
. mation , or the animal Life even of the lowed; 
JnJ'eA y and this, I think, is the univerfal Opi- 
nion of all the ableft and wifeft Geometers, 
who are mod knowing in the Laws of Me- 
chanifm. Plow far a perpetual Motion is 
poflible, in the prefent State of Things, and 
under the prefent edablhhed Laws of Nature, 

I will 

Generation , See. of Solids Sc Fluids. 9 1 

1 will not take upon me abfolutely to deter- 
min. I fhould think the FriBion of Bodies, 
the perpetual Lofs of communicated Motion 
on our Globe, and the Impoffibility of any 
Curves being deferib’d by one and the fame 
Impulfe, fhould make it as impoflible, as the 
fquareing the Circle, or exp re fin 2 ; Surds by 
Integers or finite Fractions, under the prefent 
State of our Arithmetic. But that every Ani- 
mal is a perpetuum Mobile, from a Self -Motive 
Principle within, and from its own innate 
Powers, I think, is paft all manner of Doubt'; 
and to explain Mechanically, from Matter and 
Motion alone, and all the Powers of our 
Numbers and Geometry join’d to them, the 
Functions of any living Animal, is mere 
Jargon and Ignorance , as I conceive. 

§. II. M ay not Life and Animation have 
fome Refemblance to Light, in its Activity, 
and atting from a central Point of Self-Mo- 
tion and Self- Activity Radiat in a limited 
Sphere, and where it finds proper Organs , 
concurs and analogifes in thefe Organs, with 
the eftablifhed Laws of Bodie’s? For it is as 
utterly impoflible to account for Animation 
from mere Mechanifm, as to account for 
‘Thinking or Willing from that Principle. 
Might not the Self-Motive and Self-Active, 
the Intelligent and Free-will ing Principle 
(that is, the feveral Degrees and Exten- 
flons of this animating and adluating Spirit ) 


pi The Englifh Malady. 

have been at the fame Time and Inftant 
created with the or gam cal, infinite fimal 
Body, in the firft Originals of each different 
Species of Animals, and have been forming 
and extending the organiz’d Body under cer- 
tain Laws and ReftriCtions, till it was fit to 
bear Light and Day , and had its Organs 
compleatly finifhed, to play off the Mufick 
and Harmony it was originally defign’d for? 
Is not every Animal a Machin of an infinite 
Number of organical Parts, fitted with a pro- 
per Mufician or Self-Motive and Selfi-Adlive 
Principle, of an Order, Rank, and Extenfion 
proper for the intended Ends and Purpofes of 
the Compound ? 

§. III. By an Organ , I underftand a Part 
of a Machin, compleat in itfelf, neceffary to- 
wards the Perfection and intended Ufe of the 
Whole: Thus a Wheel, with its Axis and 
Pivots , is an Organ in a Watch or Clock: 
On this Definition, are not the Organs of 
every Animal in Number actually infinite , 
which nothing lefs than a Geometer of infinite 
Capacity and Power, could adiuffc and fit to 
each other, and to their intended Purpofes 
and Ufes ? If we confider the Number of 
Veins , Arteries , Lymphaticks , Nerves, Fibres , 
T radons, Ligaments , Membrans , Cartilages , 
Bones, Mufcles, and Glands difcovered in 
every Animal, and this infinite Number ff ill 
encreafcd and made further confpicuous by 
3 In- 

Generation , See. of Solids Sc Fluids. 9 5 

Injections and Microfcopes : Add to thefe, the 
Senfibility of each the fmalleft Point and 
Particle of Animal, where the Circulation 
reaches, we fhall be eafily perfuaded that they 
furpafs all finite Skill and Mechanifm , to form 
and frame ; and that they are without Number, 
and without End. That the whole Fabrick 
is but an Afjemblage of an infinit Number of 
fuch Organs. Every minute Point, and Atom 
of which, is fitted and contriv’d for a particular 
End and Purpofe, and for the Benefit of the 
Whole *. The Structure, Contrivance , the 
Ufe, Beauty , and Perfection of the human 
Hand alone, made Galen a firm Believer in a 
firfl Caufe infinitely Wife, Good and Powerful. 

§. IV. But that the whole Syjiem of thefe 
Conjectures may be brought into one View, I 
fhall draw them out into a few Proportions , 
without offering at any thing, that may be fug- 
gelled to make them more probable, and 
leave the Reader to correct, or rejedt them at 
his Pleafure, being in no manner neceffary to 
the main of my Defign, and calculated only 
to amufe and divert. 

Prop. 1. Matter is capable of infinite 
Hivifion and Addition. 

2. There may b tSyJlems of Bodies of all 
Sizes, from indefinitely ///z#//, to indefinitely 

* Vide Galen de Uiu partii.m. 


94 Th* Englifli Malady. 

great. The Stars may be confider’d as a 
Syjiem of Bodies indefinitely great , and Light 
a Syftem of Bodies indefinitely frnall , and 
how many other fuch Syjiems there may be, 
none can tell. 

3. There may be Animalcula or Orga- 
niied living Bodies of all Sizes, from thole of 
a Pepper Corn and lower, up to a Whale and 
higher, and thefe may be for many Ages 
growing and encreafing to their appointed 
Magnitudes , under certain Laws and Re- 

4. LIFE and Animation feems impoffi- 
ble, and a Contradiction to mere Mechani/m , 
that is, to Matter, aCted by determin’d Laws 
of Motion, and in Proportion to the Surfaces 
of Bodies only. 

4. LIFE and Animation admit of all the 
Degrees of Quantity. 

6. MECHANISM takes Place and 
operates by it felf only, on dead Matter j 
but is adtuated and govern’d in its Operations, 
by animated living Bodies or Jpiritual Sub- 

7. The Self-motive , Selj-active , and 
living Principle concurs with, and homolo- 
gijes to Mechanifm in the animal Functions 


Generation , See. of Solids Sc Fluids, p j 

and Operations. The fecond is fubordinate 
to the firft in all its Effefts, which take Place 
according to its own Laws. 

8. Organised Bodies fit for Animation , 
and living Functions, confifting of Organs in 
Number infinite , can only be the Work of 
infinite Wifdom and Power. 

9. The Self-motive , Self-active Principle 
cannot a£t harmonioujly , or according to its 
intended Ufes and Purpofes, on an unfit, un- 
finifhed, unorganifed Body, any more than a 
skilful Mufician can produce fine Mufick or 
Harmony on an unfini£hed, imperfect Inftru- 

10. Might not the organifed Bodies of 
all the Species of Animals have been included 
in the firft original Pairs, decreafing conti- 
nually in a geometrical Progreffion, or as 
fecond , third, and fubfequent Fluxions are con- 
tain’d in their firft Fluxions, and all in their 
Fluent ? 

11. Might it not be, that the organis'd 
Bodies of all Animals might be included in 
the Male of each original Pair? and that the 
Female might only fupply a more convenient 
Flabitation for them during a determin’d 
Time, while, by their quicker Encreafe they 
were fitted to bear Air , Sun y and Day ? 

12 . T H E 

y6 The Englifli Malady. 

12. The original Stamina , the whole 
Syjiem of the Solids, the Firmnefs, Force, 
and Strength of the Mufcles, of the Vifcera, 
and great Organs, are they not owing to the 
Male ? And does the Female contribute any 
more but a convenient Habitation, proper 
Nourishment, and an Incubation to the lemi- 
nal Animalcul for a Time, to enable the 
or gam fed living Creatures to bear the Air, 
Sun y and Day the fooner ? 

13. If the Brain , Heart , Lungs , Liver , or 
Kidneys of the Male be fpoil’d and corrupted, 
the fame Juices in him that fpoil’d thefe 
Vifcera , may they not fpoil and corrupt the 
fame Organs in the Animalcul while lodged in 
him, and in Some kind fed and encreas’d by 
his Juices? 

14. Since then the Female's Juices are 
what, for a certain Time, alfo feed the 
Animalcul, as they are Good or Bad, Proper 
or Improper, may they not alter, fpoil, or 
mend the Juices of the Foetus ? 

15. T h e Solids therefore feem neither emi- 
nently (or in fuch a Degree as the Juices) capable 
of being repair’d, renew’d, nor mended when 
broken, wounded, or taken away, no more than 
a Tinker can mend a Hole in a Brafs Pot or 
Pan, viz. not by new forming or joining 


Generation. See. of Solids Sc Fluids. 97 

and uniting the Metal , but by a Soder or 
Patch and fo Nature feems only to have 
provided proper Juices to fill up the DiJ- 
continuity , and fupply the Breaches: As in 
Animals, we fee by the Cicatrices of Wounds 
and Sores of all Kinds, m, their continuing for 
almofi: ever after, a Botch. For this Cement 
never makes them the fame continued Organ, 
fcarce any thing but a botch’d or clouted 

16. The Solids feem fcarce fubjed to any 
eminent Alterations in their innate Tenfion, 
Force, and Elafticity naturally, till they are 
almofi: quite fpoil’d and putrified, but merely 
as they are made thicker or grofler, harder or 
fofter, by this adhering Glew or Soder, or 
from thefe Juices within, and their aggluti- 
nating Patch-work. 

17. NUFRlFlO N feems only to be the 
fupplying the feveral folid Parts with a fuitable 
Glew or Soder, to augment and encreafe the 
Bulk, and but little to alter the innate Force 
and Elajiicity of the original and primitive 

38. The Solids feem to be capable of 
being contracted, as it were, into an indivisible 
Point, viz. in feminal Animalcules .* By Plica - 
tures. Foldings , Twijlings, and Swaiths or 
Membranes, and yet to preferve a proportional 

H Degree 

p 8 The Englifh Malady. 

Degree of Elafticity and Spring : As we fee in 
the Nymphce of Silk-worms, and the other 
Infedts of the papilious Kind. Or they may 
be fhut up, one Part within another, as a 
Fifhing-rod : And the different .Shapes of 
thefe feminal Animalculs, from their Figure 
when full grown, feem to imply this. And 
thefe Swaiths and Alembranes bur ft and break 
naturally, by Accretion and Encreafe of Bulk, 
as we fee in feminal Plants, and in the For- 
mation of Animals. 

19. The Solids therefore feem to be the 
great, the proper, the only Inftrument of 
Life and Animation , and the true mnfical 
Organ of the living Mufician. And the Fluids 
to be only intended to preferve them in due 
Flight , Glibnefs , Warmth , and tonical Virtue , 
and to foder and repair their Wounds, Waftes 
and Decays. But it is on thefe Fluids that 
Medicines and Medical Operations have place 

20. This general Sketch, tho’ imperfedt, 
and, perhaps, not real, yet is the moft con- 
fiftent I could frame on a Confideration and 
View of the whole of Animal Nature , in all 
its Kinds and Species; by it the Analogy be- 
tween Vegetables and Animals is preferv’d, and 
many Appearances in Generation , Nutrition , 
and Animation may be folv’d, which otherwife 
appear unaccountable : The philofophical Gar- 

Signs of relaxed Nerves. 99 

deners , the philofophical Breeders of Cattle 
and other Animals, and thofe belt acquainted 
with Natural Hi/lory , will be the fitted; Judges 
of its Truth and Juftnefs. I thought it might 
amufe the ingenious Valetudinarian 5 and there- 
fore let it pals as it is, without the Arguments 
and Inftances that make it probable, tho’ I 
could produce innumerable. 


Of the Signs and Symptoms of a too 
relaxed , loofe and tender State of 

1 H O S E who have weak, loofe, 
and feeble or relax’d Nerves, 
have generally a final], weak, 
languid, and fometimes an intermittent Pulfe. 
Exercife, ftrong Liquors, high Food, or 
that which is hard to digeft, or too great a 
Quantity of thefe laft, taken down, quicken 
and accelerate the Pulfe, and difcover a 
Labour and Struggle in the Circulation. The 
Strokes of fuch a Pulfe are feldom clean and 

H 2 free, 

ico The Englifh Malady. 

free, and fometimes quite ftopt and in- 
terrupted for fome fmall time; efpecially 
in great Lownefs, Fainting or Fits ; and, 
at beft, are like a Force not apply’d at once, 
but by Framing, and ftruggling, and flow 

II. * Those that have by Nature 
foft, thin, and ftiort Hair, which, with 
great Difficulty, receives or retains a Buckle, 
and thofe who readily run into Baldnefs or 
fhedding of the Hair towards the Spring, 
are certainly of a loofe, flabby, and relaxed 
State of Nerves : For the Hair feems to be 
only fome of the fleffiy Fibres lengthened 
outwards and hardened, at leafl: they feem 
to be of the fame Kind and Nature, with 
the other Fibres, coiiflft of a great many lefler 
Filaments, contain’d in a common Membran, 
and are folid, tranfparent, and elaftick : And 
as the Flairs are in Strength, Bulk, and 
Elafticity, fo generally the Fibres of the 
Body are ; and thofe vvhofe Hair fheds, 
turns thin, lank, or refufes Buckle, if it 
does not happen to them after recovering 
from an acute Diflemper, ought to take care 
they fall not into nervous Diforders, which 
anointing their Hair with fvveet Oils, or 

* Vide Eflay on Health and long Lite, Chap. vii. §. 4. 


Signs of relaxed Nerves. 1 o i 

walhing their Heads with Honey-Water 
will fcarce prevent. 

§. III. Other things being equal, thole 
of the faireft, cleareft, and brighteft colour’d 
Hair, are of the looleft and weakeft State 
of Fibres and Nerves, not only becaufe the 
faireft and lighteft is the moft rare, tranfpa- 
rent, and fungous, but becaufe Bodies of 
the lighteft Parts, confift of Parts of a weaker 
Union, which adhere with lefs Force, and 
confequently are lefs elaftick, firm, and 
fpringy than thofe of the darker and more 
opake Colours. We generally obferve, that 
People of very fine and white Hair, efpe- 
cially if lo after they are come to Maturity, are 
of weak, tender, and delicate Conftitutions : 
And thofe who deal in making artificial 
Covers for the Heads of Men or Women, 
find that fuch Hair will never, with any 
Credit to them, ferve thefe Purpofes, and 
feldom honeftly employ it for that End. 

§. IV. Those of large, full, and (as 
they are call’d) maftiff Mufcles, and of big 
and ftrong Bones, are generally of a firmer 
State of Fibres, than thofe of little Mufcles 
and fmall Bones, becaufe the Mufcles and 
Bones being fimilar to the Fibres, and made 
of them, thefe being bigger and ftronger, 
lo muft thofe be ; and, on the contrary, 

loz The Englifh Malady. 

§. V. Soft and yielding, loofe and 
flabby Fleih and Mufcles, are fure Symp- 
toms of weak and relaxed Nerves or Fibres, 
as hard, firm, prominent and brawny Muf- 
cles and Flefti are conftant Signs of firm 

$. VI. A white, fair, blanch'd, wax 
or afhen-colour’d Complexion, conftantly 
indicates a weaker State of Fibres, than a 
ruddy, brown, or dark Hue. 

VII. A fat, corpulent, and phlegma- 
tick Conftitution is always attended with 
loofe, flabby, and relax’d Fibres, by their 
being diflfolv’d and over-foak’d in Moifture 
and Oil, efpecially if it belong to young 
Perfons, or happen long before the Meridian 
of Life; for in the Decline, when the Fibres 
have acquir’d their utmoft Degree of Ten- 
fion, Hardnefs, and Firmnefs, it then ferves 
to preferve them in that State, from the 
Drynefs that old Age always introduces. 
But thofe of a dry, firm, clean, and brawny 
Make have generally the ftrongefl: and moft 
tenfe Fibres. 

§. VIII. Those who are fubjeft to Eva- 
cuations of any Kind, in any Degree greater 
than what is natural and common to found 
Conftitutions ; or thofe, who by any Acci- 
3 dent, 

Signs of relaxed Nerves. 105 

dent, a Fever, or any acute Diftemper what- 
foever, have fiuffer’d long under any preter- 
natural Evacuation, are already, or foon 
will, become fubjed to a loofe, relax’d, or 
weak State of Fibres and Nerves : Thofe 
who frequently run into Purging and Coftive- 
nefs alternately, or into Floods of pale 
Water, or into profufe Sweatings, upon little 
or no Exercife, into a conftant Spitting or 
Salivation at the Mouth, or too plentiful 
Difcharges from the Nofe and Eyes : Thofe 
who have loft much Blood, or frequently 
fall into Haemorrhages : Thofe who have 
labour’d long under an obftinate Diarrhoea , 
or Loofenefs : Or thofe of the Sex who have 
purified long in greater Quantities, or oftener 
than is ufual or natural : All thefe originally 
are, or commonly become of weak and relax’d 
Nerves, and fuffer under them. 

<£. IX. Those who are naturally of a 
cold Conftitution, are apt to fall into Chil- 
ling and Coldnefs on their Extremities, or 
feel frequently like the trickling of cold 
Water over fome Parts of the Body, are 
ready to catch Cold, upon the flighteft Oc- 
cafions, are apt to run into Rigours and 
Shiverings upon a fharp North-Eaft Wind ; 
are too fenfibly and violently affeded, and 
feel too much Pain and Uneafinefs from cold 
or frofty Weather ; who want too much 
Covering, Cloaths, or Heat; or, on the 
H 4 con- 

i©4 The Englifli Malady. 

contrary, are too much funk and dif-fjpirited> 
fpent and wafted with exceftive hot Wea- 
ther, are all of loofe and weak Fibres. For 
all thefe are Signs of a too flow Circulation and 
Ferfpiration which manifeft a weak Spring 
in the Fibres of the Coats of the Veflels, and 
of the other Solids, and ftiew too great a 
Degree of Senfibility or Eafinels of being 
acted upon by external Objects, which 
argues a Weaknefs' or Slendernels in them, 
either natural or acquir’d. 

X. Those who are fubjed: to acute 
or chronical Diftempers of the cold and vifcid 
Kind, tho’ they have not commonly their 
Denomination from nervous Diftempers, luch 
as an Atrophy , Dropjy , Diabetes , Diarrhoea , 
white and leucophlegmatick Swellings upon 
the Joints or other Parts of the Body ; glan- 
dulous and Jchlrrous Tumours, the Scrophula , 
vifcid Quinfeys or Swellings in the Glands 
of the Eyes, fuch (befides all thofe who are 
fubject to Difeafes denominated Nervous in 
their Kind) are all of weak Nerves and 

$. XI. Those who Stutter, Stammer, 
have a great Difficulty of Utterance, fpeak 
very Low, lofe their Voice without catch- 
ing Cold, grow Dumb, Deaf, or Blind, with- 
out an Accident or an Acute Diftemper ; are 
quick, prompt, and paflionate; are all of 

3 weak 

Signs of relaxed Nerves. i © j 

weak Nerves • have a great Degree of Senfir 
bility ; are quick Thinkers, feel Pleafure or 
Pain the moft readily, and are of mqft lively 

XII. These are, at leaft,the moft mate- 
rial of the Signs and Symptoms of a relax’d 
State of Solids or Fibres ; fo that whoever 
labours under them for any Time, or in any 
eminent Degree, may certainly conclude, 
whatever other Diforders he may labour 
under, that thefe are certainly attended with 
a State of loofe and relax’d Fibres, and 
confequently, that in prefcribing Medicines 
for fuch, whatever their Difeafe otherwife 
may be, or may be call’d, great Care is 
always to be had, both in doling the proper 
Medicines for fuch particular Diforders, and 
joining with them fuch Medicines as may 
keep up the due Tenfion of the Solids, as 
much as poffible, while they are under the 
Cure, and alfo ordering fuch Remedies as 
may corroborate and ftrengthen them, when 
the Cure is effeded. For in all fuch Cafes, 
where the Solids are greatly relax’d, the 
Conftitution of the Patient differs as much 
from the fame Cafe in ftrong and robuft Per- 
fons, as the Conftitution of a Child, from 
that of a grown Perfon, 

§. XIII. But the fundamental Propofition, 
on which the Manner of treating fuch Diftem- 


io6 The Englifli Malady: 

pers is, and ought in Reafon to be grounded, 
and which Experience always juftifies, is, 
that a Laxity, Weaknefs and Want of due 
Tone and Elafticity in the Solids, produce 
vifcid, fharp, and ill-condition’d Juices. And, 
on the contrary, that ill-condition’d, fharp, 
and vifcid Juices, neceffarily produce weak 
and unelaftick Solids, fo that they mutually 
exafperate each other, and differ only as 
Caufe and Effed, tho’ the Fault of the Fluids 
always precedes that of the Solids. Put the 
Cafe, that the Blood and Juices are vifcid, 
fharp, and ill-condition’d, the Fibres fubfift- 
ing nearly in their proper Tenfion and due 
Degree of tfone and Elafticity, that they 
ought to be in perfedly found and robuft 
Perfons, the neceffary Effed of fuch a State 
of Juices, would be a Pvetardment of their 
Circulation by a greater Preffure upon the 
Sides of the Veffels, and the forming of Ob- 
jftrudicns in the fmall and capillary Tubes, 
which by rendering thefe impervious, forces 
a greater Quantity upon the pervious ones, 
than they are accuftomed or able to drive 
about, and fo by Degrees break and loofen 
the Texture, and relax the Tone of all thefe 
Solids. For when once the Ballance be- 
tween the Force and Strength of an Inftru- 
ment, and the Body to be moved by it, 
comes to be deftroy’d, and the Advantage 
thrown upon the Side of the Body to be 
moved, the Inftrument muft be foon fhatter’d 


Signs of relaxed Nerves. 1 07 

and broken. On the other hand, fuppofing 
the Juices found and good, and of a due 
Conliftence and Balfam, but that the Solids 
are of a laxer, weaker and lefs elaftick Make 
than they fhould be, it mull necelfarily fol- 
low, that the Circulations, Perfpir-ation, the 
Digeftions and Secretions muft be weaker 
and more languiffiingly perform'd than they 
ought to be, by which neither will the Food 
be fufficiently broken and digefted in the 
alimentary Tubes, nor the Size of the Par- 
ticles of the Blood fufficiently fmall - nor 
divided by the Force of the Circulation, nor 
its Recrements thrown off with due Force 
and in fufficient Quantity, that the Juices 
may be duly purified, inlomuch, that they 
muff necelfarily become vifcid and lharp; 
and their Parts necelfarily increafe in Bulk 
and Hardnefs, efpecially under a mal-Regt - 
men. From all which it is evident that a 
weak State of Nerves or Fibres muft necef- 
farily imply a bad State of Juices, and fo on 
the other Hand, and that they mutually at- 
tend or produce one another, unlefs a proper 
Regimen of Dyet come in to their Relief. 


Cttijlttt) HalaDp: 

O R, A 


O F 

Nervous Difeafes of all Kinds, 

A S 

Spleen, Vapours, Lownefs of Spirits, 
Hypochondriacal and Hysterical 
Diftempers, &c. 


Of the Cure of Nervous 'Diftempers. 


Fellow of the College ofPhyficians at Edinburg , and F. R. S. 

'— Nunc retrorfum , 

Vela dare atque Iter are cur [us 

Cogor reliBcs ■ — ■ — Horat. 

L 0 N D O N: 

Printed for G. Sthahan, and J, Leake. 





■ V_ 



Of the general Method of Cure of 
Nervous Diftempers . 

'HERE are fome Perfons, 
who, being far advanced in 
Age, have not fufficient Time 
remaining for a perfect Cure ; 
and others, in whom the Dif- 
eafe is fo deeply rooted, by a bad Conftitu.- 
tion, derived to them from their Parents, 
that they are not capable of a total Cure ; 
and both thefe mufc be contented to fubmit 
to the Orders of Providence , arid make the 


i 1 z The Englifh Malady. 

be ft of their Misfortunes, refting fatisfied 
with a Partial or Palliative Cure, and re- 
lieving the Symptoms as they arife. But 
thofe who are in better Circumftances, will 
have better Succefs, by following with Pa- 
tience and Perfeverance, the Directions here 
to be laid down. 

$.11. From what has been faid in the 
former Part of this Treatife, concerning the 
Sources and Caufes of Chronical Diftempers, 
and the general Caufes of the Diforders of the 
Nerves or Solids , there will arife three Indi- 
cations in the Cure of Nervous Diftempers, 
from the three principal Caufes concurring 
towards their Production. 

i/?, The firft Intention , and that which 
has the greateft Influence on all the reft, and 
will often, in fmaller Degrees of this Diftem- 
per, or when the Solids are not much weaken’d 
or fpoiFd, render the other two unnecefiary : 
(at leaft, in a great meafure) The firft Inten- 
tion^ I fay, will be to thin, dilute, and fweeten 
the whole Mafs of the Fluids, to deftroy their 
Yifcidity and Glewinefs, to open the Obftruc- 
tions thereby generated, make the Circulation 
full and free, the Perfpiranon current, and the 
Secretions How in their due Proportion and 
Tenor. This, if fully obtained, lays the 
Foundation of all the reft of the Cure, and 
will even, during that Time, take off the 


Cure of Nervous < Di(lempers. 1 1 3 

Violence of the Symptoms, and make their 
Intervals greater. 

idly, The fecond Intention will be to 
divide, break and diffolve the faline, acrid 
and hard Concretions , generated in the fmall 
Veffels, and to deftroy all Sharpnefs and 
Acrimony lodged in the Habit, and to make 
the Juices foft, fwcet, and balfamick. This 
will be more readily effected, if the firft In- 
tention has been fufficiently and fuccefsfully 
purfued; and, indeed, will, in a great mea- 
fure, be fulfilled by it ; for as it is the Sizy- 
nefs and Sharpnefs of the Juices, that retards 
the Circulation, obftru&s the fmall Veffels, 
and thereby leaves the ftagnated Juices to 
corrupt and putrify, by giving Time and 
Occafion for the fmaller faline Particles to 
approach nearer one another, exert their in- 
nate Quality of Jt trail ion and Cryjlalllzatlon , 
and unite in greater Clutters and larger Con- 
cretions, , (which, tho’ never fenfible, yet, 
from the Neceflity of Nature and its Laws, 
is never the lefs real) fo when the Blood is 
made fufficiently thin and fluid, thefe faline 
Concretions, will be either diffolv'd or bro- 
ken, by the Thinnefs of the Juices, and the 
Force of the Circulation, and fo fitted to be 
thrown out of the Habit, by the proper 
Difcharges, or will be kept at a due Difiance 
from one another, or more eafily reach'd, 

I and 

ii4 ‘fhe Englifli Malady. 

and then remedied by fuch Medicines as will 
produce this Effed. 

$dly, The third and laft Intention in 
order, is to reftore the Tone and elajtick 
Force, to crifp, wind up, and contract the 
Fibres of the whole Syjtem , which is the laft, 
and indeed the moft imperfect Part of the 
Cure, and the leaft, I am afraid, in the 
Power of Ait. It is much like the Cafe of 
Hair that has loft its Buckle, by Length of 
Time and much Ufe ; tho’ by Art- it may 
be harden’d, ftiffen’d, and reduced in fome 
Degree to a greater Firmnefs and proper 
Figure, yet will not retain it long, nor bear 
the Injuries of the Weather fo readi ly, with- 
out returning to its former Laxity : If this 
could be always and totally effeded, the 
Cure would be a true Rejuvenefcence, and no 
Body needed grow Old or Die. But the 
Laws of Mortality will fuffer this Intention 
to rife only to a certain Height, and no 
further ; for this, if lolidly and fully effeded, 
would be the true Cyclus Metafyncriticus of the 
Antients, fo little underftood. However, there' 
are not wanting Means to effed this Purpofe in 
fome Degree, if duly and judicioully chofen, 
efpecially if the Perfon is under the Meridian 
of Life, while Nature has Warmth and Vi- 
gour to affift Art. After that Date the Dif- 
ficulty is greater, there remaining little more 
than the Affiftances of Art, upon the Signs 

Cure of Nervous Z) ijlempers . 1 1 y 

of Laxity, to crifp, wind up, corrugat, and 
contract the Fibres of the feeble and relax’d 
Solids from Time to Time as they drop. 
There is certainly an innate Firmnefs and Force 
in the Solids, which, tho’ Age hardens and 
ftiffens, yet the Tone and Elajlicity is not 
augmented thereby in Proportion : But this 
Tone is fcarce ever fo much broken and loft, 
but that it is fufficient to circulate well-thin’d 
and fweeten’d Juices, and to perform all the 
animal and intellectual Functions: and if Care 
be taken to keep up the Juices in this middling 
State of Fluidity and Sweetnefs, the Party will 
be free from all great Pain or violent Diforder, 
and will be fubjf ct only to fome tranfient 
Lownefs or Weaknefs, which may be pre- 
fently remedied, or to the unavoidable Infir- 
mities of Age and Mortality. 

III. These are the general Intentions , to 
be purfued towards a total and perfect Cure 
of Nervous Diforders of whatever Sort or 
Kind ; nor are they ever to be confounded 
or blended, at leaft, not in the firft Attempts 
towards fuch a Cure : For as in diluting 
the Juices, unlefs the Solids are left to 
their innate Force only, the Medicines em- 
ployed for that Purpole, being attive ox pon- 
derous, and thofe which are employed to 
reftore the 'Tone of the Solids being aftringent, 
muft in fome meafure again thicken the 
Juices, arid fo if mixed and blended toge- 

I a ther. 

i\6 The Englifh Malady* 

ther, mull unavoidably interfere with, coun- 
ter-ad, and deftroy the Effeds of each other. 
And therefore thefe three Intentions I have 
mention’d muft religioufly follow one another, 
in the order I have propos’d them, in deep Ca- 
chexy’s efpecially, to effed this Purpofe of a 
total Cure : Not that I mean, that they Ihould 
never be interrupted nor combined with each 
other, for fome ftnall Time at lead, and as 
it were, for the Patient to take Breath and 
recover Spirits a little, in order to the fur- 
ther profecuting the feveral Intentions. Nor 
that they may not be gone on with entirely, 
in a mix’d and blended Manner, both in Me- 
thod and Medicines, in Bight Cafes, and the 
low Degrees of Nervous Diforders, with good 
Succefs; but that in obftinate, deep, and 
dangerous Cafes of this Kind, from an univer- 
fally fpoilt Conftitution, every Intention is 
to be purfued, by it felf for a due Time, 
without Confufion or interfering with one 
another, more than the Profecution of the 
then Intention requires, till the Effed is 

IV. What the Time neceffary for 
each Intention muft be, it is impoffible ab- 
folutely to determine ; that muft be pro- 
portion’d to the Violence of the Symptoms , 
and the Obftinacy of the Diftemper. But 
to give fome general Idea or Notion of the 
Time : That which is neceffary for the firft 


Cure of Nervous T>ijlempers t 1 1 7 

Intention , may be conjectur’d from the State 
of the Blood. If the Size on the Top is 
much gone, if the Colour and its eafily 
yielding to any dividing Inftrument, and 
the Proportion of the Serum to the globular 
Part, upon bleeding (a few Ounces only for 
the Trial) be fuch as they are found com- 
monly in found Perfons, and if the Serum 
be clear, or not too tawny, then may it be 
concluded, that the firft Intention has been 
purfued fufficiently. The fecond may alfo 
be guefs’d from the healing up and cicatri- 
zing of any Ulcers, Sores, or the Cure of any 
cutaneous Foulnefies, and the Removal of 
any acute Pains and Paroxyfms , principally 
caus’d by the Sharpnefs, and Acrimony , and 
Saline Quality of the Juices. The laji is ob- 
vious, -after thefe two are afcertain’d by the 
Strength , Vigour , Vivacity , and Freedom of 
Spirits , the natural and eafy Performance of 
all the Animal Funffions y necelfarily follow- 
ing upon the lajl Intention’s jbeing prblecuted 
for a due Time, and in a proper Manner. But 
that every one may more certainly judge of 
the State and Condition of the Blood and 
Juices, and the Necellity of profecuting the 
Intentions I have propos’d, I fhall here give 
lome general Account of the different Changes 
that happen in them under Difeafes of all 
Kinds ; but particularly thole I am here 
principally concern’d about. 

I 3 


1 1 8 The Englifli Malady. 

§. Y. The Blood as it flows in the greater 
or larger Veffels by the ordinary .Courfe of 
the Circulation , feems to be a pretty uniform 
Mafs, much like Cow-Milk ; but when 
drawn out of thefe Veffels, and left without 
Heat or Motion to fettle in the Air, it 
feparates into two Parts, one of a more gluti- 
nous and Solid Texture, call’d the Globular , 
and the other of a more thin and fluid Na- 
ture, called the Serous Party and both thefe 
are found in different Proportions, and of 
different Natures, Confiftence, and Colours, 
according to the Difeafes of the Perfons in 
whom they are found. I lhall only here 
mention three of thefe different States, where- 
in the diftinguifhing Marks are moft evident, 
tho' there are many intermediate Degrees 
between thefe, which it were endlefs to enu- 
merate ; but thefe will include them all, and 
are the moft general, remarkable, and ule- 
ful : i ft. r Y\vejirji is, when the globular Part 
is of a Moderate Coheflon and Firmnefs of 
Parts, in a pretty equal Proportion to its 
Serum , and of a red and fcarlet Colour, 
when expos’d a due Time to the Air; and 
the Serum is about the Confluence of com- 
mon Water, pretty clear, and almoft infipid, 
or, at leaft, not biting laltifh. This I take 
to be pretty near the State of the foundeft 
and beft Blood, idly. The fecond State I 
would mention, is, when the globular and 


Cure of Nervous Difiempers. 1 1 9 

grumous Part is in a far greater Proportion 
chan the Serum , more thick and vifcid, having 
a Glue or Size on its Top (of a blueilh 
at firft, and afterwards of a whitifh or tal- 
low Colour, increafing fometimes to half or 
more the Thicknefs of the Whole) the Serum 
being in a fmaller Quantity, and of a yel- 
lowilh or tawny Call, fharp, acrid, and faltifh 
to the Tafte. This feems to be. of a middling 
Nature, (I fpeak not here of that acci- 
dental Size, generated by the Nitre of the 
Air in catching Cold, which evanifhes in 
a few Days by proper Management) between 
the beft and the worft:, and is common to 
Pleurifies , Rheumatifms , SCc. $dly ? The 
laffc State of the Blood, I fhall fpeak of, is 
where th q fbrous or globular Part is fcarce 
any at all, and the Serum above ten or a 
dozen times the Quantity of it, where the 
globular Part fwims like an Ifland amidft the 
Ocean, the Serum being fharp, faltifh and 
urinous, to the higheft Degree in its Tafte. 
This 1 take to be the worft State, when the 
Sharpnefs and Acrimony have arriv’d at their 
utmoft Height, like that of thofe in a con- 
firm’d Conjumption or Dropjy , and fome 
other mortal Diftempers. But in all thefe 
three States of the Blood, the Sharpnefs , 
fieat , and Acrimony may arife- almoft to an 
equal Degree, even to that of the worft 
State, of which we have rfo Means of judg- 
ing, but by the Tafte, which is but grofs 

I 4 $nd 

jzo The Englifh Malady. 

and inaccurate, and therefore we mufl be 
contented with Probability. Th z fir ft of thefe 
is commonly call'd good Bloody mz fecond rich 
Blood , and the third poor Blood. The Blood 
Globules (confiding probably of Parts of an 
equal Degree of Att raid ion, and equal Den- 
fity) feem to be form’d of the more folid 
Parts of the Food, by the A&ion of the 
digeftive Powers in the alimentary Fubes , 
the Iforce of the Circulation, and the Grind- 
ing of the Blood Veflels, and to receive their 
globular Figure from the equal Preffure, on 
all Sides of the watery Fluid wherein they 
fwim, and the equal Degree of Attra&ion in 
their Parts. When the Quality and Quan- 
tity of fuch Food is duely proportion’d, the 
red Globules and Serum are pretty near of an 
equal Quantity, th zfirfl being perfectly red 
in the Air, and the fecond moftly limpid, 
like that of the firft State. But when the 
folid Food is in too great a Proportion in the 
whole Mafs, either in Quantity or Quality, 
a greater Proportion of Blood Globules will 
neceflarily be generated : And if the Solids 
be ftrong, fo as to comminute them fuffi- 
ciently, and drive them about with a due 
Force, they will produce an inflammatory 
State of Blood, from whence acute Fevers , 
Inflammations, Pleurifies , and the other hot 
and inflammatory Obftrudions and Difeafes 
will ariie. But * if the fame Proportion of 
Food, both in Quantity and Quality, is 


Cure of Nervous T)ifiempers • \ i \ 

thrown in, where the Solids are lax and 
feeble, and confequently, the Digejlive Or - 
vans weak, and the Circulation languid, the 
Blood thence ariling will be vifcid and fizy 
in Proportion, and exhibit the Appearances 
defcrib’d in the fecond State, from whence 
Obftruclions and Difeafes of the cold, chro- 
nical, or nervous Kind will arife. On the 
other hand, when the Drink is in too 
great a Proportion to the folid Food, when 
great Quantities of ftrong and fpirituous 
Liquors are thrown into the Habit, and the 
fmall Quantity of Food that is taken is 
alfo ftrong and full of Salts and Spirits , the 
jibrous Part of the Blood will be produc’d in 
a fmaller Proportion to the ferous , or will be 
confum’d and burnt up by the greater Quan- 
tity of Salts and Oils in the Serum proceeding 
from fuch Nourifhment, and fo the lajl State 
of the Blood I have taken notice of will be 
produc’d : whereby the Solids being ftimu- 
lated and corroded, and the Circulation car- 
ried about with too great Hurry and Vio- 
lence, or fome great noble Bowel attack’d, 
deftroy’d and fpoil’d, various Difeafes of the 
inflammatory-chronical kind will enfue, as 
Heffiick Fevers , Confumptions , £Cc. the Blood- 
Veflels being burft or corroded will occafion 
Hemorrhages , or the Solids being weaken’d, 
relax’d and broken, will fuffer this thin and 
acrid Serum to ouze thro’ their Subftances, 
and thus beget a partial Dropfy , or a true 


122 The Englifli Malady. 

A] cites. Something like the fame State of 
Blood may be occalion’d by a Haemorrhage , 
or any great Lofs of Blood, tho’ tolerably 
good, in what manner foever it happens, 
cither by a Wound or otherwife : the re- 
maining Part being robb’d of its red Globules , 
or of too great a Quantity of the Compound 
to be foon repair’d, it will be unable to re- 
lift the Force of the Solids, but will be re- 
duc’d to a poor, thin, watery State, fo as, if 
not prefently or fpeedily reftor’d to its for- 
mer Balfam and Texture, to end in a Dropfy y 
in the Manner I have juft now defcrib’d, 
efpecially if a Mai- Regimen has proceeded or 
fucceeds it. 

$. VI. But to apply this more particularly 
to the Difeafes I am now treating of : In all 
Nervous Diforders produc’d by Exceffes, 
efpecially after the Meridian of Life, the 
Blood is generally vifcid and fizy, like that 
of the fecond State, which I have defcrib’d. 
I have not for thefe many Years let Blood 
of any one (if it were but an Ounce or 
two to make Obfervation on, of which I 
have had innumerable Inftances) who being 
fubject to Nervous Di [tempers, Lownefs , Va- 
pour s y or Melancholy , have not had it Sizy y 
Rheumatick and Nijcid , with a fharp yellow 
Serum in fome Degree or other. I have 
always obferv’d the Blood of the younger 
and thofe under the Meridian of Life, in thefe 


Cure of Nervous ‘Diftempers. t 23 

who were violently fubject to Nervous Dis- 
orders, to be hot, fiery, inflam'd, acrid and 
iharp, tho’ the Colour and Confidence might 
be tolerably good, and then found it occa- 
fion’d by dealing too much in hot Liquors, 
in Proportion to the original Weaknefs of 
their Solids. But if the Vifcidity of the 
Juices was produc’d, as I have faid, by an 
Over-proportion of Food receiv’d into the 
Habit, the Weaknefs of the Solids, and Slow- 
nefs of the Circulation being confequent there- 
upon, Obftrudions mull neceffarily be form’d 
in the fmall Veflels and Glands efpecially of 
the Liver, the Mefentery, &c. and then the 
ftagnant Juices putrify, corrupt, turn acrid 
and corrofive (like what we fee in fome 
other Cafes of Obftrudions that lie more 
immediately under our Obfervation, parti- 
cularly that produc’d by a Blow on the 
Breaft, which terminates in a Cancer} ; and the 
urinous or animal Salts being let loofe, tear, 
corrode, and deftroy the Solids, from whence 
the higheft Degrees of Nervous Diforders 
fpririg : Indeed, in the laft Stages of Nervous 
Diftempers, the Blood fometimes approaches 
to that which I have defcrib’d as the laft: 
and worft State ; but then the Cafe is gone, 
I think, beyond the Reach of human Means 
or Art to remedy, fince it generally attends 
the entire Corruption of fome of the great 
Vifcera ; or the higheft Degrees of fuch Ob- 
ftrudions, whereby the whole Mafs of Blood 


1 14 The Englifli Malady.' 

is infe&ed with the Poifon, and the Juices 
diflolv’d and fus’d into a putrid Thinnefs, 
like what is found in the laft Stages of the 
Black. Jaundice, or fome other mortal Dif- 


Of the Method and Medicines proper 
for the Firjl Intention. 

<£. *■* TT ^ or der to attenuate the Juices, to 
break the Cohefion of their Parts, 
to deftroy their Vifcidity and Glew- 
inefs , and to make them fufficiently thin, 
and fit to flow in the fmall Yeflels with 
Eafe, thofe Medicines are chiefly to be cho- 
fen, which either by their own Nature are 
the moll active, by the Figure of their Par- 
ticles, are the molt lharp and dividing, by 
their Weight are endu’d with the greateft 
Force and Momentum ; or laftly, which by 
Experience are found (without knowing a 
Reafon why) to be the moil effectual for 
producing thefe Ends. 

§. II. 


Medicines for the firft Intention, 1 1 5 

§. II. I need not mention here the Neeek 
fity before any Courfe be enter’d upon for 
this Purpofe, of premifing the common and 
proper univerfal Evacuations, as Bleeding, 
Purging, Vomiting , &Cc. fome one or more 
of which will always be found necdfary to 
be firft of all perform’d, not only to lelfen 
the Quantity of the corrupt Fluids in gene- 
ral, but to cleanfe the Alimentary Tubes, 
that the proper Medicines may be more 
ealily and readily convey’d into the Blood. 
But as thefe Evacuations are never to be 
undertaken without the Advice and Affift- 
ance of lome skilful and honeft Phyjtcian , 
lo it is by his Dire&ion that the Repetition 
Dofe and Materials are to be adj ufted : For 
thefe Evacuations are fo eflential in this 
Cafe in its firft Stage, that by going about 
them indifcreetly, or neglecting to do them 
as the Symptoms require, the Patient may 
be ruin’d, by trailing to his own Judgment, 
or relying upon general Rules, which in all 
fevere, but particularly in Nervous Cafes, are 
both precarious and uncertain. 

$. III. Among the chief and principal of 
fuch Medicines, are Mercury and its Prepara- 
tions, Calomel, Mercury aJcaJiJated,precipitat per 
fe, Jpjiickfilver, Siiver-Water , JEthiops Mine- 
ral, Cinnabar of Antimony, Antimony Diapho- 
retick, Bezoar Mineral, Crude Antimony, Be - 
zoardicum Joviale, Salt of Bin, Ens Veneris, and 


ii6 The EngliOi Malady. 

the like, whofe chief Efficacy feems to lie in 
their Weight, after they have dropt their 
Salts in the Alimentary Tube. Next to 
thefeare the Woods Guajacum , Sajfajras , Sar- 
fapariUa , Lignum Nephrltlcum , the feveral 
Sorts of Saunders , Wood of Aloes , Rc. In 
the third Order are the fix'd Salts , fuch as 
Salt oj Tartar, Salt of fYormwood , Broom , 
jF&w, Rc. The lafi Clafs contains fuch 
Vegetables, as are of an acrid and auftere 
Tafte, fuch as are all the Antefcorbutlck 
Plants, of which there is Choice and Variety 
in all the Modern Writers and Collectors of 
the Materia Medica ; fo that it is needjefs 
here to detail them. Thefe may be com- 
pounded or combined in the beft manner 
poffible, to make them eafy and agreeable 
to the Stomach, by the Skill of the fihyfician 
in ordinary : and if given in a proper Dole, 
and for a Time fufficient, will fcarce fail of 
their Effed. 

IV. I n the Adminiflration of Calomel , 
for fuch a Purpofe, it may be necelfary to 
obferve, that however it may be manag’d 
in Cafes of another Nature, yet where it is 
intended for the Cure of Nervous Difeafes, 
which fuppofe weak Solids, and confequently 
tender Bowels, it will always be neceffary 
to give it in the Imalleft Dofe, as an Alte- 
rative only, and not an Evacuant ; for Ex- 
ample, In two, three, or four Grains, once, 


Medicines for the JirJi Intention . 1 17 

twice, or three times a day, becaufe thus it 
may be given with Safety for a much longer 
Time, and will not be thrown off by the 
‘greater Conduits of Evacuation, nor meerly 
circulate thro’ the greater Blood-Veffels, 
but gently and gradually infinuate itfelf into 
the ImaUeft Capillary ones, where its Virtue 
and Efficacy is moft wanted, and where it 
can do the moft Service. For this Reafon it is 
chiefly, that .in many deep Venereal Cafes, 
Salivation by the internal Exhibition of 
Mercurials only, feldom fucceeds : whereas 
by Inunffiion it feldom fails ; viz. that when 
it happens to be perform’d on People of weak 
Nerves, and tender Conftitutions, and patent 
Glands, it is generally thrown off by the 
greater Out-lets, with great Danger to the 
Patient ; fo that a few Grains commonly raife 
a Scorbutick Vtyalifm , which few can dU 
ftinguifti from a Mercurial Salivation, and fo 
they are fcarce able to go on.: or at belt, it 
circulates only thro’ the Trunk of the greater 
Arteries and Veins, to be thrown off by the 
more patent and larger Glands , and feldom 
or never gets Admittance into the Capillary 
Veffels : whereas by Imn$ion y or in fmall 
and often repeated Doles, it is receiv’d into 
thefe laft immediately or gradually, and 
there does- its Work. In Nervous Cafes the 
fame Effed is obtain’d by the longer Time, 
and leffer Dofes, thefe Conftitutions neither 
admitting nor requiring fo violent and quick 
3 a De- 

n8 The EngliOi Malady.’ 

a Deobftruent. But even this Method, in 
its gentleft Degree will fit none but the 
l Nervous Disorders, of the ftronger and 
robufter Conftitutions, which having been* 
originally found, have contra&ed thefe Dif- 
orders by a Mal-Regimen . 

§. V. The Medicines next to this the moll 
effe&ual for the firft Intention, are AEthiops 
Mineral , the AEthiops Antimoniatum, Cinna- 
bar , but efpecially Mercurlus Alcalifatus , or 
the other Preparations of Quickfilver, with 
the various Preparations of Antimony, of which 
there is great Variety (and might be more). 
And this AEthiops Mineral is indeed an excel- 
lent Remedy, both from the Weight of the 
Mercury , and the cleanfing Nature of the 
Sulphur entring its Compofition, and would 
do the whole in Time necelfary for this 
Intention, were it not that even few, but 
thofe of the ftronger Sort, can bear the 
Slipperinels , and violent Cholicks and 
Gripes, which it brings on their Bowels : 
which not only finks them more, but occa- 
lions the Medicine to be carry’d off before 
it enters the Habit ; and therefore when it 
is us’d in fuch a Cafe, I Ihould always ad- 
vife an Aftringent or warm Medicine, fuch 
as Diafcordlum y Mithridate , Venice Ereacle , 
and the like, to be join’d with it : perhaps 
a lefs Quantity of Sulphur in the Preparation 
would mend it, and make it go further than 


Medicines for the firjl intention . 1 25 ? 

the Alimentary Tube. But thofe who are 
ftrong,' and whofe Bowels are firm, bear 
it eafily ; and in fome 1 join Gum Guajac to 
it, with Salt of Wormwood , to make it more 
cleanfing, attenuating and deobftruent, with 
great Succefs. Bello ft' s Quickfilver Pills are 
of the fame Nature and Virtue for this firft 
Intention , as well as for Ajlhmatick Cafes, and, 
I think, the Beft way of taking Quickfilver 

§. VI. That which I generally prefer in 
vifcid Juices, in Perfons fubjebt to Nervous 
Diforders, in very low Cafes, is Cimiabar of 
Antimony , both becaufe it creates" fewer Tu- 
mults in the Stomach and Bov/els, pafies more 
readily into the Blood, .and feldom keeps the 
Bowels flippery, unlefs it be in exceeding low 
Cafes. Thofe who are robuft, or ftill in a great 
meafure ftrong, may bear the AEthiops but 
both the very Young and very Weak, if their 
Juices be either too vifcid or too (harp, will 
find the greateft Relief from this Medicine,- 
duly fitted to their Conftitution, and conti- 
nued for a long Time, if any of the whole 
Tribe of the Materia Medic a (in my Judg- 
mentj can pofiibly do it. Its Efficacy in 
Childrens Epileptick and Convulfive Fits, and 
indeed in all their Chronical Diftempers, is 
fufficiently known and acknowledg’d. And 
I have found the fame Effects in many Cafes 
both Nervous and Chronical , even in' adult 
Perfons,. both to my Surprize and Admira- 

K tk>i> 

The Englifh Maladt. 

tion. If it has fail’d, it is becaufe it has no t 
been long enough continu’d. A Patient of 
mine, now alive, has us’d it thefe twenty 
years. It firfl (by my Advice) cured him of 
his Nervous Complaints; and whenever he 
ails, he has recourfe to it on occafions to this 
Day. It ought to be given frefh, or the leaf! 
ftale poffible, otherwife it may become tur- 
bulent in the Bowels ; and it ought to be as' 
finely levigated as Art can make it, to enter 
more readily into the fmall Veffels. And in- 
deed, when I confider that mod: other Mer- 
curial Medicines, tho’ they are the mod: 
powerful Attenuants of the Juices, yet (as' all- 
ponderous and very adtive Medicines muffc 
neceffarily do) they, with the Salts united, 
fcrape thin and relax the Solids. I think this 
the fafeft and mod: effectual of all the Atte- 
nuants, in very low Cafes, efpecially if a little 
of the Refin or Extratt of the Jefuits Bark 
be added to it, to keep up the Force of 
the Solids, at the fame time that it is diffol- 
ving the Vifcidity of the Juices, and opening 
the Obdxudtions in the fmall Veffels: for it 
is impoffible to get any Mercurial Medicine 
that has not ibme Tendency to weaken them. 

§. VII. T h e r e is nothing I could more 
earneftly wifh were brought into the corh- 
mon Practice of Phyfck , than the more free 
and general (but cautious) Ufe of the Prepa- 
rations of Mercury and Antimony in Chro- 
nical and Obffinate Cafes: efpecially when 

Medicines for the jirft Intention, i ] i 

join'd to a thin, cool, foft and mild Diet, to 
anfwer this Jirjt Intention of a total Cure. Dr. 
Charlton , who had the licenfing of the Quacks 
in King Charles IJ.Time ? ' told on his Death- 
Bed (as I am well inform’d) that all the ufe- 
ful or fuccefsful Cures perform’d by the 
Mountebanks of his Time, were owing to the 
Preparations of Mercury and Antimony only ; 
and it is a great Pity, that fuch glorious Re- 
medies fhould be in the Pofieffion chiefly (I 
mean the Preparations of Mercury) of fuch 
unskilful, unprincipled Wretches. For a re- 
gular reputable Phyfieian may endanger his 
Reparation among the weak and prejudiced, 
who deals freely in It, tho’ it be a Remedy 
only fit to bear the Name. Mercury is the 
only Fluid iff, Nature (except Water) fit to 
circulate thro’ hollow Animal T ubes ; (T wo' 
of the others, Light and dEther, can fcarce 
be retain’d in them) its greater Weight than 
any other Kinds of Matter (except Gold) makes 
it the mofl capable to force its way : But then 
Gold and all other Minerals having no innate 
Fluidity , nor Natural Rotundity of Particles* 
mu ft be always carry’d on Water to be intro- 
duc’d into an Animal Habit, with which they 
never kindly mix. Mercury , in all its Divi- 
fions, Mixtures and Unions with other Bodies,; 
is ftill reduceable to Liquid Quickfiher : which 
makes it not improbable, that when it has 
dropp’d its Mixtures in Animal Vefieis, in the 
Alimentary Du 51 efpecially, it returns to its 
primitive. Fluidity, and afts with the united 

K 3 Force 

i j.i The EngliOi Malady. 

Force of the whole then collected Mafs of 
Particles; and we know what Efficacy Shot 
and fmall Bullets of Lead- have in cleaning 
foul Bottles or fmall Tubes. *The Rotundity 
of its Particles (in all its vifible and fenfible 
Divifions, and even in its Afcent in the Retort, 
and in all its other Preparations, apparent by 
fine Glades) with its Fluidity , makes them 
probably fmooth, and fo without any Injury 
to the Capillaries , except from their Weight 
only. The infinite Smallnefs of its Particles, 
evident by its ready Afcent in a Retort from 
the leaft even a Sand-Heat only, and its 
almoft infinite Force of Attraction (from 
thefe general Principles of its Weight and 
Quantity of Matter, and from many Expe- 
riments) makes it always run into a fluid 
Mafs, when its fpherical Particles are brought 
near enough: whereby its Force is greatly 
increas’d. From all which Confiderations 
(obvious even to common Senfe, without 
fine£ing) it is evident what a Noble Medi- 
cine it might be made in Chronical Cafes of 
all Kinds, vifcid juices and Obftruftions of 
the Organs; if duly prepar’d, dofed and fitted 
to the Patient and the Diftemper. The Mer- 
curius Alcalifatus (of ^uickjiher and Crabs- 
Eyes prepar'd, and rubb’d together till the 
firft difappear) is an admirable Medicin , and 
in a fmall Dofe gives no Trouble or Uneali- 

* Vide Boerhaave ' s Chyiuifhy. 

nefs r 

Medicines for the JirJi Intention. 1 3 3 

nefs, and is fpecifick in Cutaneous Foulneffes , 
and almoft all other Chronical Cafes, efpeci- 
ally Nervous , to this Firft Intention, as well 
as is the Precipitate per fe : I have often us’d 
them both with great Succefs, even in Ner- 
vous Cafes, fince they have been fo univer- 
fally known. Liquid ^uickjilver will do great 
Service in beginning Plicatures of the Inte- 
ftines, Obftrudtions of their Glands and Valves, 
and in Foulneffes and hard Concretions or 
Obftrudtions, bred in the Mouths of the 
LaCleals (which are often Cafes where the 
Symptoms common to other Difeafes, will not 
admit a certain Diftindtion) but eminently fo 
in AJihmatic Cafes, above all other Medicines. 
By its Weight only, forcing open the obftruc- 
tive Mouths of the LaAeals, and its Steams 
thereby entring the Habit, attenuate the vif- 
cid Juices of the Lungs , and render them 
pervious, and fo promotes Expectoration ; and, . 
I think, other more appropriated and fpecifick 
Medicines not fucceeding, this ought to be 
try’d in all Cafes of the Alimentary Lube , fince 
it is as innocent and fafe as Affes. Milk. And 
even the Aq. Mercurialis or Silver Water, as 
it fucceeds beyond any thing in Childrens 
Worm Cafes: fo I am fatisfy’d, were it try’d in 
other Cafes, might do Wonders : efpecially in 
DecoClions of the Woods , AntiJ'corbutick Waters, 
or other appropriated Liquors ; for as it nei- 
ther alters Tafte, Smell, nor any other fenfi- 
ble Quality of the Liquid, it may be fafely 
us’d as long, and in as great Quantities as one 
K 3 pleafes. 

1 14 The Englifli Malady. 

pleafes, without any Trouble, Pain, or Danger. 
I am therefore of the Opinion, that the moll 
effectual Remedies in Nature in Chronical 
Cafes and their firft Stages, is the Prepara- 
tions of Mercury, of one Kind or other, toge- 
ther with Diet. Where it has not iucceeded, 
it is chiefly becaufe proper Diet has not 
been join’d ; and, I believe, there are few 
Cafes and Conflitutions, where fome of thefe 
mention’d Preparations may not agree in 
proper Dofesj and, if duly continu’d, are 
not of wonderful Benefit, where the Vifcera 
are not quite fpoil’d. But the Management 
muff be in the Hands of a fober, careful and 
experienc’d Phyjician , who well underllands 
and confiders what Nature will bear, and 
what not ; for it is not an indifferent or tri- 
fling Medicine, but a Divme Antidote , or a 
certain Poifon , according to the Cafe in which, 
and the Pcrfon by whom, it is preferib’d ; and 
I lcarce willingly ever advife it at a Diftance 
in any Preparation, for it ought always to be 
watch’d. Where the Velfels are very lax, 
putrify’d, or thin : or the Obftrudtion very 
hard or fchirrous, the more adtive Prepara- 
tions mull be cautioufly avoided, and nothing 
but the gentleft Preparations try’d, viz. the 
JEthiops , the Cinnabars, the Mercurius Alca- 
lifatus, the Precipitat per Je, Aq. Argentea, 
and the like. For as to the Opinion of fome, 
viz. that thefe mention’d Preparations get no 
further than the Alimentary Dudl, I think it 
without all Foundation, either from Philofo- 

Medicines for the firfl Intention, i ] 5 

phy or Experience : when we fee the JEthiops 
and the Cinnabars , Liquid Quickfilver and 
the Silver Water , cure Cutaneous Diflem- 
pers, Inflammations of the Eyes, Si. Anthony's 
Fire , the Itch , the Piles, and the like; and 
when they will foil the Silver and Gold about 
the Patient, Nay, as I am fatisfy’d all the 
Kinds of them will at laft raife a kind of a 
Ptyalifm. But even tho’ then its principal 
Action were only on the Glands of the Sto- 
mach and Intefiines, yet the opening thefe, 
.and enabling them to perform their Functions, 
may be fufficient, by Derivation to propagate 
a proportional Benefit over the whole Habit. 
Laflly , when we fee Mercury boil’d in Water 
only, without lofing the leafl eflimable Weight, 
have fuch fenfible Effects, as in Time to do all 
that any other Preparation can, as I am con- 
vinced it will : we can eaflly conceive how any 
Preparation of it, impregnating the Chyle 
with its infinite fmall Particles, may enter the 
Ladle als and pervade the whole Habit, and 
when long continu’d, may have wonderful 
Efficacy on the mqfl dilfant Parts of the 
Body ; for the even a&ually alrnoft infi- 
nite Smallnefs of its Parts, the Sphericity of 
jts Particles, and its exceeding great Weight , 
will make it in any Shape pafs readily thro’ 
any Animal Subfiance in Time. The Pre- 
parations of Antimony may poflibly be of 
great Virtue, if fufficiendy try’d and examin’d ; 
but I having us’d none but the common Shop 
qnes, finding the Preparations of Mercury fuf- 
K 4 ficient. 

t}6 *the Englifh Malady.' 

ficient, can fay nothing of them. The Pre^ 
parations of Mercury , fome one or other, 
feem much more proper for this Intention. 

§. VIII. I shall fay nothing of the other 
Attenuants , efpecially thofe of the Vegetable 
Kind, whofe Virtues may be eafily learn’d from 
the Books of the Materia Medica *. As for 
thofe of the Mineral Kind, of which I have 
faid nothing in particular, I leave them to the 
Judgment of thofe Phyficians, who have had 
more Experience of them ; my Practice and 
Obfervation having confin’d me pretty much 
to thofe I have remark’d on, finding them the 
moft ready, fufficient, and, by their Nature, 
fitted:. I fhall only add a Word or two con- 
cerning the Wild Valerian (fo much com- 
mended by Fabius Columna) in ail Nervous 
Cafes, but efpecially the word: and higheft 
Degrees of them. It is certainly one of the 
mod: adlive and volatile of the Vegetable 
Kingdom, and feems to adt chiefly by pro- 
moting the Perfpiration, and a gentle Dia- 
phorefis. The Root powder’d and given with 
Cinnabar of Antimony and Powder of Black 
Hellebor , has frequently good Succefs ; and a 
Tea made of its Leaves, is an admirable Di- 
luter, and may be long continu’d with Ad- 
vantage in thefe Cafes. I will fay nothing 
here of the Mijletoe , it belonging (in my 

* Vide ehytobafanos of Sir John Floy er. 

Medicines for the fecond Intention . 1 37 

Opinion) to another Clafs cf Medicines (to 
wit, Astringents) to be mention’d after- 


Of the Medicines proper for the Second 
Intention » 

I. ▼▼THEN the former Intention has 
m/\/ been fufficiently and fuccefsfully 
* * purfu’d, fo that the Blood is re- 

turn’d to its due Degree of Thinnefs, Fluidity 
and Balfam ; when the Acutenefs of the Pains, 
and the Violence of the Symptoms are leflen’d 
by the ponderous Remedies, and the Fits or 
Paroxyfms are lefs fevere or frequent: then the 
Medicines of this Clafs may be united and com- 
pounded with thofe of the former , to lheath 
and blunt the Acrimony of the Salts, and the 
Sharpnefs of the Juices, difcharg’d from the 
fmall Velfels: to fcour and cleanfe the internal 
Sides of thefe Veffels yet further : and drive 
the ponderous Medicines into the mod; remote 
Capillaries where the Diforder firft begins, 
and is moll rooted : there to open a Palfage 


The EngliOi Malady: 

for the Circulation and Perfpiration, and re r 
move any Obftructions, putrid or ftagnanc 
juices, and fo to bring all the Secretions to a 
regular Order, and the whole Mafs of the 
Fluids to a due Degree of Sweetnefs and Bal- 
Jam. This Method and Order muft neceffarily 
be follow’d, where a total and abfolute Cure is 
intended or expected : But where a Palliative 
Cure only is deiign’d, thefe may be blended 
with the former, even from the beginning of 
the Cure. And where the Blood is in that 
Condition, which I have invention ’d as the 
laffc and worfl State : they may even take the 
Place of the former and go before them, if 
there be any reafonable Hopes of Succefs; 
becaufe the great Degree of Acrimony dif- 
fus’d thro’ the whole Mafs of Blood, requires 
a more immediate Attention and Application, 
than the removing of Obftrudions; (which 
is often the Cafe in many Scorbutick , HeBick, 
IBericaly Scrophulous and Cancerous Habits:) 
at lealt the Medicines for the Second Inten- 
tion, are the abfolutely neceffary: and the only 
Means that can effeduate a Palliative Cure, 
and relieve the Symptoms then. 

§. II. Water is acknowledg’d to be the 
moft univerfal Diffolver of Salts of all Kinds, 
and would certainly diffolve thefe mention'd 
Concretions in the greater Veifels, and help to 
carry them out of the Habit ; but it not 
having Adlvity or Agility enough to get into 

Jtfedicinesfojr the feconi Intention. 1 3 9 

the fmall Veffels, where the Danger is greateft, 
.and the Want moft, it cannot alone be Effi- 
cient here. Thofe Medicines therefore tha; 
are of the moft active and 'volatile Kind, 
which have, as it were, a penetrating Steam 
or Vapour flowing out of them, like that of 
Fire or Light: which can moft readily per-r 
vade the Solids, and get into the inmoft Re- 
cedes of the Habit, feem to be the moft effe- 
ctual for this Purpofe; efpecially if a foft 
Balfam be added to thefe Qualities, which 
may both fheath the Salts in the great Veffels, 
as it goes along to the fmall ones, or fo guard 
againft their Irritation and Acrimony, as to 
hinder their otherwife deftruftive Effedts. 
Of this Kind all the fcetid and volatile Sub- 
ftances feem to be the chief : or thofe which 
emit the ftrongeft Effluvia , or in the greateft 
Quantity, fuch are particularly the volatile 
Gums and Juices, the volatile Salts and Spirits , 
which are nothing but folid or liquid Natural 
Phofphori , or Fire Subftances. To thefe may 
be join’d the Soaps, and Saponaceous Sub- 

§. III. The principal Medicines of this 
"Tribe are. Gum Ammoniacum , Galbanum , Afja 
foetida , Sagapenum , Myrrh, Guajacum , Cam - 
phire , Cajlor , Amber , Salt of Hartjhorn, Salt 
of Amber , Salt and Spirit of Human Skulls , 
and of Raw Silk , Cajlile Soap, Saffron, Gar- 
lick, HorJ'e-RadiJh, and the like, of which 


140 The Eoglifh Malady. 

there is fufficient Variety ; but thefe feem to 
be the moft powerful. 

§. IV. Among thefe I fhould prefer the 
Ammoniacum , Galbanum , Sagapenum, but efpe- 
cialiy the AJjafaetida, fmce we are at the laft 
come to judge of and eafily find out the true, 
from, and in the Adulterated, by its cutting 
white, and turning afterwards of a Pink- 
BIofTom Colour, according to the Defcription 
of it by the Antients *, by whom its Virtues 
are celebrated with Praifes, even above the 
Merit of any natural Remedy. It certainly 
deferves (as a prefent Relief in extreme Cafes) 
as much as any one Thing in the Materia 
Medica in fuch Cafes, it having all the kindly 
Effedts of quieting Anxiety and Opprejjion , 
procuring Reft, and all the other Benefits of 
Opium , without leaving that Lownefs and 
Depreffion behind it, which this laft, when 
its Force is wrought off, does in moft Perfons, 
like Brandy or Inflammatory Spirits : infomuch, 
that in a great many Cafes and Conftitutions 
it is a great Queftion, whether the prefent 
Relief be fufficient to balance the fublequent 
Opprejjion and Anxiety: for which there is 
hq other Remedy, but repeating one Dole as 
another wears off, as the ‘Turks do, or as 
Drunkards do with their Drams, till both 

* Vide Tlhiii Hijl. £tyt. Lib, XIX. Cap. 3, 



Medians s for the fecond Intention . 1*4 1 

come to be without Meafure or End, and 
have made the Difeafe perhaps irremediable 
by any Means, but the Death which it cer- 
tainly brings on. But this natural Phofphorus 
having Light and Activity without Fire or 
Heat, eafily pervades the whole Habit, and 
penetrates the fmallefl: Veflels, and makes the 
Perfpiration flow readily, as * SanSiorius ob- 
ferves, and thus gives a Relief for fome con- 
flderable Time ; and when other proper Me- 
thods are join’d with it, will help forward a 
kfting Gure. The Soots of fome or any Woods 
are, or feem to me to be, of the fame Nature 
and Efficacy, and are, I think, Phofphorus's , 
(where the remaining Fire is actually, but lies 
hid under the Allies) which by their Activity 
and Volatility getting into the fmall Veflels, 
the Joints and Mufcular Subftances, diflblves 
and melts the Jelly and Size, (as adtual Fire' 
does Hartfhorn Jelly and Glow) and thereby 
enables them to-cireulate for fome Time, and 
fo become at beft but Reliefs and Reprieves, 
but no Cures; for accordingly, if not con- 
ftantly repeated, the Complaints return, as 
a Man of a chilly Conftitution, muff; be 
always hovering over the Fire. 

§. V. I should fay fomething of Ammo - 
niacum , but., that its Virtues are fufficiently 

* Medicim Station, Sedl, 3, Aph.82-, 


i4 l Englifli MaLadt. 

known in AJlhtfiaiick and Pulmonick Cafes, 
(where it is the fovereign Remedy, and moft 
effectually attenuates vifcid Phlegm) to make 
its Efficacy believ’d in the Cafes of vifcid 
Juices I am fpeaking of. Sagapenum likewife 
and Galbanum are very effectual for the fame 
Purpofe. Nor ought the Product of our own 
Country, Garlick and Horfe-Radijh , to be 
negledted, the firft of which is as effectual in 
Lung Cafes, as the mention’d Ammoniacum . 
The only Inconvenience of thefe fftid Medi- 
cines is the difagreeable Tafte and Scent they 
leave, which is fo offenflve to delicate Per- 
fons; but that may be, in a great meafure, 
overcome by proper Mixtures, or muft be 
born with in extreme Cafes. Under this Clafs y 
and chiefly to arrfwer this Intention , the Act- 
dulae or Mineral Waters ought to be rank’d, 
but moft eminently the Bath Waters, becaufe 
of their Sulphur as well as Steel ; and it is 
becaufe the ponderous and active Remedies 
have not been fufficiently ply’d before, in 
habitual and obftinate Nervous Cafes, that 
Bath Waters have not always thefe fenfible 
and lafting EfFedts, as they mofl infallibly 
would have, if duly clafs’d and manag’d ; and 
in all fuch CacheBical and Nervous Cafes, 
Mineral Waters, thefe efpecially, are the belt 
and fafefl: Vehicle for ponderous Medicines : 
and in want of thefe Barley Water , with Syrup 
of Marjh- Mallows, Decodtion of Comfrey 
Roots , with Syrup of Mulberries y or fweet 


Medicines for the third Intention. 14$ 

Cow-Whey drank plentifully, are bell to fepa- 
rate, diffolve and fheath thefe burning and 
deftrudive Salts, of which the Element Water 
in itfelf is the fureft and moft effedual Anti- 
dote , the Mineral giving it Adivity and Pe- 
netration chiefly. 


Of the Medicines proper for the Third 

§. I. 'W TTH E N the two former In fen - 
%/\/ tions have been follow’d for a 
* ’ due Time with fuitable Suc- 

eefs, fo that the Symptoms are abated, and 
tolerable Eafe is obtain’d, it will be then, 
convenient to enter upon the Method and 
Medicines of the 'Third Intention : which will 
make the Gafe both more comfortable, and 
bring Spirits and Courage to go thro’ with 
it, being the lafb Stage towards a compleat 
Cure. For the Medicines here are more 
grateful to Nature,- strengthening the dige- 
stive Powers, and making all the Functions 
more full and ftrong, fo that Vigour and 
Chearfulnefs flow in daily. And Surely there. 

144 *rhe Englifh Malady. 

is not a more agreeable Entertainment, both 
to Phyjician and Patient , than to obferve the 
growing Steps of fuch a flattering Profpedf 
advancing gradually without Fear or Danger 
of Relapfe, unlefs the Patient return to thofe 
Indifcretions that firft begot thefe Diforders; 
This Pleafure I have enjoy’d myfelf once and 
again in both Capacities. 

§. II. T h e Medicines which anfwer this 
Intention, will be thofe of the Strength- 
ning and Afltringent Kind, which contrail, 
corrugate , wind up and give Firmnefs and 
Force to the weak and relaxed Solids, Fibres 
and Nerves. Of this Tribe are all the Bitters , 
Aromaticks and Chalybeats : fuch as the 

Jefuit's Bark, Steel , Gentian , Zedoary , Caf- 
famunair , Calamus aromaticus , Snakeweed, 
Contrayerva , Cinamon , Winter s Bark , Cha- 
momile Flowers, Wormwood and Centaury -Tops, 
Terra Japanica , &c. Here likewife the Oak 
Bark, and its Offspring the Mijletoe and 
AcornSy feem to have their proper Place, and 
every thing that is fubacid, whether Mineral 
or Vegetable. 

§. III. I think there is not a more won* 
derful Strengthner of the Solids in all the 
Compafs of Medicine, than the Jefuits Bark, 
The firft time I us’d it myfelf as a Strengthner. 
and bitter Aftringent (after having diluted and. 
thinn’d my Juices fufiiciently by Medicine and 


Medicines for the third Intention. 145 

Diet) I can fay it with Truth, never any thing 
in Nature (Medicinal) affeded me in fo fen- 
fible and furprizing a Manner, or gave me fo 
quick an Appetite, fuch Adivity, and fo ferene 
clear Spirits, as the Bark did, after taking it 
for fome Time. It is true, thefe Effeds did 
not laft in their greateft Heighth always, but 
they were ftill confiderable for a long Time : 
and*I went on gaining Ground by it in that 
Period (for I continu’d it near a Year) till I 
had a perfed Recovery. I have feen pretty 
near the fame Effeds from it in others, and 
in the like Nervous Cafes : tho’ it had not the 
fame Degree of good Succefs in my next Re- 
lapfe, as was not to be expeded in a further 
advanc’d Age ; but ftill it had better than any 
other, and I take it univerfally to be the beft 
and only cool bitter Aftringent known to 
Men. I have known People labouring under 
an internal Goutifh Humour (even thofe be- 
longing to the Profejfion of Phyfick ) who have 
affirm’d to me, that they were never vapour’d 
or low-fpirited to any Degree, while they con- 
tinu’d theUfe of th zBark under theGw/, which 
they had interrupted only,becaufe they had been 
allur’d, that it confin’d and ty’d up the Gouty 
Humour from being thrown outward : than 
which there is nothing more falfe and abfurd j 
for nothing fo much promotes the Gouty 
Humour towards the Extremities, becaufe it 
ftrengthens the Solids: And I have frequently 

L given 

146 ‘The Englifli Malady. 

given a Fit of the Gout with it and Steel, 
when nothing elfe would effedt it j and I 
always found it the mod; effectual of all Me- 
dicines, to recover Appetite, Strength and 
Spirits, after a fevere Fit was over, as is 
now univerfally experienc’d and acknow- 

§. IV. Next to the Bark ( or even be- 
• yond it) is Steel , or Chalybeat Medicines and 
Mineral Chalybeat Waters, which ad: prin- 
cipally by conflriding, crifping, and wind- 
ing up the relax’d Solids. Weak and young 
Perfons, and flight Cafes, do well with liquid 
Steel, fuch as the Vinum Chalybeatum , linc- 
tura Martis , the Solution of Sal Martis in 
common W 7 ater, Elixir Vitrioli , and the like. 
But thofe who are flronger and older, re- 
quire Steel Rujl , join’d with Aromaticks and 
Bitters, and the Bark ; for they are all 
of one Bribe and Clafs of Medicines, and 
differ only in Degree : in which the Prepa- 
rations of Iron is the ftrongeft, as is evident 
from its Energy in Externally hopping Haemor- 
rhages, and corrugating tender Fibres, and its 
partaking the Nature of Vitriol and Acids. 
Where thefe do not relieve at lead, the Cafe 
muft be very bad, or the Medicines apply’d 
much out of Time, while the Juices were 
too vifcid, or not fufficiently thin and fweet. 
Sydenham feem’d to doubt, whether Purga- 


Medicines for the third Intention. 1 47 

lives ought to be join’d with Chaly beats in 
the fame Courfe ; but that can be no Diffi- 
culty to thofe who have underftood what has 
been before faid, or are well acquainted with 
true Philofophy and the Animal OEconomy. 
For the Purgatives are either limply delign’d 
(in fuch a Cafe) to cleanfe the Prime?. Vic? t 
or to fufe and thin the Blood : in the firft 
Cafe they are abfolutely neceffary, and in the 
fecond more fo, if the firft Intention has not been 
fully purfu’d before : As we find by Lowers 
bitter Tindture, efpecially when a Purgative 
and Chalybeat with theBark is combin’d, which 
fucceeds wonderfully in fuch Cafes, where 
the Habit is pretty full, and the Solids not 
much relax’d. But a long Courfe of Cha- 
lybeat Mineral Waters is llill the moft effe- 
ctual for the Purpofe : Spaw, Pyrmont , or 
lunbridge , in the hot Weather ; and Bath in 
the temperate and cold Weather. Some fearful 
and apprehenfive People have been diffuaded, 
by intqrefted Perfons, from the Ufe of the 
Bath Waters in Lownefs , OppreJJion , and Va- 
pours \ and fome unexperienced People have 
even imagin’d they have had more Vapours 
than ordinary under the Ufe of them. But thefe 
may as well affirm, that Opium purges, and 
Jallap binds. For if they mend the Faults 
and Weakneffes of the Stomach and Bowels, 
(as all the World acknowledges they do, and 
muff do by their Nature and Compofition) 
they muff then infallibly be moft beneficial 

L 2 in 

148 'T’he Englifli Malady. 

in thefe Diforders, as from my own, and the 
Experience of many thoufand others, can be 
tedified, who will affirm them to be the molt 
certain Relief of any in fuch Cafes. And 
indeed, as by their Sulphur thus diffolv’d in 
hot Water, they are the moil cleaning and 
diluting of all Medicines, fo their Steel (as I 
have already faid) is the mod; effectual for bra- 
cing the Solids: And with fuch aCompoffiion 
it would be pretty drange they ffiould not (if 
any Means could) be fuccefsful in fuch Cafes. 
They may raife fome Mift and Dimnefs be- 
fore the Eyes in foul Stomachs, nay even occa- 
fion fome Head-Aches and Flatulence, which 
may properly enough be call’d Vapourifh or 
Nervous ; but the fame every adtive Remedy 
will produce ; and thefe may be eafily reme- 
died, by joining fome Volatiles , Aromaticks 
or Bitters along with them. If they have 
not the greated Benefit is expedted, it is be- 
caufe the ponderous Medicines mention’d, and 
thofe for the firjl Intention , have not before, 
upon firfl: drinking them, been diffidently 
and long enough perfided in ; for certainly 
they are the mod agreeable and beneficial 
Vehicle for fuch Medicines, and the mod 
fure Remedy, after fuch a Courfe, to be found 
on the Globe , as I have long experienced. The 
greated Misfortune is, that their Relief does 
not lad for a very long Time, at lead not at 
an equal Heighth. But that is the Misfortune 
of ail Remedies in bad Cafes and Condi- 

i Diet for Nervous T)iftempers. 1 49 

tions, and their beneficial Effects will lafl: 
longer than that of any other Remedy, under 
the Management I have mention’d. 

§. I. T* TAVING deliver’d, in the befh 
I — I Manner I am able, the general 
A A Method of Cure of Nervous Dif- 
tempers, the feveral Intentions to be follow’d 
in the Profecution of it, and the belt Medi-r 
cines I can fuggefl: from Experience, Obfer- 
vation, or the Nature of Things, for fulfilling 
each of thefe Intentions ; I come now to the 
Dicetetick Management, that Part which 
has the greatefi: Influence in the Cure of 
Chronical Difiempers, without which the befi: 
and fureft Remedies fail of their Efifedt, and 
yet in thefe later Ages the leafl: cultivated and 
moft negledted of all the curative Parts of 
Phyfick in England , (till of late, that my wor- 
thy , learned and ingenious Friend , Dr. Ar~ 
huthnott , thought fit to treat it according tq 

CHAP. y. 



150 The Englifli Malady, 

its Ufe and Dignity , in the mafterly Manner 
he executes every thing he undertakes) info- 
much that he hazards the Charge of intro- 
ducing new and whimfical Opinions, who 
would pretend to ftand up in its Defence, 
or bring it into his Practice. And yet, if we 
will make but a bender Enquiry into the 
Practice of the early and pureft Ages of Phy- 
Jick , or the great and univerfally approv’d 
Writers in the healing Art , we fhall find 
Diet no fuch contemptible Help towards the 
Prevention or Cure of Difeafes, as it is now 
held or imagin’d. On the contrary, we fhali 
find the Works of all the mofl judicious and 
celebrated Practitioners full of particular Di- 
rections and Advices on this Popick in every 
Difeafe they treat of ; and demonftrating that 
their Authors , as they did not find, fo they 
did not imagine, that any (at leaft habitual 
and rooted) Diftemper, could be remov’d 
without fuch Affiftance. We are certainly 
provided with a greater Choice of more 
perfect Materials, as well as more elegant 
Forms of Medicines, than the Antients ; and 
this probably will bill increafe, by length of 
Time, with Arts, the Knowledge of Nature, 
and even of our Difeafes 5 but what is, and 
will be ever admired among the Antients , is 
their Method of Cure, the Truth and Juft- 
nefs of their Rules and Maxims, and the Soli- 
dity of their Intentions in following the Di- 
rections of Nature in the Way fhe intends or- 

Diet for Nervous c DiJlempers. i j i 

points out. Hippocrates , the Father of the 
Phyjicians , thought a Regimen of Diet of fuch 
Confequence, both to the Healthy and the 
Sick, that of about ninety Books of his which 
remain, or that pafs under his Name, there 
are eight of them which treat of that Matter 
only or principally ; arid thro’ all the reft of 
his Works, he mentions much more of his 
Dicetetick Management, than any Affiftance 
he took from the Materia Medka. He com- 
plains, that * thofe who went before him, 
had written nothing concerning the Diet of 
fick Perfons, which was neverthelefs one of 
the moft eftential Parts of Phyjick , even in 
his Time, which we may juftly fuppofe 
wanted it lefs than later Ages. Galen , tho’ 
more abounding in Medicines, yet is far 
from depriving Diet of its due Place. On 
the contrary he declares, •f' cc Phat Phyjick has 
“ no Remedy fo effedlual as to he able to bring 
“ its r wanted Relief where the Regimen of 
u Diet either count er-adls or does not ajpfl it. 
And in another Place he fays, § “ float by 
u means of that part of Phyjick which pre~ 
“ Jcribes a proper Diet , thofe who have 
tc deriv'd too tender and weakly a Confutation 
tc from their Parents , have brought themj elves 
“ on to extreme old Age , without any Weak- 

* Epidem. lib. 6. 

-f De ufu Theriaces ad Pamphylianum. 

§ Lib. y. De Sanitate tuenda. 

L 4 £f nefs 

152 *fhe EngliOi Malady. 

“ nefs of their Senjes , free from all Pain and 
“ Difeafes . ” He adds afterwards concerning 
himfelf, “ Even 1 , / ,6<2<i TZttf <2 healthy 

“ Confitution from my Birth , nor led a Life 
“ of much Freedom and Eafe of Mind , jyaf 
“ ^ Precepts of this mof ufeful part of Phy- 
<c fck , which I prattifed after the i%th Tear 
<c of my Age , I never fell into any Diflemper , 
“ except a fight Fever of 24 Hours through 
“ Wearinefs or Excejs of Labour. ” The 
Methodifs , a celebrated among the An- 
tient Phyficians, laid the main Strefs of the 
Cure upon Diet and Evacuations 5 and fome 
of them carry ’d this to an extravagant Heighth. 
But Celfus , who feems to have judicioufly 
diifinguifh’d, and kept in a proper Mediutn 
between the Extremes, that the different 
of Phyfck in his Time, had carry’d each their 
particular and favourite Dodtrines to, was yet 
fufficiently fenfible and convinc’d of the Ne- 
ceffity of a proper Diet in the Cure of Dif- 
eafes ; for he is not only large and fall in his 
Directions and Regulations about it, in every 
particular Difeafe he treats of: but where he 
diftinguifhes between internal and external 
Diforders, he calls the firf thofe in which 
the Regulation of Diet is the principal Part 
of the Cure, and the latter thofe where Me- 
dicines make the chief Part of it. Even in 
the fame Place, where he takes fome Pains 
to refute the Dodtrine of Afclepiades , who 
maintain’d that all Difeafes were to be cured 

2 )kt for Nervous Difiempers • i 5 3 

by Diet alone, and to reflore Medicines to their 
proper Place. He goes further, to enjoin 
abfolute Fajiing in the firfl Attacks . of a Dis- 
order, and a ftridl Moderation in the Quan- 
tity as well as Quality of the Food, during 
all the Time that the Difeafe continues ; for 
nothing, he Jays, is more beneficial to a fick 
Perfon, than timely Abftinence. Then he pro- 
ceeds to fhew the Reafonablenefs of fuch a 
Conduct, and to blame and reprove thofe 
luxurious Perfons, who will allow their Phy- 
ficians to determine the Kind and Quantity 
of their Food, but referve to themfelves the 
Times of taking it ; or who think they a£t 
very generou fly if they fubmit to his Regula- 
tions in every thing befides the Kinds or Qua- 
lities of it : and ends with alluring them of 
the extreme Hurtfulnefs of any Error, either 
in the Quality, the Quantity, or the Times 
of taking their Nourifhment. It were end- 
lefs to produce Authorities for a Thing that 
makes a great Part of the "Works of all the 
ftandard Writers in Phyfick, I mention thefe 
only, becaufe they are acknowledg’d the great 
Mailers in this Science , and w r hofe Evidences 
mull of Confeauence, include the Suffrages 
of all their Approvers and Admirers; and as 
they will be fufficient to give the Reader, who 
is notconverfant in thefe Matters, a jufl Notion 
of the Confequence of Diet in the Cure of 
Difeafes. For I do not pretend to add (by 
what I have here faid) any thing to the Know- 


1 54 The Englifh Malady. 

ledge of thofe whofe Study or Profeffion has 
led them to fearch into thefe Affairs, fince 
they will not want Convi&ion. But here one 
will naturally inquire how fo neceffary and 
effential a Part of Phyjick comes to be in fucli 
Difgrace, and fo little regarded, as it is at 
prefent, fince it was fo much recommended, 
and made up fo great a Part of the Practice 
of the moft admired Phyficians. The Origi- 
nal of this Evil feems to be owing to fome 
over-zealous Abettors of Chymiftry . Th zAl- 
chymijtsy or more conceited and whimfical 
fort of Chymijls, were the great Men, that, 
depending folely upon Medicines, endeavour’d 
to diferedit Diet in the Cure of Difeafes, 
bragging and ranting in Honour of their Pa>- 
nacceds, Elixirs of Life , and other wonderful 
Secrets, which, if you will believe the In- 
ventors and Admirers of them, were fuffi- 
cient, without any other Means, even a Re- 
gimen of Diet , or whatever all Phyficians be- 
fore had thought moft indifpenfible, to work 
infallible Cures in the moft defperate Difeafes. 
It was this, and nothing elfe, they pretended 
to. When once fuch an ill Practice is fet 
on foot, the Patients theignfelves, as Celfus 
obferv’d in his Time, are fo averfe to being 
confin’d by difagreeable Reftraints,that they are 
prepar’d to believe every Impoftor, that will 
take upon him to difpenfe with the moft ne- 
ceffary Condition of Cure, and entertain a 
Prejudice againft thofe who will honeftly in- 

fdlet for Nervous c DiJlempers. 1 5 j 

lift upon the Neceffity of what they diflike, 
being more willing to believe fuch Phyficians 
are not fufficiently acquainted with the Vir- 
tues and Powers of Medicines, than that Me- 
dicines have no fuch Virtues as they would 
fo fain find them poffefs’d of : And they are 
generally fo fond of being prefcrib’d to rather 
in the moil; agreeable than in the moil effec- 
tual Manner, that not only few of them will 
fubmit to any Reftraints in Diet, but by their 
Squeamifhnefs and intemperate Delicacy, bring 
fome of the moil; powerful Medicines into 
Difgrace, and lefs and lefs common Ufe; fo 
that we may fear, not only the Bark (the 
Averfion of every nice Palate) but Mercury , 
Steel , and feveral other of the beft Medi- 
cines, which on the firft Difcovery were 
look’d upon as great Gifts of God for the Re- 
lief of human Miferies, will in time be quite 
difus’d, and perhaps forgot. However, iince 
we who are Phyficians are bound by a tnofi 
folemn Oath * (contriv’d by Hippocrates , for 
ought we know, at lead; it is handed down 
to us among his other Works, and is the Sub- 
ffance, I believe, of the Obligation and Vow 
that Candidates take in all the XJniverfities in 
Europe , when they receive their Degrees of 
PhyfckJ to order a Regimen of Diet proper 
and peculiar to each Diftemper we undertake 

* Vide Hippocrat. p. 42. Vol. I. Edit. VanderLind. or Edit. 
Fsefii, Sedt. 1 , 2$. 


156 The Englifli Malady. 

the Cure of, as well as proper Medicines, I 
jfhall proceed to inform the Reader of what 
I have found mod; beneficial or fuccefsful on 
this Head towards the Cure of the Diforders 
I am now treating of. 

§. II. It is highly probable, that the infi- 
nitely wife Author of our Nature has provi- 
ded proper Remedies and Reliefs in every Cli- 
mate, for all the Diftempers and Difeafes in- 
cident to their refpedtive Inhabitants, if in 
his Providence ( he has neceflarily placed them 
there : And certainly the Food and Phyjick 
proper and peculiar to the middling Sort of 
each Country and Climate , is the bed; of any 
poffible for the Support of the Creatures he 
has unavoidably placed there, provided only 
that they follow the Simplicity of Nature, 
the Dictates of Reafon and Experience, and 
do not lud: after foreign Delicacies : as we fee 
by the Health and Ch^arfulnefs of the mid- 
dling Sort of almod: all Nations. And who- 
ever is acquainted with the Hijlory of the 
Origin of Nations , and the Manner in which 
they liv’d, preferv’d themfelves in Health, 
and got rid of their Difeafes, while they liv’d 
in their Simplicity, and had not yet grown 
luxurious, rich and wanton, or had frequent 
Commerce with other Nations, and com- 
municated with them in their Luxury and 
Arts , will be pretty well fatisfy’d of this 
Truth. But where the Luxury and Dij 

2 Ytet for Nervous Dt (tempers . 157 

of all the Nations on the Globe are brought 
(Together, mingled and blended, and perhaps 
heighten’d by the Difference of Climates, there 
is an abfolute Neceffity that the Materials of 
Fhyfick , and the Methods of Cure, fhould be 
various and extended in an equal Proportion : 
which is the Caufe of the Multiplicity of our 
Medicines, and the Neceffity that Phyficians 
are under to know almoft every Thing that 
is knowable in Nature, for theUfe of Fhyfick: 
and to bring from each Country and Climate 
the proper Antidote for the Diftemper brought 
from thence. 

§. III. There is alfo another infinitely wife 
Contrivance in Nature, that Loathing and In- 
appetency , or at leaf! a Difficulty in Digeftion, 
always attends, in fome Degree or other, all 
Diforders whatfoever. Were every one that 
is a little ill, capable of the fame Riot and Ex- 
cefs during their Diftemper that they were 
when in perfect Health, when they laid in 
the Materials of their Diforders, they would 
infallibly and quickly ruin themfelves, and 
perifh without Refource : Whereas by this 
wife Neceffity, they are not only hinder’d 
from adding Oil to the Flame , but find a new 
Increafe of their Pains and Punifhments, up- 
on the fmalleft Excefs, which puts them un- 
der the Neceffity of forbearing: if the Plea- 
fure of gratifying their Senfuality is not greater 
than the Senfe of the Pain. And in fome 


158 The Englifli Malady. 

Cafes, where there has been a great Difpd- 
iition towards Luxury in the Patient, and 
where the Cure depended only or chiefly 
upon Abjtinence , I have with Pleafure ad- 
mired the Art and Ingenuity of a Phyjician , 
who, to keep up his Patient’s Spirits during 
the tedious Cure, and gain the Advantages 
of Temperance and Abftinence as much as 
he was able, has prefcrib’d a Courfe of in- 
nocent, tho’ neither palatable nor appetizing 
Medicines, for a long time, without teazing 
his Patient with the difpiriting and mortify- 
ing Dodtrine of Self-Denial , which either he 
had defpiled, or not receiv’d in its proper 
Degree and Manner, and thus effected the 
Cure, which otherwife had been impofli- 

§. IV. There is no furer or more gene- 
ral Maxim in Phyjick , than that Difeafes are 
cured by the contrary or oppofite Methods 
to that which produc’d them. If Nervous 
Diforders are the Difeafes of the Wealthy, 
the Voluptuous, and the Lazy, (as I have 
already fhewn) and are moftly produc’d, and 
always aggravated and increafed, by Luxury 
and Intemperance (tho' perhaps not always 
an abfolute and outragious Intemperance, yet 
certainly by one relative to the particular 
Conftitution and Strength of the Patient) 
there needs no great Depth of Penetration to 
find out that c Te?nperance and Abjtinence is 


j Diet for Nervous Dijlempers. i 

neceffary towards their Cure. But as there 
are different Stages or Degrees of thefe Dif- 
orders, and even feemingly different Kinds 
of them, according to the Prevalency of this 
or that particular Quality in the Materials of 
the general Caufe : whereby different Effects, 
Appearances, and Symptoms are produc’d 
with greater or leffer Violence, and longer 
or fhorter Duration ; fo different Regulations 
in the Quantity and Quality of the Food, is 
neceffary towards their Removal : I fhali 

therefore firft give fome general Directions in 
thefe two lafc Particulars, and afterwards 
fubjoin fome Confiderations, to be made in 
the Application to particular Cafes. 

§. V. As to the Qualities of the folid Food, 
it is neceffary, ijl. That it be foft and ten- 
der, light and eafy of Digeftion, and afford- 
ing a mild or Balfamick Chyle ; that its Ma- 
terials be found and good in their Kind, and 
fitted for Ufe, without the artful Compofures 
of Cookery , or the Means us’d commonly in 
making it more lufcious and palatable ; and 
likewife, that it be the mofl fimple and un- 
compounded, and that fewefl different Mate- 
rials poffible be receiv’d into the fame Meal ; 
for as they will only ferve to provoke Excefs, 
fo, as Cel/us * obferves, “ Variety of Foods y 

* Lib. Ill, Cap, 6. Vide etiajn Sandt. Med. Static. Sedt. 2 . 
Aph, /i. 

u thd 

1 60 The Englifh Malady, 

£C the? they may go down with greater Eafe 
<c and Pie af are, yet they are not fo eafily 
“ digejled. ” 2 dly. That it be endu’d, as 

much as poffible, with Qualities contrary to 
the Nature of the Dijlemper , and the Pices 
of the Fluids : * That it be thin and diluting , 
where there are vifeid or fizy Juices, great 
Obftrudions, or grofs Habits : That cooling 
and liquid Things be preferr’d to heating and 
drying Foods, where there are acute Pains, 
and violent or inflammatory Symptoms : That 
Seeds be preferr’d before Roots, Greens, or 
Fruits, in Cafes of Flatulence ; and that foft, 
mild, fweet, or at leaft inflpid Things, be 
chofen, rather than thofe that are fharp, fait 
or four, in Scorbutick , Hedlick , Scrophulous , 
or Cancerous Cafes and Conftitutions ; or 
when there are any Ulcers, Foulnefs of the 
Skin, or other Signs of fharp and acrid Juices: 
And fo in other Cafes, -f 

§. VI. The Quantity of the Food mu ft 
be proportion’d to the Strength of the Dige- 
ftion, and the Wafte or Decay of the Fluids, 
from Exercife or bodily Addon, or to the 
prefent Fulnefs of the Habit, and Obftrudion 
of the natural Secretions. But as it is impof* 
fible to give general Rules , in thele Cafes, 
wherein almoft every individual Perfon differs 

* Vide Sanftorii Aphorifmata de Cibo Sc Potu. 
-j- Vide Arbhthnott of Aliments. 

from ' 

^Diet for Nervous ^Dijlempers , 1 6 i 

from another, or even from himfelf at diffe- 
rent Times, fo the precife Regulation of this 
muft be left to the Patient’s own Feelings, 
and the Honefty and Experience of his Phy- 
fician. A few Obfervations upon the Quan- 
tity that agrees belt, fits eafiefl and lighteft 
on the Stomach, gives no Oppreffion, Heavi- 
nefs, Heat or Feverifhnefs, while it is digeft- 
ing, and paffes off without any ill Effeds, 
will moft readily determine it for the Patient ; 
and it is of fo great Confequence to the Wel- 
fare of the Patient, that no Pains ought to 
be fpar’d for attaining the Knowledge of this 
precife and precious Mediocrity , which ought, 
as feldom as poffible, to be tranfgrefs’d either 

§. VII. Those who have only a few 
tranfient Symptoms of thefe Diforders : whofe 
Conftitution is yet found, and their Juices 
good and fweet: if they live with a due De- 
gree of Temperance fuited to their Conftitu- 
tions, and take care not to increafe their Dif- 
orders by Exceffes, will need no other Re- 
ftridion, than to abate of their Quantity while 
they are more immediately under thefe Symp- 
toms : will gradually get rid of their Diflem- 
per, and avoid violent Shocks, or great 
Sufferings : and be reftor’d to their former 
Health and Freedom of Spirits, by the other 
Affiftances of Medicine and Exercife. Thofe 
who have deeper, more habitual and violent 

M Symptoms, 

'i6t The Englifli Malady. 

Symptoms, will need a greater Degree of 
Care and Caution ; and their Stomach being 
weaker, and their Digeftion going on flower, 
will be neceflitated to choofe the lighteft and 
moft eafily digefted Foods, and the fmalleft 
Quantity of ’ fpirituous Liquors: and will fuf- 
fer in Proportion as they exceed the Quantity 
that is determin’d by the mentioned Obfer- 
vations. For fuch the lighteft, young, and 
white Animal Foods only, are nec'effary, and 
thefe alfo only at Dinner. And if they are 
fubjecl to violent and acute fParoxyfms, they 
muft be more than ordinary careful about thefe 
Times, and then even ufe a cooler, fofter, 
and more liquid Diet. In general, they muft 
govern themfelves by their Feelings, and 
take no more at a Time than their Stomach 
will eafily bear, but rather repeat it oftner ; 
and they ought always to wait till their Ap- 
petite returns in its ufual Degree, and they 
will even find, however moderate or abfte- 
mious they may feem, that upon any Lovv- 
nefs, Heaviness, or Want of Spirits, ftill 
lighter Meals will reftore their Chearfulnefs. 

§. VIII. But as for all thofe whofe 
Conftitutions are fpoiled, who have bad or 
corrupted Juices, violent and dangerous 
Symptoms , great QbjlruLtiom, are fubjed to the 
great and eminent Degrees of thefe Diforders, 
are threaten’d with Htttic or Confumption (or 
a Deftruction of feme of the great Flfcera, 
n and 

Diet for Nervous Dljlempers , 1 6j 

and who have tried all the other Methods 
and Medicines that could be fuggefted with- 
out Succefs) for thefe I have found no 
other Relief than a total Abfltnence from 
Animal Foods of all Kinds, and all Sorts of 
llrong and fermented Liquors, keeping only 
to Milk, with Seeds or Grains, and the dif- 
ferent Kinds of Vegetable Food, according 
to the Nature of the Diftemper : from which 
they have never fail’d to find a prefent Re- 
lief, and a confiderable Abatement of the 
Violence of their Symptoms. Many have 
been led into this Method without any Ad- 
vice or Direction, but merely from their 
own Feelings, and obferving what they were 
eafieft under. And many more have been 
abfolutely cur’d and free’d from all their 
Diforders by it : fome even from a very 
(hort Time after they enter’d upon it, and 
others in a longer or fhorter Time, accord- 
ing to the Obmnacy of their Diftemper, if 
the Difeafe has not been fo far gone, as to be 
paft all poifible Relief from natural Means. 
In thefe laft Cafes it has done all that was in 
the Power of Art, has lefTen’d their Miferies, 
and protracted their Fate, and has given 
more Eafe and Quiet than they could re- 
ceive from any other Method they could 
turn to, except Opiates and Anodyn’s : to 
which one is never to give himfekf, till he 
has given up all Hopes of a total Cure, 
Where the Nerves or Solids are naturally 

M a weak ? 

164 The EngliOi Maladt; 

weak, or the Perfon fubjed to nervous 
Dijorders from their Infancy, there is no 
Method will abfolutely free them from fome 
flight Returns of their former Symptoms ; but 
this Diet I have found to do more than any 
other Method whatever : however, no one 
ought to undertake this Regimen, without 
the Advice of fome honeft, able, and expe- 
rienced Phyfician , who has confider’d his 
Cafe and Conftitution, and can dired him 
aright in the proper Management of it, and 
the Methods of keeping up the due Tenfion 
of his Solids, which fuch a Diet may pro- 
bably fomewhat relax, while it is purifying 
the juices, and cleanling the Habit : and can 
likewife judge of his Conftancy, Firmnels, 
and Refolution to go through with it, Cnee 
in fome deep rooted and confirm’d Diftem- 
pers of this Kind, though the Patient may 
find a confiderable Relief for many Months 
yet pofiibly when the grofs Impurities, 
the Choler , Phlegm , and Salts ftor’d up in 
the Habit, come to be thrown off on the 
Alimentary Tube , as into the common 
Shore, and all the Emunffory Glands be- 
come loaded with the Defpumation of the 
whole Habit : railing Sicknefs, Lownefs of 
Spirits, and a Return of all, or many, of the 
former Diforders ; this may blaft all his 
Hopes, and mightily difeourage him, and 
make him condemn the Method, and blame 
the Phyfician who adyis'd him. But if he 


*T)tet for Nervous Ttijlempers. 165 

Hands this Shock with Firmneis and Pa- 
tience (which will be readily relieved by pro- 
per Evacuations , Volatiles and Hftringents) he 
may be aflured of Succefs, and his perfed Re- 
covery is at Hand. But as there are incurable 
Diforders, which no Method or Medicine will 
reach, fo it frequently happens in this : And 
even after the Patient is recover’d by this Me- 
thod, he mull refolve to continue in it ever after, 
at leall, not to indulge himfelf in a much 
higher Degree of Food, without fuffering 
prefently, or hazarding a Return of all his 
Diforders ; for as Celfus obferves, in all Dis- 
orders of the Stomach, by whatever Methods 
the Patient is recover'd , he mufl continue in 
the fame when he is well , for the Difeafe will 
return , unlefs Health be protected by the fame 
Means that rejlofd it, 

<£. IX- I would not be underllood here 
(as feme have malicioully and artfully mif-* 
feprefented me, contrary to my moll deli- 
berate Intention) to recommend a total Milk 
or a Vegetable Diet , or indeed any particu- 
lar one, to every one that is lick, or out of 
Order : I never once had fuch a Dream. I 
have given the Preference in my Effay on the 
Gout , to the common Diet of well-chofen 
Flelh Meat, and good middling ripe Wine, 
even in that obftinate and painful Dillemper, 
commonly treated by a Milk Diet. And in 
my EJfay cm Health and Long Lije , I have 
M 3 endear 

i 66 The Englifli Malady.’ 

endeavour’d, as far as I could, to enable the 
Patient to make the proper Choice of Animal 
Foods fit for his Conftitution, and the Dif- 
orders he labours under; and have, from con- 
fidering the Nature of the Diftemper, adually 
order’d fome who were in a Vegetable Dlet y 
to change it for an Animal one. A total 
Milk and Vegetable Diet, befides its being 
particular and inconvenient in a Country 
where Animal Food is the common Diet, 
and affording no fufficient Store of Animal or 
Mechanical Strength (to Perfons naturally 
weak, or who have not been habituated to 
it from their Cradles) may bring the Patient 
into fuch a State, that, without the utmoft 
Rifque or Danger, he can never leave it off 
again. And even while he is under it, by 
relaxing and foftening the Solids, (in fome 
Degree) when it is a fweetening the Juices, 
it brings him under a Neceflity of keeping up 
their Tenfion with proper aftringent, warm, 
and cordial Medicines, (which are of the 
fame Nature with a more generous Diet) and 
inceffant Labour and Exercife : And in grofs 
foul Bodies, or thofe fubjed to goutijh , fcor - 
butick , or other inflammatory Diforders and 
tParoxyfms : requires the utmoft Care and 
Caution that the Difeafe be not thereby at 
iirft, thrown inwards, and fo the extreme De- 
grees of Vapours, Lownefs, and other Ner- 
vous Diforders enfue, which this Diet is de- 
ftgn’d to prevent. Indeed there are fome 

i Diet for Nervous Dijlempers. \6y 

Cafes wherein a Vegetable and Milk Diet 
feems abfolutely neceifary, as in fever e and 
habitual Gouts , Rheamatifms , Cancerous , Le- 
prous , and Scrophulous Diforders, extreme 
Nervous Cholicks y Epilepfies , violent L/j/- 
Jlerick Fits y Melancholly , Confumptions , 

and the like Difeafes mentioned in the Pre- 
face, and towards the laft Stages of all chro- 
nical Diftempers ; in fuch Diftempers I have 
feldom feen fuch a fail of a good Effect 
at laft. But in raoft other Chronical Diflem - 
Nervous or Humourous , and in all their 
tolerable Degrees, and firft or fecond Stages, 
a common middling, plain and moderate 
Diet is certainly the beft and fafeft ; a little 
Animal Food of the youngeft, lighted, ten- 
dered:, thinneft, and fweeteft Kind, and a 
fmall Proportion of generous Liquors, to 
keep up the due Fenjion of the Solids, under 
the Regulations I have mention’d ; weak 
Broths and Soops made of tender young 
Animal Subftances, without Fat or Butter, 
and thicken’d with a due Proportion of Ve- 
getable Seeds or Grains, fuch as thofe of 
Wheat, Barley, Rice, Sage, Oats, Millet, 
and the like : Such a Diet , I fay, will, in my 
Opinion, anfwer all the Ends of pur6 Milk 
and Vegetables ; and as I have often found 
fuch an one left dangerous, fo it is a more 
eafy Regulation, as things now ftand : and 
wants only a few Months in the Erne 
Ccurfe ? of that Cure that might be gain’d 
M' 4 per~ 

'i 68 The Englifh Malady. 

perhaps by going into fuch a particular Me- 
thod of Diet. I am never for entering up- 
on extreme or uncommon Means of Diet or 
Medicines , but in extreme and mortal Cafes ; 
for I always think that common Senfe is the 
beft Indication of a found Mind, and common 
Life the beft Means of temporal Happinefs, 
elfe they had never been common. 

§. X. One great Advantage that a Milk 
and Vegetable Diet has over a Flelh or Ani- 
mal one, lies principally in this, that one 
may thereby avoid the Loading the Juices 
with too many Salts of any Kind, or thicken- 
ing them with more grols and hard earthy 
Particles, or fuch as cannot be broken and 
comminuted by the natural Force of the 
weak Solids : and by it Patients will not be 
fo readily led into Errors in the Quantity ; 
Nature not being tempted to receive or 
retain fuch unprovoking and impoignant 
Viands, whereby they avoid the Snare and 
femptation that Liquorifhnefs and high Re- 
lifh throws many into. Another Advantage 
is, that it effectually dilutes and cools too 
thick or hot Juices, and that afufficient Quan- 
tity of it may be taken to keep the Bowels 
and Blood Veffels full, and fufficiently turgid, 
whereby the Circulation and natural Evacua- 
tions and Secretions will be more uniformly 
carried on in fuch weak Habits, than canpof- 
fobly be under an Animal Dkt of fo fmall a 


' ^Diet for Nervous ‘Diftempers. 169 

Quantity as muft be neceffary in fuch Cafes, 
unlefs it be extremely diluted with Water, 
and the farinaceous Vegetables, which brings 
it to the fame State : And therefore, in great- 
ly depraved Habits, and fuch deep and dan- 
gerous Difeafes as I have mention’d, it is the 
moll proper and abfolutely neceffary Regi- 
men to carry on the natural Functions with- 
out Pain and Uneafinefs, and to preferve the 
Sides of the Capillary Veflels from coalefcing 
and growing together, and fo preventing 
irremediable Obftru&ions ; tho’ in other 
more flight Cafes, it may be not only not ne- 
celfary, but even fometimes inconvenient and 
hurtful : For tho" it will always produce at 
length Freedom from Pain, and Freedom of 
Spirits, and a greater Capacity for intelle&ual 
Functions, yet it will never beget mechani- 
cal Force and Strength, or a hardy, ftrong 
Conftitution, which in fome Circumftanccs, 
Employments, Trades, and Profeflions, is 
indifpenfably neceflary \ fo that fuch a 
Courfe and Regimen is only proper for thofe 
who follow Intellectual Occupations, and ex- 
pert chiefly mental Pleafures, Freedom from 
Pain, Chearfulnefs and Length of Days, or, 
in ftiort, for the Studious and Sedentary. 

XI. The Sum of the Whole, in my 
Opinion, is this: Our Diftempers generally 
arife from Oils, Salts, and Spirits, carried 
into the Habit by our Food j nothing elfe but 


\jq The Englifli Malady.' 

thefe, in the Nature of Things, having Force 
enough to produce them. Some certain 
Proportion of thefe is abfblutely necelfary to 
excite, rouze, and carry on the Circulation , 
Perfpiration, and all the Secretions with their 
proper Force and Vigour : When the Juices 
are too vifcid or acrimonious, or the Ob- 
ftru&ions many and great, Diet offers us 
one of the fureft Means to cure thefe ill 
Qualities. All Salts, in therr general Na- 
ture, are of the fame Kind, Hard, and 
highly Attra&ive, and differ only as they 
are fmaller or greater in their Parts, and 
according to the Earths, Oils, and other 
Mixtures that unite them, or mix with them. 
Milk and Vegetables have but little faline 
Matter in Proportion to their Bulk, and 
therefore a total Milk and Vegetable Diet , 
may, in fome Cafes, defraud the Gonftitu- 
tion of that due Proportion of Salts neceffary 
for the mention’d Purpofes, and for want of 
which the Solids may become too lax and 
feeble. But, on the other hand, too great a 
Quantity of Flefh Meat, and hot fermented 
Liquors, or that which is of too faline and 
fpirltuous a Nature, will load the Habit with 
too many of thefe Salts and Oils, and fo 
beget the mention’d Diftempers. The great 
Art of Life then, in chronical Diftempers, is 
to afcertaln the Mediocrity of fuch a Diet as 
neither makes the Salts and Oils too many 
to increafe the Diftemper, nor too few, to 

fDiet for Nervous 7 )iftempers . 1 7 1 

let the Solids become too much relax’d. 
Animal Food then, and Spirituous Liquors 
become more tolerable in Northern Climates , 
where the Want of fufficient Sun, and the 
Moifture of the Air , makes the Solids of 
fomewhat too loofe and flabby a Nature, and 
fo require a greater Proportion of Salts and 
Oils, needful to rouze and twitch them, 
than in more Southern Climates. Suppofe, 
for Example, a Dram of Salts, and Oils or 
Spirits in twenty-four Hours was neceffary ; 
then certainly that Diet which conveys this 
Dram of Salts and Oils in the whole Subftance 
of the Food, according to the Bulk, Age, 
and Expences of the Life of the Patient, 
into the Habit, will be the beft, of whatever 
Kind it may be. But if, by an Over-charge 
of Salts and Oils, Difeafes are brought on, 
and are to be remedied by a Diet wherein 
one half of this Quantity is found ; then fuch 
Food is to be chofen, or fuch a Quantity 
of it taken, as will convey into the Habit 
only half a Dram of fuch : and if that End 
can be obtain'd by following the common 
and ordinary Diet of the Country and Cli- 
mate, and of the healthieffc People in it, then 
that is, beyond difpute, the beft Regimen 
in general to preferve Health. Under Dif- 
eafes the Cafe is different. So that there can 
be no Room for miftaking the proper Kind 
of Diet , nor the Validity of the Reafons on 
which it is founded. The only Difficulty 


17 1 The Englifli MaladtI 

that remains, will be in choofing fuch Kinds, 
and that Quantity of Animal Food which belt 
fuits the Age, Bulk, and Conftitution of the 
Patient, and conveys only the neceffary 
Quantity of Salts and Oils. To determine 
which was the chief Defign of my EJfay on 
Health and Long Life, and of Dr. Arbuthnott’ s 
Book of Aliments , and which is evidently of 
the greateft Confequence to all who would 
fecure thefe two in the moft effedual Man- 
ner Mortality will permit. 


Of the Exercife proper for Nervous 
i Dijlempers . 

I. Y ■ THERE is not any one Thing, 
I more approv’d and recom- 
mended by all Phyficians, and 
the Experience of all thofe who have fuf- 
fer’d under Nervous Diftempers, (fince the 
Diftin&ion has been made) than Exercfe , of 
one Kind or another ; and this without the 
leaf! Exception or Limitation, but fo far as 
the Strength can admit; if it is without 
Weakening, Fatigue, or Flurry of Spirits. 


Exercife for Nervous ‘Diftempers . \y 5 

In the Southern Climates, as there is fcarce 
any, at leaft few. Nervous Diftempers of 
the lingering and chronical Kind, fo there 
is very little Room for Exercife merely for 
Health : The Warmth and Adion of the 
Sun , keeping the Blood and Juices fufiicient- 
ly fluid, the Circulation free, and all the 
Secretions in their due Degree and Plenty, 
fo as to prevent Obftrudions, to which the 
Thinnefs, Coolnefs, and Lightnefs of their 
almoft Vegetable Diet contributes not a little. 
But in the more Northern and colder Cli- 
mates, where the Food is more grofs, higher 
and harder of Digeftion, being moftly Ani- 
mal ; where the Perfpiration is fmall, or 
fcarce any at all, efpecially in Nervous or 
chronical Diftempers, there is an abfolute 
Neceflity of due Exercife , and Labour to 
fupply the Want of Sun and thin Air, and 
remedy thefe Defeats : The Negled of which, 
in our cold Climates, ought to be, in Reafon, 
reckon’d as abfurd, ridiculous, and unna- 
tural, as our ufing it appears fantajlical to 
Orientals . The few Inftances brought from 
Spain , Italy , Portugal , and even more 
Northern Countries, of People that live 
there to a great Age, and without Diftem- 
pers, merely fitting ftill, are little to the 
Purpofe, confider’d as a Rule for our Con- 
dud (fince, fetting afide the above-men- 
don’d Advantages, which they enjoy in 


174 'The Englifh Malady. 

common with other Southern Countries? 
whereby Exercife becomes lefs neceflary for 
them than for us) they are in a great mea- 
lure excluded from the Benefit they might 
poflibly reap from it, if it was neceffary, 
by its being impracticable in any high De- 
gree : For it would be abfurd to propofe to 
them to take long continued Journies in 
their fcorching Climate for the Cure of 

§. II. When Mankind was fimple, plain, 
honeft, and frugal, there were lew or no 
Difeafes. : 'Temperance , Exercife , Hunting , 

Labour , and Indufiry kept the Juices fweet, 
and the Solids brac’d. The Spiritual Pafi* 
fions, however, raged and boiled high ; 
thofe, to wit, of Ambition , Malice , Re - 
verge, and Pride , which beget Ufurpation , 
Conquefts , Murder , and Wars : Labour and 
Exercife were obferv’d to beget Firmnefs, 
Strength, and Activity for thefe Purpofes. 
It was afterwards introduc’d into the Reli- 
gious Worfhip. Rewards and Honours were 
appointed for the Vitfors in thefe Jacred 
Cornells. But Luxury and Intemperance 
having gain’d Ground, thro' Peace, Security, 
Eafe, and Plenty, Difeafes fprang up and 
multiplied. Exercife and Labour were intro- 
duc’d into their Cure by Phyficians , who 
had obferv’d the Health and' Vigour of the 


Exercife for Nervous TEftempers* 1 7 5 

Laborious and A<ftive. * Hippocrates , Diodes , 
Paraxagoras, and Etafiflratus firft introduc’d 
it into Rules, Laws , and j appointing 

the Times and Kinds of it, appropriated to 
each particular Difternper. The Grecians in 
general, the Athenians and Lacedemonians in 
particular, erected Academies , Gymnajia , or 
publick Places, for the common Conveniency 
of all Kinds of Exercife, with all proper Ac- 
commodations and Services for that End, 
both to train up the People for ff r ar y and to 
preferve them from, and cure their Difeafes. 
Thefe Gymnajia were dedicated to Apollo , as 
God of Phyjick , and thither the Phyjicians 
fent all thofe who laboured under chronical 
Diftempers, of which Exercife and Diet y 
limited and managed according to the Na- 
ture of the Cafe, made up all the Cure. By 
Degrees it Ipread over all the Eajlern and 
Southern Countries, and at laft had lb gene- 
ral an Approbation, as to be univerfally 
received all the World over, where Health 
was regarded, or the Cure of Diftempers 
ftudied. Such has been the original Rife, 
Reception, and Approbation of Exercife , as 
is evident from antient Hiftory and univer- 
fal Tradition. Whoever will confult Ls 
Clerc y will be abundantly fatisfied in this 

§. III. 

* Galen. Cap. jB. lib. ad Thrafybulum. 

\ 76 The Englifli Malady. 

§. III. The Romans (as wife arid brave a 
People as ever was formed upon the Foot of 
mere Nature) received it with all their other 
Arts from the Greeks , and thought it fo 
necelfary, tho’ in a much warmer Climate, 
than ours of England, that they founded a 
great Part of the Cure of Diftempers, as well 
as the prefervative Means of Health, upon it, 
in its various Degrees and Kinds. Thofe 
who are curious may find all the Learning 
of the Antients, colleded to entertain them 
on this Subjed, with the beft Reafons and 
Philofbphy of the Times ; and the Account 
of the Origin of new Difeafes among the 
Romans, by H. Mercurialis , in his Treatife 
de Arte Gymnajlica, in which every thing 
ufeful, ingenious, or that has been invented 
for this Purpofe, is brought together. Sy- 
denham, our Countryman, has enlarged in 
its Praifes, as one of the moft fovereign Re- 
medies hitherto known ; and mentions feve- 
ral Inftances of its wonderful Succefs, and 
of its conquering the feveral Effects of Ner- 
vous Diftempers by long and conftant Jour- 
nies on Horfeback. Fuller de Arte Gym - 
najlica, has done what he could, to en- 
courage and explain it. Many others of 
the beft of the Moderns, have given it 
its due Commendation : But it is not my 
Bufinefs to colled Authorities, for a thing 


Exercife for Nervous E)ij tempers . i yy 

fo univerfally * acknowledged, and lb littl e 
difputed. As to my own Experience, • I 
never faw any thing done to the Purpofe» 
in Nervous Cafes, or with a Succefs com- 
plete, and fubfifting for any long time with- 
out the Affiftance of thefe two, Diet and 
Exercife. I have even found the Neceffity 
of adding to thefe, in lome Cafes, to make 
the Recovery durable and lolid, Change of 
a thicker Air and of a colder Climate, to 
that of a warmer Sun and purer Air ; which 
have feldom ever failed, when any thing 
would fucceed. But that not being in every 
one’s Power, they muft be contented with 
ufing the Means they can find within their 
Reach. The Benefit and abfolute Neceffity 
of a pure, fragrant, frefh Air, and the Balm, 
Nitre, or Acid of it, both to Health and 
Life, are demonftrably proved from the Ex- 
periments of Sir Ifaac- Newton , Mr. Hales , 
and Dr. Bryan Robin (on, both in the Vege- 
table and Animal Kingdom. 

§ IV. Tho’ Experience, which extreme- 
ly confirms the Benefit of this Remedy, is 
the only folid Foundation to go upon, in 
the Cure of Diftempers, yet the Reafon of 
the thing fpeaks fo loudly, that it cannot 

* We muft fometimes force the Timorous from their Beds, 
and roufe the Lazy and Sluggifh. Htyfoc.Epidem. lib. 6, 



178 The Englifli Maladt. 

but be hearken’d to by every reafonable 
Perfon. As Diet and proper Medicines , in 
due Time, will certainly rectify the Juices , 
fo Labour and Exercife will moft infallibly 
ftrengthen the Solids, by promoting and 
continuing their conftant A&ion and Mo- 
tions. It is much like the conftant Buckling 
of Hair, (I mean as to its Vertue and Effi- 
cacy, however different the Mechanicks of 
thefe Effe&s may be) or keeping it for fbme 
time fixed in a certain Pofition, to give the 
internal Parts new Contacts and Cohejions , 
and to confirm and fettle them in thefe, 
which makes them retain the Form and Fi- 
gure we defign. ’Tis true, it is very hard, 
if not impoffible to give a ftrong and lafting 
Union and Cohefion to the weak, disjoined, 
and difeontinued Fibres of People of weak 
and relaxed Solids ; but Exercife conftantly 
continued does this (and will do it, always) 
as much as the Nature of Things will admit 
of. There is an Innate Power of Contrac- 
tion , , a Spring and Rlajticity in all Animal 
Solids, as being contrived and defigned as 
Inftruments of Action and Motion ; by Ac- 
tion and Motion only, this innate Power is 
nourifhed, preferved, increafed, and reco- 
vered. And on the contrary, without them, 
it grows languid, feeble, and weak. Not 
only is the Circulation promoted, the Per- 
fpiration and all the other Secretions for- 
warded by Exercife ; but by the Mujcular 


Exercife for Nervous fDijtempers . 1 7 9 

Actions, the Blood and Juices are kept in a 
due State of Fluidity, their Vifcidity broken 
and diffolved, and all Obftru&ions hindered 
or removed. There feems likewife, as it 
were, new Particles to be forced by this 
A&ion, into the Interfaces and Ruptures of 
the Solids, to knit and folder them, and re- 
cover their loft Union, Cohefion, and Spring: 
So that Exercife feems the only, at leaft, 
the fovereign Remedy, in relaxed and 
weakened Solids. And as a low, light, and 
temperate Diet is necelfary, and the beft 
means of diluting and fweetening the Juices: 
and as at the fame Time, it fometimes 
weakens and relaxes the Solids, fo Exercife 
is more eminently ufeful in that Cafe, to 
keep up the due Force and Strength of the 
Fibres , elfe the Patient can never receive the 
full Benefit of fuch a Diet . All thofe in a 
low Di’et , who have long preferved them- 
felves in any Degree of Force and Spirits, 
have been conftantly great Followers of Exer- 
cife, without which, even their low Diet would 
not have been fo beneficial, efpecially after 
the Meridian of Life, when there is little 
Hopes of an adventitious Force . And one 
Reafon why Hypochondriacal and Hyjlerical 
Perfons relapfe fo frequently, after having 
been fo wonderfully recovered by the Force 
of Diet , Exercife , and Change of Air, is, 
becaufe they either intermit their Regimen of 
Viet } their Exercife , or perhaps both : and 

N a there- 

i So The Englifli Maladx. 

therefore he who, under Nervous Diforders 
and Complaints, would continue tolerably 
well after he is got better, muft continue 
both his Regimen of Diet, and Ids Exercife, 
in fome certain Degree ever after. It is 
true, Diet will do infinitely more than Ex- 
ercile, and have more lafting Effe&s, but 
both fhould be joined; 

§ V. It is of no great Confequence of 
what Sort or Kind the Exercife be, provided 
it be but Bodily Exercife and A&ion ; cer- 
tainly riding on Horfe-back is the beft of all, 
becaufe of the almoft erect Pofture, the 
lelfer Wearinefs, and the more univerfal 
and natural Motion of all the Organs, with 
the conftant Change of Air : and that the lower 
Regions of the Body, and the alimentary 
Inftruments and Hypochondres are thereby 
moft fhaken and exercifed. Next to that, is 
riding in a Chafe or Chariot. Walking, tho* 
it will anfwer the lame End and Purpofe as 
well as any, and may be more readily and 
eafily ufed, becaufe it may be equally fol- 
lowed within Doors and without, in Winter 
as well as Summer, yet it is more laborious 
and tirefome. Next to thefe are the a&ive 
Games and Sports, fuch as Hunting , Shoot - 
ing, Bowls , Billiards , Shuttle-cock , and the 
like. I have known thofe who have exer- 
cifed themfelves by ftrongly working their 
Arms backward and forward ; and fome 


Exercife for Nervous fDiJtempers , i 8 i 

have ufed Weights for that Purpofe, Twing- 
ing and fhaking them, in their Hands. And 
fome have done it with a Cane , rubbing 
it ftrongly over the whole Mufcles of the 
Body and Limbs, The Flefo-Brufh has 
fupplied thofe who could not afford, or 
were not able to ufe any other Kind of 
Exercife. But certainly the beft of all is, 
where Amufement or Entertainment of the 
Mind is joined with Bodily Labour, and con- 
ftant Change of Air, as in Hunting , Bowls, 
Billiards , and the like, and riding Journies 
about Bufinefs : For the Entertainment of 
the Mind, and keeping it agreeably diverted 
from reflecting on its Misfortunes or Mifery, 
makes Exercife infinitely more beneficial, as 
thought fulnefs. Anxiety , and Concern render 
it quite ufelefs, 

$ VI. It is upon this Account that I 
would earneftly recommend to all thofe af- 
flicted with Nervous Diftempers, always to 
have fome innocent entertaining A?nufement 
to employ themfelves in, for the Reft 
of the Day, after they have employed a 
fufficient time upon Exercife , towards the 
Evening, to prepare them for their Night’s 
quiet Reft. f It feems to me abfolutely im- 
poflible, without fuch a Help, to keep the 
Mind eafy, and prevent its wearing out the 
Body, as the Sword does the Scabbard ; it 
is no matter what it is, provided it be but a 

N 3 Hobby - 

1 8 2 The Englifti Malady. 

Hobby-Horfe , and an Amufement, and flop 
the Current of Reflexion and intenfe Think- 
ing, which Perfons of weak Nerves are 
apteft to run into. The common Divifion 
of Mankind, into Tjhiick Thinkers, Slow 
Thinkers , and No Thinkers , is not without 
Foundation in Nature and true Philofophy. 
Perfons of flender and weak Nerves are ge* 
nerally of the firft Clafs : the Activity, Mo- 
bility, and Delicacy of their intellectual Or- 
gans make them lo, and thereby weakens 
and relaxes the Material Organs of the in- 
tellectual Faculties ; and therefore ingenious 
Flattering, eafy and agreeable Amufements, 
and Intervals of No-thinking and Swijs- Me- 
ditation, (as it is malicioufly called) is as 
neceffary for fuch, as Sleep to the Weary, or 
Meat to the Hungry, elfe the Spring will 
break, and the Sword wear out the Scabbard. 
Study, of difficult and intricate Matters will 
infallibly do Hurt. Reading muft be light, 
entertaining, and diverting, as well as Food. 
Converfation muft be eafy and agreeable, 
•without Difputes or Contradiction. The 
JDiverJton innocent and inexpenfive, elfe the 
Remorfe and Reflexion afterwards will do 
infinitely more Prejudice than the prefent 
Amufement can recompenfe ; afhd it muft 
end at feafonable Hours, without leaving a 
Harry and Fatigue upon the Spirits of the 
Patient. To determine abfolutely the Kinds 
and Quantities of the Rxercife, Amufement , 


Caufes of Nervous Difiempers. 1 8 $ 

©r even Diet, or the Times moft proper for 
filch, is impoflible to any but the Patient 
himfelf. In the general, I fhall only fay, 
that as Nervous Dijlempers and Old Jge re- 
duce Men to the Weaknefs, the Tendernefs, 
and Delicacy of Children, or very young 
Perfons, they muft be treated, and treat 
themfelves as fuch, 'till Strength and a per- 
fect Recovery come, if ever they are fo 
lucky as to arrive at it, much in the fame 
way, as a Child muft be treated in his Non- 
a?e % till he arives at Manhood. 

O * 


Of Jome of the more Immediate and 
Eminent Caufes of Nervous Dif- 
tempers . 

$ I. TT Never, faw any Perfon labour 
1 under fevere, obftinate, and ftrong 
^ Nervous Complaints, but I always 
found at laft, the Stomach , Guts , Liver, Spleen^ 
Mefentery , or fome of the great and necef- 
fary Organs or Glands of the lower Belly 
were obftru&ed, knotted, fchirrous, or 
N 4 fpoil'd, 

184 The Englifli Malady.' 

fpoil’d, and perhaps all thefe together ; and 
it may be very juftly affirmed, that no habi- 
tual and grievous, or great Nervous Difor- 
ders, ever happened to any one who la- 
boured not under fome real Glandular Dif- 
temper, either fcrophulous or fcorbutical , 
original * or acquired. So that in general, 
great Nervous Diforders may juftly and pro- 
perly be termed Glandular. The Stomach is 
often the firft and principal Organ (or at 
leaft by Confent and Confequence) in the 
Fault : Either it is too thin and weak by 
Nature, or the inner villous Membrane is 
worn off by Luxury, fo that it cannot con- 
trad clofe enough to embrace the Food ; or 
it is become too Toft, flabby, and relaxed, 
io that it cannot, with fufficient Spring, 
fqueeze its Contents ; or its Glands are grow- 
ing fchvrrous , hard, and knotted , fo that its 
Adion is weak and languid, and interrupted, 
or laflly , there may adually be a difcovera- 
ble Imfojlhume , S chirr ofity, or Cancer al- 
ready extant in it. And hence the NeceF 
iity of frequent, but gentle Vomits (at leaft 
in all thefe Cafes but the laft) to empty 
thefe weak Glands , when full of indigefted 
Flegm, Wind, or Choler, in fuch Nervous 
Cafes, .and a thin, light, cool, and balmy 
Diet , proportioned to theWeaknefs and In- 
firmities of the Stomach and Solids (to give 
it the leaft Labour, and moft Reft poffible, 
as we cure broken Bones, by ufing them, 


Caufes of Nevvous %)iftempers. 1 8 jr 

little) as well as to cut off the Sources of 
more Infection in them all, without Excep- 

() II. A vitious Liver feems to be one of 
the primary and immediate Caufes of Nervous 
Diftempers. I never once in my Life faw 
an Hy ft eric or Hypochondriac Cafe, of a deep 
Nature, or extreme Degree, in ftrong Per- 
fons elpecially, where the Liver , and it’s 
Appendages were not eminently faulty, 
either by a preternatural Size, l’umefa&ion,- 
Objlruttion , or Schirrofity ; and when by 
ponderous , alterative, adive Medicines, join’d 
with a cool thin Diet, the Obftru&ions have 
been opened, the Gall Bladder and Bor us 
Biliarius pervious, then, either green, yellow , 
or black Choler has poured out abundantly 
into the Stomach. The Liver is the Organ 
defigned by Nature (or, at leaft, Nature 
makes Ufe of it) to fuck out, draw off, and 
convey into the common Shore of the Body 
(the Guts) all the Poilon, Malignity, and 
deftruftive Part of high rank Foods* and too 
great a Quantity of rich Liquors, taken into 
the Habit. This wife and bountiful Con- 
trivance of Nature becomes an Hntidote , or 
is a Receptacle (for fome time) for the de- 
ft rudive Effects of Luxury and Intemperance . 
And hence it comes to pals that gluttonous 
and voluptuous Animals, whether Brutal or 
Rational , have always overgrown Livers, 


i86 The English Maladt." 

and accordingly among the Romans , thole 
Animals whofe Livers were delicious, had 
their whole Entrails almoft turned into Liver , 
by unnaturally cramming them with high 
and generous Foods ; and no plentiful and 
full Feeder was ever opened, but he was 
found with fome grofs Fault in his Liver: 
It has indeed a noble and indifpenlible Ufe 
in all Animals (the human more efpecially) 
who live on Animal Foods and fermented 
Liquors, even beyond any Organ of the 
Body, next to the Hearty Brain , and Lungs : 
for it not only fucks out all the Venom, as 
it were, of the whole Mafs of Blood, and 
carries it into the Guts ( the common Shore , 
to be thence carried out of the Habit in 
Part) but there alfo the Bile y by its natural 
Acrimony and Stimulation, is the great 
Spring and Caufe of the Lerifaltic Motion : 
(that Fun&ion fo neceffary to Digeftion and 
throwing off the Redundancy and Fecu- 
lence) ; befides that it unites, by its foapy 
Nature, the various Particles of which the 
Chile is compounded, and renders it a ftrmlar 
and uniform Fluid : and by its Bitternefs, and 
this Saponaceous Quality, it cleanfes and 
fcowers the Mouths of the fmall and delicate 
Latleal Lubes , from their Obftru&ions and 
Filth. But as all good Things, perverted 
and abuled, have Pains and Punilhments an- 
nexed to them, in Proportion to their Ad- 
vantages and Benefits, fo the Liver 9 when 


Caufis of Nervous Dtfiempers. 187 

praeternaturally large, tumified, obftru&ed, 
or fchirrous, becomes the Caufe of the molt 
terrible and frightful Miferies incident to 
human Nature ; from hence generally and 
chiefly fpring all our horrible and dire Hy - 
Jlerics and Hypochondriacs , our Epilepjies , 
apoplexies, and our Manias , our Cholicks 7 
Scurvies , Gouts , Jaundices , Hot Ulcers , &V. 
and were there any Art or Medicine to turn 
or make Choler ( Adujl , Black, Tellow x or 
Green ) an innocent, acid, active Liquor only 
(as it is in the Animals that live only on 
Vegetables ) it would infallibly cure thele 
Diforders , but I believe there is none, nor 
can be any fuch Art or Medicine, conlider- 
ing the eftabliflied Laws of Nature, and 
thofe of the Animal Oeconomy : but the pon- 
derous Remedies which open Obftru&ions 
(fuch as Preparations of Antimony and Mer- 
cury) gentle Emeticks , which pump up the 
peccant Humour as it flows (for Catharticks 
do little or nothing in fuch Cafes, it being; 
impoffible to carry forcibly vitiated Choler 
do great a Length without Violence to Na- 
ture, belides that all Kind of Purges pals 
through this grofs Fluid, when vitiated, and 
leave it much as they found it) and a thin, 
mild Diet, that cuts off the Sources of the 
Evil. What is here laid of the Liver , may 
be readily applied to the Spleen , in a certain 
Degree, and therefore 'tis needlels to add 
any more of either. 


r i 8 8 TIm Englifh Malady.' 

^ III. The Glands of the Mejentery, or 
of the Guts , being knotted or obftru&ed, are 
lefs obvious by any other Symptoms, than 
thefe of a general Weaknefs , ‘Thinnefs of 
Habit, a Tendence to Helical Heats after 
Meals, and efpecially an Inappetence and 
Weaknefs of Digeftion, Faintings, cold 
Sweats, Lownefs of Spirits, and Oppreflions, 
and the other Nervous Complaints to be de- 
fcribed, thofe particularly of thin and vale- 
tudinary Perfons. And thofe who continue 
weak, thin, and valetudinary, after Youth- 
hood is over, are much to be fufpe&ed of 
knotted Glands in the Mefentery , which ob- 
ftru<ft and hinder the free and eafy Pafiage of 
the Chyle thro’ the Latteals , whole common 
Bafon is in, and moil: general Courfe is thro* 
that Membrane ; or of knotted Guts y and 
their obftru&ed Valves, which hinder the 
free Play of the Perijlaltick Motion, fo ne- 
celfary towards the Progrefs of the Digeftion, 
and the Expulfion of the Feculence ; and all 
thefe more immediate Caufes of Nervous Dif- 
tempers Ihew the Neceflity, Expedience, 
and Benefit of ponderous Remedies, in the 
Beginning of a Cure : gentle Evacuations 
upwards or downwards, in the Procefsj and 
mild Aftringents and Strengtheners to finilh 
it ; and an univerfal thin and low Diet in the 
whole Progrefs, and for future Prefervation. 

Caufes of Nervous Diftempers . 1 89 

§ IV. It is very pofiible, neither the 
ponderous Remedies, nor the Evacuations 
may dilfolve, or even much foften knotted, 
/chirr ous , or obftru&ed Glands in any Part 
of the Habit ; but a cool, thin, foft, bal- 
famick Diet will always make the Juices cir- 
culate eafy, and without Rubs and Refin- 
ance ; as a clear, thin, equable Stream of 
running Water will glide gently and calmly 
by the Sides of implanted Jjlands: and thelc 
Knots and Puberties may thereby lie as eafily 
and quietly in the Body, as the Nails on our 
Fingers and Toes, or as Bones furrounded 
with Mufcles ; and we know fweet thin 
Blood will make its way into the Circula- 
tion, through the lateral Branches, when the 
Trunk of the Artery is cut through : and 
that is all Art can do, or the Laws of the 
Animal Oeconomy . will admit. And it is 
highly probable, when any one of thefe 
more immediate Caufes of Nervous Diforders 
happen, they are all together in greater or 
lelfer Degrees. Cutaneous Diforders alfo, 
fuch as the Leprofy , Elephant iajts, Impetigo , 
Itch, Scurvy , and Erijipelas , have a moll 
powerful Influence in producing thofe 
violent, inveterate, and high, Nervous Dif- 
orders. But the Realon of the violent Fits 
under them is, that the Glands and great 
Kifcera are loaded more than ordinary by 
Debauches, high Diet , and too great Fulnels: 


190 The Englifli Malady. 

fo that the Circulation is thereby hindered and 
Hop'd, and this makes thefe cutaneous Foul- 
nefles recoil inwards, for Want of due Force 
and Freedom in the Circulation, to prefs 
them out, where they are fafeft ; and none 
will be perfectly and fafely cured under 
them, but by a long Courfe of the ponderous 
Medicines, and a thin, cool, foft Diet. 

$ V. It is alfo poflible, that none of all 
thefe mentioned immediate Caufes may be 
the true one, and yet Lownefs of Spirits , 
Sicknefs, and even Fits , Fainting , and Con- 
vulfions may happen : and when there may- 
be none of thefe mentioned great Caufes, by 
particular and fpecial Symptoms to be fuf- 
pe&ed or juftly fuppofed, a Polypus in the 
Heart, or Great Artery , or fome preterna- 
tural Formation, Excrefcence , or Mal-Forma - 
tion, in fome neceffary Organ, may be the 
Caufe of them ; or lafly , the Juices may be 
fo thick, vifcid , and glewy , as may interrupt 
the Circulation, and the eafy Performance 
of the Animal Fun&ions. But as fuch Cafes 
are more rare, they do not fo immediately 
come under fuch general Directions as my 
Defign muft neceffarily confine me to, and 
can therefore receive here no particular Con- 
lideration. It is, in my Opinion, that it is 
here as in the great Venereal Cafes, where, 
if the Grand Remedy be fufficiently and 
duely purfued, there will be little or no 


Caujes of Nervous Distempers. 191 

need of Application to particular and topical 
Complaints, which will drop off, and evanifh 
of themfelves, as linking at, and cutting 
the Root of a Tree, will render the lopping 
of the Branches ufelefs. In all Chronical . , 
Cachetfical , and obftinate Cafes, I can allow 
of, and could never learn or difcover, but 
two univerfal, certain, and natural Antidotes , 
Remedies , or Methods of Cure, viz. the pon- 
derous and Mineral Medicines (the chief of 
which are Mercury, Antimony , and Steel, 
with Evacuations) and Diet and Regimen 
(the fecondary Affiftants of which are Air 
and Exercife) and both skilfully joined to- 
gether, and duly perfifted in, is the highcft 
Pitch Art can, in my Judgment, arife to, 
under the prefent Laws of Nature, and of 
the Animal Oeconomy : the Application, tho* 
to particular Cafes and Conftitutions, will 
require the Skill, Addrefs, and Attention of 
the moft knowing an^i experienced Phyii- 


!<?! The Englifli Maladt, 

CHAP. vnr. 

driacal Disorders. 

§ I- ^ I ^ H E Title of this Chapter is f> 
large a Field, that it would rc- 
quire a Volume of itfelfj to de- 
tail eV e ry thing that may be faid, even with 
Advantage to the fuffering Patient on this 
Head. But my Defign is not to inftrud: the 
Patient in every Particular, but to give a 
general Scheme of Nervous Diforders, founded 
upon Reafon, Philofophy, and Experience ; 
and it being both abfurd and even impoflible 
for any one to undertake lo obftimte , fo va- 
rious, } and lo deplorable a Diftemper, of his 
own Head in its eminent Degrees, without 
the Afliftance of a judicious, experienced, and 
honeft hPhyfician : All the Reader, who is not 
fuch, will be able to learn from hence, is, 
whether he is treated in the Manner, that fuch 
an one will always deal with his Patients. So 
that haying faid fo much, and fo fully in 




Of the Spleen , Vapours , See. i p 5 

the general DoCtrine of Nervous Diftem- 
pers, I lhall have little farther to add, but 
fome Limitations and Conditions with re- 
gard to particular Cafes, which I rnuft fup- 
pofe applicable only to fuch individual 
Cafes by the Phyfician in ordinary. 

$ II. All the Symptoms and Diforders of 
a Jplenetick Perfon will naturally and readily 
be deduced from too thick and glewy or (harp 
Juices, fome great Bowel fpoil'd, or ftrong 
Obftru&ions form’d, and the regorging Fluids 
thereby brought on, ftruggling and labour- 
ing under the Animal Funttions, in relaxed 
feeble, and unelaftick Solids. Perfed Health, 
free Spirits, Eafe, and Chearfulnefs confift 
in the eafy, pleafant, and uniform Perfor- 
mance of the Animal Funftions, in a full 
Circulation, free Perforation, and regular 
Secretions. When by the mentioned Cir- 
cumftances, all thefe become forced, labour’d, 
and uneafy, the Symptoms we commonly 
aferibe to the Spleen , muft neceifarily arife: 
even tho’ they be attended with no really 
form’d Difeafe, or no noble Organ entirely 
fpoil’d ; and the true Reafon of the Multi- 
plicity, Variety, and Inconftancy of thefe 
Symptoms, is the vaft Multitude of the Com- 
binations poffible, of thefe natural Fun- 
ctions, every one of which makes a new 
Symptom, and whofe uniform, equable Per- 
formance is fo neceffary to Health. 

O § III, 

?94 ^° e Englifli Mal-adt. 

§ III. The Spleen or Vapours , as the 
Word is ufed in England , is of fo general 
and loofe a Signification, that it is a common 
Subterfuge for meer Ignorance of the Na- 
ture of Diftempers. All Lownefs of Spirits , 
Swelling of the Stomach , frequent Eradiation , 
Noije in the Bowels or Ears , frequent Fawn- 
ing , Inappetency , Rejllefnefs , Inquietude , 
Fidgeting , Anxiety , hPeevifhnefs , Difcontent , 
Melancholy , Grief Vexation , III- Humour j 
Incon fancy , lethargick or watchful Diforders , 
in fhort, every Symptom, not already claffed 
under l'ome particular limited Diftemper, is 
called by the general Name of Spleen 'and 
Vapours: of which there are various and 
different Symptoms, according to the dif- 
ferent Conftitutions, Tempers of Mind, and 
common Difeafes, Perfons fubjed to fuch 
Symptoms labour under. In general, Vapours 
(as it is a Diftemper fubjed to the Rules of 
are bad, Iharp, thick, and vifcid Juices, 
attended with weak and relaxed Nerves, Fi- 
bres, ox Solids ; Where-ever thefe mentioned 
Symptoms are, in any eminent Degree, thefe 
Conditions mult be. And on the other 
Hand, wbere-ever thefe Conditions are, fome 
more or fewer of thefe mentioned Symptoms 
mu ft be, according to the Degree of thefe 
Conditions. Vapours therefore are either 
'original and fimpte. or not attended with 
any other real Difeafe or Malady, as yet appa- 

Of the Spleen , Vapours , &c. 195 

rent (except the Conditions or Caufes men- 
tioned) or Symptomatick , being caufed or 
produced by Ibme other real determined Dis- 
temper, which is attended with, or pro- 
duces thofe mentioned Conditions, of which 
Diftemper this Kind of Vapours is only a 
Symptom or Effed, and in which they al- 
ways terminate in their laft Stage or Degree. 
From whence it is pretty evident, that this 
laft Kind of Vapours can never be cured, 
unlefs the' original Diftemper, on which they 
depend, be cured, when it is become ma- 
nifeft. It is well known, that every bodily 
Diftemper is attended with, or produces 
Lownefs of Spirits, and fome others of the 
Symptoms I have mentioned. When the Dif- 
temper is removed, thefc Symptoms gradu- 
ally vanilh, and Health and Freedom of Spi- 
rits return : So that my prefent Affair is not 
with thefe Symptomatick Vapours , unlefs they 
fubfift too long after the original Diftemper 
is removed, and then they are to be treated 
in the fame manner with thefe genuine, fim- 
ple, and original Vapours , whereof I am 

§ IV. To enumerate all the almoft in- 
finite Symptoms, Degrees, and Kinds of 
Vapours is impoffible, and perhaps very little 
to the Purpofe. In general, when the 
Symptoms are many, various , changeable , 
Ihifting' from one Place to another, and imi- 

O 2 - tating 

i p 6 The Englifh Malady. 

taring the Symptoms of almoft every other 
Diftemper defcribed, if they are attended 
with no other apparent, real, determined ori- 
ginal Diftemper (though they be generally 
the Beginnings of a real Diftemper, and, if 
neglected, terminating in one always.) Then 
they may be properly called Vapours • for 
Diftindion’s Sake, I will divide them into 
three Degrees, though the Reader is neither 
here to exped Accuracy nor Certainty, that 
may be depended upon, in fuch a Proteus - 
like Diftemper, becaule fome of the Symp- 
toms of what I call the fecond Degree , may 
happen in the jh'Jt , and lo on the contrary j 
and though in general they grow and rife 
in their Degrees , as naturally and gradually 
a6 Plants or Vegetables do, yet we are not 
poffeiTed of proper Names and Meafures for 
thefe Degrees, any more than we are of the 
Degrees of Heat that caufe Flame or Light, 
it being for Brevity’s Sake that I chiefly make 
the Diftindion. 

$ V. The -firjl Degree, which ought only 
to be called Vapours (if that Name be proper 
at all) is when the Caufe and Dilorder is 
chiefly confined to the Stomach and Bowels , 
or the Alimentary Dutts, and the Blood and 
Juices are in a pretty tolerable Condition, 
but the Solids fomewhat relaxed, loofe, and 
flabby : the Alimentary ‘Tubes being the firft 
lenfible Sufferers in all Bodily Maladies 


Of the Spleen, Vapours , &c. 197 

whatfoever. The Symptoms then, befides 
Lownefs of Spirits, are Wind , Belching , 
Fawning, Heart -burning, Croaking of the 
Bowels (like the Noife of Frogs ) a Pain in 
the Pit of the Stomach (which is fometimes 
miftaken for a Lung Cafe, efpecially if at- 
tended with Short nefs of Breath , and a tick- 
ling Cough, from a Wind in the Cavity 
prefling on the Diaphragm, and thereby 
preffing on the Lungs , which is common, 
and goes very juftly by the Name of an 
Hyfterick , or Nervous Cough) and fome- 
times there is an Inflation , and an a&ual vi- 
fible Swelling, to a very conhderable Big- 
nefs, in the Stomach to be feen, efpecially 
in the Sex ; a Coldnefs or Chillinefs upon the 
Extremities, and fometimes Flufhing (efpe- 
cially after a full Meal) and Burning in the 
Hands and Feet, Cold Damp Sweats , Paint- 
ings, and Sicknefs (efpecially before a Solu- 
tion of the Bowels) the Stools being fome- 
times very cofive , fometimes loofe and flimy, 
a Feeling like that of cold Water poured over 
feveral Parts of the Body, Head-aches either 
behind or over the Eyes, like a ' Punffuration, 
Flies and Atoms dancing before the Eyes, a 
Noife like the dying Sounds of Bells, or a 
Fall of Water, in the Ears ; Fawning , and 
Stretching , and fometimes a Drowfinefs or 
Lethargy , at other times Watching and Reft- 
lelfnefs, and feveral other Symptoms , which 
it is impoflible to enumerate. Some have 

O 3 bu$ 

198 The Englifti Malady. 

but a few of thefe Symptoms , and fome all 
of them, and a great many more • but a 
Tendency to Spitting , Ptyalifm , or a Dif- 
charge of Phlegm from the Glands of the 
Throat, feldom fails to attend all the Sym- 
ptoms of it, efpecially towards the Decline 
of the Fit , if it is not fhut up by a high 
Diet, hot Liquors, fome conftant Drams, or 
too great Exercife (which, by the bye, fhews 
the Alimentary Pubes, and their numerous 
Glands, the YVeaknefs of the Digeftion, or 
unnatural cramming, at leaft, relative or iq 
Proportion to the Want or Weaknefs of the 
Patient, to be the true Seat and Caufe of the 
prefent Symptoms) I have alfo obferved, both 
in myielf and moft of my Patients, one tole- 
rable good Day, and another worfe, almoft 
conftantly, following one another regularly : 
which fuggefted a Reafon to me, of the 
great Benefit of the Bark in Nervous Diflem- 
pers : Nature being uniform in her Produc- 
tions, and taking, as it were, a regular and 
equal Time to fill, and difeharge the turgid 
and inflated Cavities and Glands, which is 
the general Caufe of all Periods in Difeafes. 
I have alfo obferved fomething like monthly 
Periods, efpecially towards the Conjunctions 
of the Sun and Moon. Thofe of the great 
Seafons, to wit, Spring and Fall , the well 
Half of theYear, from Midfummer to Mid- 
winter, and bad half from Midwinter to 
Midfummer, are more certain and regular, 


Of the Spleen, Vapours, See. i pp 

efpecially if they are not joined with other 
Chronical Diftempers which alter their pe- 
riods ; but in this various and inconftanc 
Climate, Periods and Crifes are fo uncertain 
and irregular, that we have nothing but Mi- 
niatures and Models of them, to what they 
were oblerv’d in Eafern Climates, and orderly- 
people. I only fuggeft thele Things to awaken 
the Attention of others, and fhew the Uni* 
formity of Nature in all Things. 

(j VI. The fecond Stage of this Diftem- 
per is attended with all thefe Symptoms, in 
a much higher and more eminent Degree, 
and fome new ones, which were not felt, 
and confequently not deferjbed under the 
frfl Stage : fuch as are inftead of Lownefs 
of Spirits: a deep and fixed Melancholy, wan- 
dering and delufory Images on the Brain, and 
Inf ability and Unfettle dnej's in all the intel- 
lectual Operations, Lofs of Memory, Defpon - 
dency. Horror and Defpair, a Vertigo, Gid- 
dinefs or Staggering , Vomittings of fellow. 
Green , or Black Choler: fometimes unac- 
countable Fits of Laughing , apparent Joy, 
Leaping and Dancing ; at other Times, of 
Crying, Grief, and Anguijh \ and thefe ge- 
nerally terminate in Hypochondriacal or Hyf 
terical Fits (I mean Convulfive ones) and 
Faint ings , which leave a Drowfinefs, Le- 
thargy, and extreme Lownefs of Spirits for fome 
Time afterwards. Perhaps the Fits return often, 

O 4 • if 

200 The Englifli Malady.' 

if they be weak and partial ones ; or if they 
are ftrong and fevere, their Intervals are 
longer : The State of the Blood is generally 
vifcid (if the Symptoms are not occafioned 
by Accident, or fpoil’d Bowels) with all the 
Confequences which I remarked when I 
ipoke of what I called the fecond State of 
that Fluid. I think this fecond Degree of 
Vapours may always be denominated from 
Fits , Convulfion-Sy or violent Paroxyfms of 
the Kind mentioned : and from the antece- 
dent or fubfequent Bilious Vomitings that 
attend fuch y and indeed when they are come 
to this Degree, there is generally a beginning 
Obftru&ion, or fpoiling of fome of the great 
Bowels, fuch as the Liver , the Lungs , the 
Kidnies , the Mefentery , the Cawl, the Spleen , 
or fome other Part neceffary towards the 
Animal Fun&ions; attending them, and fo a 
real Diftemper immediately follows : of 
which, the frf Degree I have mentioned 
is the jirjl Step, this laft is the fecond: and 
if not cured in either of thefe two, by the 
Struggling and Efforts of Nature, joined with 
Art \ the third State begins, which is gene- 
rally fome mortal and incurable Diftemper, 
fuch as Dropfy , Black Jaundice , Confump - 
tion, Palfy, Epilepjy y or Apoplexy, &c. To 
make which more plain, let us confider the 
Tendency of Nature in its whole Progrefs, 
with this View. 

Of the Spleen , Vapours , &c. 201 

$ VII. When, by Food of ill Qualities, 
or an immoderate Quantity of even whole- 
lome Foody the Humours are vitiated, the 
Structure of the Animal Machine is fuch, 
that Nature {i. e. the Mechanijm of the Body ) 
is prefently rouz’d to flruggle with all its 
Might, to attenuate (or concod, as we com- 
monly lay) the grofs and vitious Humours, 
and fo bring them to an healthy State (/. e. 
one agreeable to Nature) and drive out, by 
the moft proper Outlets of the Body, what 
cannot be reduc’d to that State. This Struggle 
is the one only proper and real Difeafe of the 
Body, arifing from the Habit (for I fay no- 
thing of thofe from external Injuries) the 
vaft Variety of particular Difeafes, Ipoken of 
by Fhyficiansy being only fo many particular 
or various lfjues of this general Struggle of 
Nature. The State of the Fibres or Solids of 
the Body in Strength and Firmnefs, at the 
Beginning, is the Foundation of the grand 
Divifion of Difeafes into acute and chronical: 
But, Strength being a relative Thing, it is 
impoffible to fettle precifely the Bounds of 
thefe two Claffes. When the Conflid itfelf 
is very hot , brisk and eager , we all agree to 
call it a Fever ; W'hen it is flow and languid, 
I know no receiv’d Name for it, but the 
Name of Vapours , or Nervous Diforders , (a 
Word us’d in a very indiftind Manner, being 
aferib’d to all or each of the Appearances 

\ that 

loz The Englifh Malady. 

that arife in the Progrefs of this flower Con- 
flict.) It were not amifs to reftrain the unde- 
termin’d Meaning of this Word , to fignify all 
the Diforders of Nature under the Conflict 
of the Difeafe when the Solids are weak, as 
the Name of Fever is appropriated to all the 
Symptoms that appear during the Conflict, in 
a ftrong State of the Solids. This fuppos’d, 
jet us next confider the feveral Events of this 
Confliti , which mull be either an intire, or a 
partial Victory of Nature, or a partial or 
total Prevalency of the Difeafe. The Events 
are call’d Crifes, or Solutions of the Difeafe, 
by Phyjicians. The jirfl Sort is Health , the 
laft Death , the middle ones are call’d Dif- 
eafes ; of which again there are many Divi- 
flons very different from the two primary ones, 
to wit, Vapours and a Fever. For ifl. it is 
very common for Nature to get an intire 
Conqueft over the Difeafe, in a few Days, 
when the Solids are ftrong, that is, for the 
Fever to end by a Critical Difcharge, fiich as 
Sweating , a Diurfis , or Diarrhoea, and the 
like; fo that there remains nothing but to 
recruit the Solids weaken’d in the Struggle. 
i idly . At other Times when the Fibres are 
tolerably firm, tho’ Nature carries on the 
Conflict with Vigour at firft, to make a quick 
End, yet it is fometimes oblig’d to com- 
pound with the Difeafe, by giving up a Pofl 
which was not tenable, that is, to throw the 
Difeafe upon feme particular Organ i and fo. 

Oflhs Spleen , Vapour 5, &c. 203 

the terminates in a critical Ahfcejs y &c. 
3^/j/. When the Solids are fo weak, that 
Nature carries on the Struggle but faintly for 
a long time, without tending to either of 
thefe two mention’d Crifes , and the morbid 
Matter, thro’ the Feeblenefs of the Conflict, 
is never fufficiently broken and divided, or 
fitted to be carried out of. the Habit, by 
either of the two mention’d Ways, the Dif- 
eafe ends in an univerfal Weaknels and 
Feeblenefs of Nature, a general Cachexy y or 
a continued bad State of the Juices and re- 
lax’d Solids, if not in Death itfelf ; and this 
gives Ground for the Diftin&ion between 
Nervous and Acute Fevers. But laftly, if the 
Solids are fo weak, and the Fluids fo bad, 
that the Struggle is but very faint, imperfed, 
or fcarce difcernable, at leaft compared with 
the former, the firft Attempts and Beginnings 
of this Struggle prgduce thofe Symptoms 
which are properly call’d Vapours of the firft 
Kind: And if proper Means or Remedies be 
not uled in due Time, they may grow higher 
and ftronger, with many additional Symptoms 
of the fame Kind. 

§ VIII. From this Deduction, it is evident, 
that Vapours are theory? Symptoms of a real 
chronical Difeafe, which, if neglected, will 
terminate in fpoiling fome of the great Bowels, 
and fo in putting a Period to Animal Life. 
Some may be born with fuch a Constitution ; 


204 The Englifh Malady. 

but if by no Mifmanagement they increafe o r 
exafpcrate thefe Symptoms , Nature may thus 
go on to its common Period, as well as an 
Animal may with a broken or wafted Limb : 
But neglecting the Means, or fuelling the 
Difeafe by a Mal-Regimen , it will certainly 
terminate fooner or later in thofe real Dif- 
tempers, which have Names and Determi- 
nations, fuch as a Dropfy , Afthma , or Con - 
fumption , and fo may be attended with the 
Symptoms that thefe mortal Diftempers are 
defcribed by, and at laft end in Death. So 
that it is needlefs to enumerate the Symptoms 
of this Stage, they being commonly known 
and defcribed by the Phyficians , that treat of 
fuch mortal Diftempers, for being irreme- 
diable, as they are in this Stage ; they admit 
of nothing but a palliative Cure, to make the 
Symptoms eafy ; which how it is to be done, 
I ftiall fhew in the next Chapter. 

q H A V. 

Of the Cure of Vapours , See. 205 


Of the Cure of the Symptoms of Vapours 
Hyflerical and Hypochondriacal < Dif- 

§ 1 . 'V'JTTHAT I have formerly faid 
^\f about the general Cure of 
▼ 1 Nervous Diftempers by a Re- 

gimen of Diet , Exercife , and the three Clafles 
of Medicines mentioned, is not only the 
folid Foundation of a fubftantial and lafting 
Cure, but is alfo the moil efFedual Means 
for weakning the Symptoms, and making their 
Intervals longer, and without which all the 
other Attempts for that Purpofe will be in- 
effectual, at leaft procure only temporary 
Relief, fince thefe Symptoms will return more 
frequently, and with greater Violence, as 
the State of the Fluids and Solids grow 
worfe, which they muft necelfarily do, under 
a Negled of thefe Means, alone fufficient to 
eftablifh a folid and perfed Cure. So that 
they who would effedually relieve or lelfen 
the Symptoms of Nervous Dilorders, have 



106 The Engliili Malady; 

' nothing more to do, but to accommodate 
thefe general Diredions to particular Confti- 
tutions and Circumftances. But becaufe, 
while this general Cure is going forward, the 
Symptoms may be fo dj'piriting and painful , 
that Life becomes an ufelefs Burthen, it is 
ablolutely necelTary by all means poflible, 
to gain a Reprieve , from thefe Symptoms, if 
not for a long Time, at leaf!. for as long a 
Time as can be, to give Room for thefe uni- 
Verfal Means to operate. 

£ II. I know not in Nature a more uni- 
Verfal and effedual Remedy for moft, if 
not all the Symptoms of thefe Difordeis when 
they rife to any high Degree, than gentle 
Vomits fuitedtothe Strength and Conftitution 
of the Patient, not only as they difcharge the 
Choler , or Bile, and Phlegm from the Liver 
and Alimentary Duffs, but as by their Succuf- 
ftons and Adion, they open the Obftrudions 
of that vaft Number of Glands fituated in the 
inner Side of thefe Duds (which too are 
either the Caufe of, or certainly attend moft 
of the violent Nervous Symptoms) and pro- 
mote the Circulation and Perfpiration. Thefe 
Vomits', in weak Perfons, may be effeded by 
a Decodion or Tea of Cnrdiius , Chamomile 
Flowers , ILotfe Radifh, or any bitter or 
acrid Plant, or by Ipecacuanha or its Tin- 
dure alone ; but in the ftronger Conftitutions 
nothing is to be depended on without join- 

Of the Cure of Vapours , See. 20 f 

Ing fome Preparation of Antimony. I never 
found either in my own Cafe, or my Pra&ice 
on others, that I could fo quickly and effe- 
ctually relieve either violent Paroxyfms of 
'Nervous Diftempers, or the other finking 
Symptoms attending them, as by fuch an 
Evacuation ; and I have been always forc’d 
to repeat it as often as thefe Symptoms re- 
turn’d, till the Diftemper was quite overcome, 
I have extremely reliev’d fome, and have 
totally cured others by every Morning drink- 
ing large Draughts of Chamomile Flower 
Tea, to throw off the Flegm, and then 
drinking Math Waters after the Stomach was 
fettled, and purfuing a Regimen and Exer- 
cife in the Day-time. Thole who are young 
and ftrong, and to whom thefe Symptoms 
are not become habitual, 1 and whole Confti- 
tution is yet found, and not loaded with 
grofs Humours, may fometimes get them off 
at a leffer Expence, as by frequent Dofes of 
Hiera Plena , TinBure of Rhubarb , the Ruffi 
or the Stomach Pills, but chiefly the PiluU 
Gummos cum Aloe-lota, in equal Quantities, 
frequently, if not every Night, repeated, oras 
Occafion requires. I have never found any 
great Relief from Blitters, IlTues, or even 
Bleeding itlelf, in this Cafe, uhlefs it was in 
very full Habits, or when premis’d to a general 
Courfe for the Cure, becaufe the Cachexy 
was univerfal; much lefs is any thing to be 
expefted from lying a-bed and fweating. 

(a late 

208 The English Malady. 

(a late celebrated Method in the Cure of 
Vapours) which I have always found to relax 
much more. 

$ III. Restlessness, Inquietude of 
Spirits, and Want of natural Sleep is one of 
the moft troublefome and difpiriting Symp- 
toms attending this Diftemper. When it is 
extreme, nothing is to be done without Lau- 
danum or Opiates , but thefe ought always to 
be blended with fome fmall Proportion of 
the Volatile and Aromatick Medicines, which 
encreafe their benign, and poftibly may 
hinder their deftru&ive Effe&s, if they have 
any ; however Recourfe is never to be had 
to them, but in extreme Cafes, and when 
other Things will not do, becaule of their 
deleterious Effefts on the Solids, which very 
poffibly they may relax more and more. 
There are fome with whom doubtleffly 
Opiates agree mueh better than others ; and 
they are fuch, I think, whofe Solids are yet 
pretty firm, and where the Fluids are moft 
in Fault, or fome of the great Bowels only 
weakened. There are others, to whom they 
give a little dofing or dead Sleep, yet when 
their Force is worn off, they leave a Lovonefs, 
Difpiritednefs , and Anxiety , that even over- 
balances the Relief or Quiet they bring ; and 
they are thofe who are entirely Cache flick, 
as well as fubjed to Nervous Diford ers, fuch 
I fhould perfuade to ufe AJfa-foetida in Pills, 



Of the Cure of Vapours, See. 209 

Morning and Night, or the Gum Pills of the 
London or Edinburgh Difpenfatory (both 
which are excellent Medicines for this Pur- 
pole) they having often all the good Ef- 
fe&s of Opium , without the bad ones* tho 5 
both are but temporary Reliefs and not 
Cures : and whofe Virtues will be worn out 
by long Ufe, and therefore ought to be con- 
tinued no longer than abfolute Neceffity re- 
quires, and not repeated upon too flight 
Occalions, for both Opiates and Volatiles or 
Fcetids are of the Nature of Drams and Cor- 
dials^ ; and Exercife will procure Sleep better 
than either of thefe Medicines, no Opiate 
being like that of the Day-Labourers . 

$ III. Meer Lownefs and Difpiritednefs, 
not attended with Sicknefs or Pain, arifea 
from the Want of a brisk Circulation and 
Perfpiration. Thefe will always be pro- 
moted by volatile Spirits , an Aromatick Cor- 
dial , and generous Wines, or any thing that 
will Jlimulate, route, and jpur the dead and 
languilhing Solids, to pulh forwards the 
iluggilh Circulation and PerJ prat ion < but 
the Force of thefe Remedies, like all other 
Helps and Reliefs of this Nature, is loon 
ipent and worn out ; and they will often 
leave the fame Effe&s with Opiates , the Na- 
ture of which they partake : and therefore, 
nothing is to be expe&ed from them* but as a 
prefent Relief in Extremities, nor they to 

P be 

210 The Englifli Malady. 

be ufed but then only. The moft folid and 
lafting Relief I ever found, for Lownefs 
of Spirits, comes from the aftringent Glafs of 
Medicines, Steel, Bark, Japan Earth , &c. 
with Mineral and Chalyheat Waters, the Bath 
efpecially, in the temperate and cold Sealons, 
and the cold Steel Waters, as Spaw, Pyrmont , 
or Tunbridge, in the hot Weather ; but 
where none of thefe Waters can be had, 
from the NeceiTity of the Patient’s Circum- 
ftances, Steel Ritfl with the Extradl or Pow- 
der of the Quinquina, Qulvis ad Guttetam , 
&c. joined with Aromaticks, fuch as the 
Species Diambrce , and wafh’d down with an 
agreeable Bitter, fitted to the Patient’s 
Strength and Conftitution : Elixir of Vitriol, 
or Tinblure of Steel, with Elixir Proprietatis 
in common Water ; thefe will in a great 
meafure flip ply the Want of Mineral Waters , 
and give a due Reprieve , to carry on the Cure, 
which is only to be attained by the general 
Methods already defcribed, without which 
nothing effe&ual is to be done, nor the Re- 
turn of thefe Diforders prevented; and in- 
deed the Paroxyfms of this Diftemper, when 
deep rooted, are fo many or fo frequent, and 
the general Methods require fo long Time, 
that all thefe Medicines, and Mineral Waters 
alfo, will be wanted in their Turns. 

$ IV. One of the moft difpiriting Symp- 
toms of this Diftemper, and one of the moft 

Of the Cure of Vapours , See. 21 ! 

certain Signs of it, is a frequent Difeharge 
of thin, limpid, pale Water, by Urine : 
which, when in great Quantities, and fre- 
quently difcharged ? does fo fink and difpirit 
the poor Patient, that Life is infupportablej 
at leaft, if he is not otherwife ftrong and 
hearty. Some, to explain this Appearance, 
have run into I don’t know what Fitfion of the 
Blood, and Relaxation of the Glands of the 
Kidneys . But having now done with fheory , 
I fhall fay nothing dire&ly to confute this 
abfurd Hypothecs , it being) I think, pretty 
evident, and confirmed by many Experi- 
ments, efpecially thofe of Santtorius and 
Dr. Keily that it is principally owing to a 
partial or total Obftru&ion of the Perfpi - 
ration , which is fo common in this Cafe, 
from the Weaknefs of the Nerves and Solids : 
and that confequently nothing elfe can polli- 
bly cure its returning Fits, or remove it, 
but what makes the Perforation good : and 
accordingly this Symptom is always relieved 
by thofe of the warm , cordial , and diapho- 
retick Kind, fuch as Gaf coign Powder , Spe- 
cies Diambrce , Aromaticum Cariophyllatum 7 
Confetlio Alkermes , DiaJ cordium, Venice- 

freacle , Sir Walter Raleigh’s Cordial , and 
the like, or by a Combination of thefe, with 
Volatiles and foetid Gums y and appropriated 
‘Juleps j thefe Medicines however ought not to 
be given, fo as to raife an a&ual Diaphorefs 
or Sweating, for that will be to carry on the 

P a Expence, 

2 1 z The Englifli Malady. 

Expence, Lownefs, and Sinking by other 
Conduits : but only to procure a little 
Breathing or freer Perforation , and to di- 
vide the Evacuation more equally through the 
whole Habit. 

§ V. A s to the S fitting or Salivation , fo 
common in Nervous Diffcempers (efpecially 
of a Scorbutick Origin, as is commonly faid) 
and cold Difeafes, tho’ it generally arifes 
from the fame Caufes, and may be relieved 
by the fame Medicines, as the Symptom laft 
mentioned, yet fince it is generally a critical 
Difcharge, or follows fome Excefs in the 
Diet or Nourifhment, it ought never to be 
flopped at firft by aftringent or warm Medi- 
cines, no more than a critical Diarrhoea , but 
ought rather to be promoted and encouraged 
by fome gentle Majlicatory (l'uch as Mafick , 
Pellitory , Tobacco , or the like) as the patient 
can bear it, or has been accuftomed. If it 
is exceeding plentiful, with Sicknefs, Reach- 
ing, and Head-aches, nothing will carry it 
off fo effectually as a gentle Vomit , both as 
this will promote the Difcharge, and quicken 
the Circulation and Perforation : or by 

gentle Stomach Purges, that may be fre- 
quently repeated, fuch as Rhubarb , the Sto- 
mach Pills , and the like. And thus after 
this Difcharge has been fufficiently carried 
off, the Solids may be flrengthened with 
Afh'ingents, Bitters, or an Infufion of the 


Of the Cure of Vapours , See. 21 $ 

Bark , with Aromaticks , efpeciaily if made on 
Lime Water ; and after that, a Courfe of 
Chalybeats and Aromaticks y fuch as I have 
mentioned in the former Seclion, with Mine- 
ral Waters of one Kind or another. 

YI. There are fome other Symptoms 
exceedingly troublefome in Vapour s y or Ner- 
vous Diftempers, to wit, Cheating and Gulp - 
ing y the Symptomatic! Afthma y Swelling of the 
Throat and Stomach y Inflation of the Bozvels 
with Rumbling and Noife. The Toung are 
not fo much troubled with thefe Symptoms 
as the Old and Declining, but they all pro- 
ceed from one Caufe, to wit, the Weaknefs 
and Obftru&ion of the Perfpiration from the 
Imperfection of the Digefions y whereby the 
infenfible Steams and Vapours, which ought 
to pafs through the Skin freely, are thrown, 
back into the Cavities of the Body • and 
where high and ftrong Foods are ufed, thefe 
Steams acquire fueh an Acrimony and Stimu- 
lation as to produce feveral other more vio- 
lent Symptoms. The Cure of thefe is the 
fame with that of the already mentioned 
Symptoms, to wit, gentle and repeated Vo- 
mits and Stomach Purges , efpeciaily of the 
Aloetick Kind (which in Nervous Cafes are by 
far preferable to all other Purgatives, becaufe 
of their aclive aftringent Bitter) Aromaticks , 
Bitters , warm cordial Medicines, Aftringent s, 
and whatever elfe will carry off the offend- 

P 3 ing 

214 *The Englifli Malady. 

ing Matter, forward the Perfpiration, and 
flrengthen the Digefion and Solids , 

VII. There is a tranfient Spice of Fa- 
pours, which very commonly feizes even 
young and temperate Perfons, otherwife 
ftrong and healthy, of pretty found Juices 
and firm Solids, which affeSls with a Difguft 
of every thing that ufed to pleafe or amufe 
them, a certain Tedioufnefs of Life , a Low- 
vefs of Spirits , Reftkffnefs , Heavynefs , and 
Anxiety , 'an Aversion to Exercife , either of 
the Mind or Body, and fometimes with a 
violent Hcad-ach , and Dimnefs of Sight, 
which Symptoms, as they will come on un- 
accountably, without any imaginable or dis- 
coverable Caufe, fo they will go off as un- 
accountably, in fbme fhort Time, without 
any Medicine or Means ufed for their Cure : 
tho’ in Strictnels of Reafoning, they have a 
real material Caufe, either from Catching of 
Cold, and thereby flopping the Perfpiration 
fuddenly, from the Moifture of the Weather, 
relaxing the Solids, or from fome Intem- 
perance or Excefs that they had not heeded, 
and were not aware of, or from taking fome 
Food too hard for their digeftive Powers. 
The common and ordinary Way of treating 
fuch tranfitory Symptoms , is, the eating next 
Meal fome fait, favoury, and relifhing Deli- 
cacy, and drinking a good large Dofe of fome 
fcarce, a&ive, generous, and fpirituous Li- 

quor 3 

Of the Cure of Vapours , &c. 215 

quor, that may briskly roufe and ftirnulate 
the fluggilh and unadive Solids, and rarefy, 
warm, and enliven the heavy and dull 
Fluids (or, as the Expredion is, to give 
Nature a Fillip ) to quicken the Circulation, 
forward the Perforation, and carry on all 
the necelTary Secretions in their due Degree 
and Order. The Fad and Experiment is 
undeniable, (and has been too often tried 
and repeated, to admit of a Doubt) and 
I think the Reafon of the Succefs is pretty 
plain from what has been faid, and, I am 
afraid, has given Occalion to fome un- 
phihfophical and unexperienced Perfons to 
advife it as a certain and never-failing 
Remedy, even in more frequent, deeper, and 
more habitual Symptoms of thefe Diforders : 
and I fear has been the Caufe of the com- 
mon Advice to Perfons of weak Nerves and 
low Spirits, to drink a Bottle heartily every 
Day , to take frequent Drams , or a Bowl of 
Punch , and to the Ufe of fait Sturgeon , red 
Herring , Anchovies , pickled Oyfters , Salmon- 
gundy^ Ham , pickled and potted Foods of all 
Kinds, for a Provocative . All I fhall fa v on this 
Head, is, to caution People not to ufe this 
Cure too frequently, or to exped any great 
Feats from it, when fuch Symptoms grow 
ftronger, more frequent, or more deeply- 
rooted in the Conftitution, or towards the 
Decline of Life ; for tho’ it may give a fhort 
temporary Relief, and lalh the fluggilh and 

P 4 reify 

2 i 6 The Englifh Malady,' 

refty Solids to perform their Functions for a 
fhort Time, yet it will infallibly aggravate 
and increafe their future Symptoms , and at 
laft render them dangerous and incurable. 
The much fafer, and even more infallible, 
tho’ perhaps, lefs quick Remedy, would 
be to take fome gentle Stomach Purge, that 
might not interrupt Bufinefs, and, the next 
Night, fome eafy Diaphoretick, a lighter 
Diet than ordinary, for a few Days, or ufe 
a greater Degree of Exercife, by a Journey, 
Hunting, and the like. 

$ VIII. These are the mofl material, moil 
troublefbme, and opprefling Symptoms of 
Vapours. Others lefs material may be re- 
duc’d to thefe mention’d, or are fom£ Ap- 
pendages of them ; or, if omitted here, per- 
haps may be taken Notice of in treating of 
the higher Degrees of Nervous Diforders, 
or may be entirely negledted as infignificant. 
1 have fuggefted nothing in treating thefe, but 
the common and well known Medicines, not 
only becaufe by long Experience, I have found 
them the moft effedual, but even becaufe 
they are common, and univerfally known 
and approved. For it is in Medicines as in 
Food (Medicines being only a more rare and 
lefs natural Kind of Food) that which is 
common to the middling Sort of every Coun- 
try, and which has the Approbation of the 
Generality of the Inhabitants, and is fuited 


Of Convul/ive ‘Diforders, &c. 217 

to the Conftitution of the Community, is 
generally the moft beneficial ; lince it is the 
Experience and Obfervation of the Gene- 
rality that makes them common : and fpe- 
cial or particular Things, or Rarities, are 
juftly to be fuipe&ed. 


Of the Nervous Tliforders of the Con - 
vuljive Tribe , particularly of Hyf- 
terical and Hypochondriacal Fits , 
and thofe other Faroxyfms that at- 
tend Nervous F) if orders. 

§ I. A S moft of thofe Diforders which 
are commonly called Nervous , 
X .L Hyferical, or Hypochondriacal 9 
are attended with fome Convulfwe Motions, 
Fits, or (Paroxyfms, efpecially when they 
arrive to their higher and more eminent 
Degrees, and to the fecond Stage of Vapours , 
which I have denominated or diftinguifhed 
by thefe Symptoms chiefly: I fhall here 
treat of thefe Diforders in general, fhewin'g 


2 i 8 Tloe Englifli Malady, 

the Nature of all Convulfions , but particu- 
larly thofe incident to fuch Conftitutions, and 
attending thefe Diftempers that I am princi- 
pally treating of, and laying down the pro- 
per and peculiar Method of Cure, for each 
Kind or Degree. 

J II. It is well known, that whatever 
will prick, wound, tear, or violently ftimu- 
late the Solids, will thereby produce Spafms , 
Convulfjons, and violent Contractions, fir ft 
and chiefly in the Part affe&ed : which, by 
Confent, and the Mechanifm of the Parts, 
may be communicated further and further 
over the whole Machine ; and, when vehe- 
ment and continu’d, may be propagated 
through all the Limbs , Mufcles , Tendons and 
Membranes of the Body, and this where-ever 
the Wound, or whatever Part of the Solids 
the PunCture or Stimulation happens to be 
made in ; but moft readily where there is 
the greateft Collection of Nerves. This is 
evident from the Effects of a Fall, a Blow, a ' 
Bruife, the PunCture of a Lancet , a Thorn , a 
Pi;;, a Nail , or any other wounding Inftru- 
ment, or from lharp and corroding Steams, 
Humours, or Matter (which are as it were a 
Collection of fmall Pins, Needles, Lancets, 
&c.) upon any of the more fenfible Solids. I 
have before fhew’d, that there is in all Ani- 
mal Fibres an innate Power of Contraction, 
or an original Mechanifm of Elafticity or 

Of Convuljive ‘Diforders, See. 219 

Spring, by which they exert a natural 
Power of Contra&ion, however they are fti- 
mnlated or folicited thereto, whether by the 
Command of the Will, (beginning the Mo- 
tion by an inexplicable Effort) or felf-motive 
Power : or by the A&ion of fome material 
appropriated Agent on them, and this in 
every Mufcular as well as Nervous Fibre of 
the Body. I have feen a jijhilous Tube, of a 
very confiderable Length, holding fome 
Quarts of Fus or Matter , opening only to- 
wards the Middle of the Back, and palling 
down from thence between the Interlaces of 
the Mufcles, to the Thigh ; which when the 
Matter contain’d in it, was arriv’d to its full 
Degree of Quantity and Acrimony, fo as to 
produce a Symptomatick Fever ; the Solids 
of the whole Machine, but particularly thofe 
near the jiftulous Canal, were flimulated and 
put in Action, fo that it threw out that vail 
Quantity of its Contents, upwards and againll 
the Force of their own Gravity \ tho’ fuch a 
Canal was not made naturally, or with the 
greateft Advantage for fuch an Adion : From 
whence it is evident, that every Point and 
Particle of the Solids is elajlick, and ads for the 
Relief of the Whole. 

§ III. T his being premifed, it is evident, 
that any acrid, fharp, or corroding Juice, 
Vapour, or Steam that will ftimulate and 
ygllicate the Fibres where-eyer placed, may 


220 The Englifli Malady. 

occafion Convulfions, Spafms , Gripes or Pains 
on that Part firft and chiefly, and may be 
communicated (according to its Force and 
Strength) by Contact and Confent, to all 
the adjacent Parts, and even thro’ the whole 
Habit, continuing till the offending Matter 
is by fuch violent A&ion or Motion worked 
off, or removed : in the fame Manner as the 
Foetus, by its Motion or PrefTure, raifes 
thofe throws and Convulfions in the Mother, 
that bring it into the World; or as the Stone 
or Gravel, ftimulating the Kidnies or Ureters , 
raifes thofe Vomitings and Reachings that 
promote its Exclufion. Thus Choler , Wind, , 
Jharp and porracious Juices, occafion thofe 
Fits and Convulfions in the Bowels (like Ver- 
juice . , Vitriol, or Poifon fwallow’d down) 
being the Struggle of Nature to throw them 
out, which are commonly call’d Hyjierick 
Fits ; and thus any irritating , acrid, or Jbarp 
Humour or Steam, according to the Place 
wherein they are lodged, or the Senfibility of 
the Part affected, occafions all the various and 
different Degrees or Kinds of * Convulfions 
that are common in Nervous Difbrders. 

$ IV. A s to Childrens Convulfions, if they 
proceed from the (hooting the Teeth, whereby 
the Gums and their Membranes are diftended ,. 

Vide Boneti Sepulchret. Anatomii Lib, I. Sett, 12, 13. 


Of Convuljive < DtforderSj &c. 221 

torn, and lacerated, they are eafily cured by 
Incijion ; but if they arife from lharp Juices 
in the Stomach or Bowels (as they moll 
commonly do) and the Child is about the 
lirft Year of its Age, they may be cur'd by 
a Blijter between the Shoulders; gentle Rhu- 
barb Purges, frequently repeated ; and the 
Tejlaceous Powders taken two or three times 
a day in a little black Cherry Water or Breall 
Milk, but elpecially by Cinnabar in Pow- 
ders, with the tejiaceous Powders and Rhu- 
barb interchangeably : Sometimes a few 

Drops of Sprit of Hartjhorn , or Goddards 
Drop , taken two or three times a Day in 
common Water, if the Conftitution, Juices, 
and Solids are pretty found, will do the 
Bufinefs. But if their Fits be ftronger, and 
they further advanc’d in Life, they mull be 
overcome, by gentle Vomits fitted to their 
Age and Strength. Cinnabar of Antimony , 
with the Pulvis ad Guttetam , and thefe Rhu- 
barb Purges, interchangeably us’d, as has 
been faid. But it is to be obferv’d during 
the whole Courfe, that if the Child is on 
the Breaft, it ought to be fed with nothing 
but its Nurfe’ s Milky or, if wean’d, with 
nothing but thin Pay, at leaft till it has 
gone over its Teething ; and, to give a due 
Force and Strength afterwards, the Fhiin- 
quina ought to be us’d either in Extract or 
Decoction , elpecially after it has acquir’d 
feme Years, This Method will not only 


Ill The Englifli Malady.' 

care their Fits , but their Rickets likewifej 
both proceeding from the fame Caufe, to wit, 
acrid Humours lodged in the Stomach or 
Bowels, or fome other Part of the Body, and 
a Relaxation of the Solids. 

£ V. If fuch Convulsions happen to the 
younger Part of the Sex about a certain 
Time of their Lives (as they often do) then 
they generally proceed from fome Diforder 
in that great Affair, which ought, if pof- 
fible, to be fet to Rights. But fince, before 
that can be anyways executed, there gene- 
rally happens a great Quantity of Choler , 
either generated through the Defect of that 
Evacuation, or in whatever other Manner : 
or from whatever Caufe : this is by all poft- 
fible Means to be fir ft remov’d ^ which is only 
or moft readily and effedually to be per- 
formed, by frequent Vomits fitted to the 
Strength of the Patient, and of the Difeafe. 
While that is doing, the volatile adive Gums, 
with the volatile alcaline Salts , are to be com- 
bin’d with Cinnabar of Antimony in fome 
Form or other. This Method is to be car- 
ried on till the Fits are weakened, the Quan- 
tity of the Bile leffen’d, and the primce Vice 
pretty clear ; and then, and not till then, 
will proper Emmenagogues , with Steel, Cha- 
lybeat Mineral Waters , Bitters , and Aroma- 
ticks take Place. In the Fits themfelves 
there is little to be done but by Volatiles 


Of Convuljive Diforders, Sec. 22 3 

and Opiates , in appropriated Juleps to leffen 
their Violence, and to quiet their Spafms ; 
but by a Heady Continuance in this Method, 
and a proper Regimen of Diet , I fcarce ever 
favv the Patient mifearry. 

§ VI. As to the Fits of grown Perfons, 
Hyjlerical or Hypochondriacal , though they 
proceed generally from the general Caufes 
mention’d, and are to be treated much after 
the fame Manner, yet they are infinitely 
more obftinate and difficult to be remov’d : 
the Habit of Body being more deprav’d, and 
theDifeafes more rooted and confirm’d, thro’ 
a long Train of Mifmanagement , and Negled: 
of the Means by which Health is to be pre- 
fer v’d ; and in the higher Degrees of thefe, 
there are commonly fome one or other of the 
great Bowels (as the Liver and its Appendages, 
the Me Renter y , the Cawf the Spleen or the 
Stomach ) if not quite fpoil’d, yet much 
weaken’d and obftru&ed, and all the Glands 
Huff’d and render’d ufelefs. To leffen the 
Violence of the Fits , at leaft in the firft In- 
ftance, all the great Evacuations are to be 
attempted, efpecially Bleeding , Vomiting , 
Bliflersy Glyjlers, and the like; and then 
the Spafms and Convulsions are to be quieted 
by Opiates , with warm and volatile Medicines 
and Foetid Gums , according to the Strength of 
the Patient and the Neceffity of the Difeafe. 
If thefe Evacuations cannot be conveniently 

made 4 

2 24 The Englifli Malady. 

made, or do not loon enough take Effect, 
there is nothing elfe to be done under the 
Fits, but by thele mention’d Opiates , with 
the volatile Gums and Salts, Pulvis ad Gut- 
tetam , Aromaticks and Ale aline Spirits in 
proper Juleps , till a convenient Interval be 
obtain’d, or the Violence of the Convulfons 
ceafes, and then rouzing Vomits are to be 
thrown down, and after that iharp Glyjlers 
(with Rmetick Wine, and volatile Spirits in 
them, which will check their further Return 
for fome time.) This Method is to be re- 
peated as often as thefe Paroxyfms return. 
During the Intervals Cinnabarine Medicines, or 
Alt hi ops Mineral, the Mercurius Dulcis , or 
Alcaljatus, with the volatile Gums and Salts, 
are to be taken once or twice a Day, with Cha- 
lybeat Waters, and Atomatick Bitters, and at 
Night the Gum Pills compounded with the 
volatile Salts, the general Method already laid 
down, being at the fame time regularly pur- 
fued. Which Method and Medicines, if duly 
continu’d for a fufficient Time, cannot fail of 
Succefs, if any thing will fucceed, and the 
Patient not too far advanc’d in Life, or fome 
of the great Organs are not quite fpoiled. But 
in my judgment and Obfervation, the greateft 
Strels is to be laid (efpecially in grofs Habits, 
or Symptoms produced even by relative 
Intemperance only) in the Medicinal Way 
upon Vomits often repeated, Quinquina Bit- 
ters, Jloetick Purges , and Mineral or Cha- 


Of Convulji've Di [orders , &c. 22 ^ 

lybeat Waters ; which not fucceeding, little 
is to be expected from Art , the other lefs 
effectual Methods being tod weak for fuch 
Cafes and Conftitutions, and therefore they 
muft be entirely left to F alliative Re- 

medies of warm Opiates , fuch as Venice f reach , 
the Fhilonium Romamim , with high and 
ftrong Cordial Juleps and Volatiles , fuch as I 
have already mention’d. Thofe who are of 
thinner Habits, and whofe Bowels therefore 
are not probably fo much fluff’ d and objl ru- 
bied, will have a fairer Chance, and be 
reftored with gentler Evacuations, fmaller 
Dofes of Opiates , volatile , or cordial Medi- 
cines, and more eafily recover’d by Diet, 
Air, Exercife , Cloalybeat and Mineral Waters, 
with Aromatick and Quinquina Bitters, and 
thofe other Things I have fo often men- 

§ VII. As to the Fits attending other 
Nervous Diforders, as the Apoplexy , Epikpjy, 
and the like, that Part of them which is con- 
vulfive, depending entirely on the primary 
Diftemper, being the Struggle of Nature to 
throw off the peccant Caufe, if it were pof- 
fible to feparate them, they were to be treated 
in the fame Manner, and by the fame 
Medicines: But intending to fay fomething 
of them in particular, I fhall here pals them 
by, and only add, that the feveral Forms, 
Dofes, and other Circumftances in ufing thefe 


2 2 6 The Englifh Malady. 

Medicines, I have already mentioned in the 
proper Cales, requires the Attention of the 
wifeft and raoft experienced Phyfician, to 
whom thefe Means and Medicines may be 
familiar, and are never to be trufted to any 
one not duly and regularly inftru&ed and 
educated in thefe Matters, much lefs to the 
Patient himfelf, who, let his Knowledge and 
even Experience be ever fo great, yet under 
them, he is not capable to judge for him- 
felf, and therefore there will be no Occafion 
for being more particular and circumftan- 


Of Nervous Fevers , ChoJicks, Gouts , 
AfihmaSy Rheumatifms , and other 
T)ijtempers denominated Nervous . 

AYING, I hope, folidly and 
juftly eftablifhed the Caufes 
and Principles, on which the 
Differences between Nervous and humorous 
or inflammatory Diforders (as they are 
called) are founded, it will be no difficult 
Matter to apply this general Dodrine to par- 

Of Nervous Fevers, See. nf 

iicular Diftempers, to fhew wherein their 
true and effential Nature and Difference con- 
fifts, and thereby the Solid Intention to be 
followed in their particular Cure. For the 
only real Difference lies in the Firmnefs or 
Laxity of the Solids ; to wit, that thefe Dif- 
tempers are or ought to be called Nervous 
only, when they are attended with a loofe 
and relaxed State of the Fibres , which is 
chiefly manifefted by fome few or more of 
thofe Symptoms I have affigned to Spleen 
and Vapours. And on the contrary, that 
they are or ought to be deemed humorous, 
hot, or inflammatory, when the Solids are 
as yet tenfe and firm, the Symptoms high, 
and the State of the Blood inflammatory ; 
for tho’ in both Cafes, the great differential 
Marks of the Diftemper will appear, yet the 
Symptoms will be higher and more acute, or 
weaker and flower, and will be attended 
with fome other Appearances, confequent 
upon the Strength or Weaknefs of the Con- 
ftitution , tho’ in both of them, the fame Ma- 
terials fhould be thrown in, to produce the 
Difeafe, which (hews the true Foundation of 
the Diftinction between the StriFtum and 
Laxum , or the ftrait and loofe of the an- 
tient Methodijls , and between the hot and 
cold Difeafes among the Moderns. 

§ II. According to this Plan or Idea, it 
will be eafy to determine the Nature and 

Q_ 2 ’ Confti- 

12 8 The Englifh Malady. 

Conftitution of a Nervous (or, as it is fome- 
times called, Malignant) Fever ; it generally 
attacking thofe of originally or occasionally 
weak Solids or Conftitutions, who have for- 
merly had fome of the Symptoms and Marks 
which I have affigned, in a former Chapter , 
to belong to weak Nerves or Fibres : The 

Symptoms of fuch a Fever are thefe follow- 
ing •, the Rigour and Chlllinefs , tho’ not fo 
ffrong or violent at fir If, yet is longer, more 
flow and imperceptible ; the Burning Heat 
afterwards is not fo intenfe, nor the Head - 
ach and Sicknefs lb great y nor with fuch 
frequent Vomitings , but rather a continued 
Sickifhnefs ; the FulJ'e is neither fo quick, 
ffcrong, or full, as in the inflammatory Kinds, 
but fmall, oppreffed, and fomctimes inter- 
rupted ; the Sleep refembles a Letharglck 
Dofing or Dreaming, with Startings ; the 
Water fometimes crude, commonly limpid , 
pale, and in great Quantify, without any 
great Sediment at krft ; In fhort, the Fever 
rather creeps in, than attacks or furprizes, 
and the whole Duration of the Exordium or 
firft Stage, is more flow and tedious, than 
in acute, inflammatory, or depuratory Fevers, 
infomuch that it K fometimes fix, feven, or 
perhaps nine Days before it comes to its 
State , by which any one may judge of the 
Duration of the whole (for the fooner a 
Fever comes to its State, the fhorter is its 
Duration) and of its Danger, which is always 


Of Nervous Fevers, See. 229 

greater from its Nature, and alfo becaufe it 
is long before Affiftance is called, or Means 
ufed, or the latent Enemy difeovered ; In its 
State (efpecially the middle Time of that) 
the Head is ftupid, confufed, and incapable, 
rather than delirious ; the 'Tongue is feldorn 
black , till towards the very End of the 
Fever , at leaft, ' not parched , but covered 
with a thick, white, or brownifh Cruft, and 
generally moift ; the Thirfi is fo far from 
being intenfe, that Drink is fcarce called for, 
or fwallowed with Ardour ; the Breathing 
difficult, with Glutting , Gulping , or Choak - 
ing ; the Bulfe, tho’ quick, yet fmall and 
threedy ; the Water now fometimes limpid 
and much, fometimes broken and in fmall 
Quantities, by turns, but never with a grofs 
or full lateritious Sediment \ the Tendons 
leaping and jumping : and Pulfations from 
Flatulency, like what is vulgarly called the 
Life-Blood , in feveral Parts of the Bhdy ; 
and during this whole Period uncertain 
Fits of Coldnefs and Rigour, with fucceed- 
ing Glowings, and broken, coldiffi, faint 
Sweats, and conftant Exacerbations towards 
Night, or after Sun-fet ; the Belly , tho' 
perhaps it might be open, and tending to- 
wards a Diarrhoea at firft, becomes now 
quite conftipate and tumified with Flatu- 
lencies ; the Tip of the Nofe and the Ears 
often cold with an Ichor , and fometimes an 
Ulcer in thefe laft j a carelefs and unnatural 

Q_ 3 i Pofture 

The Englifh Malady. 

Pofture of the Body, with fimple childifh 
Gefticulations ; and, by Turns, a lethargick 
Dofing, or watching Coma, with haring 
Eyes, or their White turn’d outwards. 
This State, continues, or grows worfe, from 
the j fifteenth to the twentieth , or thirtieth , 
or fometinies the fortieth Day, if they live 
fo long (as generally the Time of the CriJ'e 
of all Fevers is as long as the Exordium , and 
the Duration of the State, is equal to that of 
both firft and laft Periods together). Towards 
the End of this Fever , they either fleep, as it 
were, into the Arms of Death, or if a Crife 
happens, it is either into a meer Languor 
and Infertility, a confirmed Cachexy, with 
deep JSferveus Symptoms, or fettled Melan- 
choly, a Palfy , fome mortified Limb, a vio- 
lent lafting Diarrhoea ; and fometimes thofe 
of the more benign Kinds terminate in Inter- 
mittents. This Fever (which always arifes 
from a Cachexy and great Obftru&ions, as 
well as weak Solids, and which enters, 
in fome Degree, into our Malignant Fevers 
of all Kinds) has infinite Degrees and Va- 
riety, according to the original Strength of 
the Fibres , or the Time of the Patient’s Life, 
but thofe I have defcribed are the moft com- 
mon, and perhaps the worft Symptoms, as 
any one who has feen and obferved them 
mult know. 

§ III. From this Defcription of tfe 
Difeafe, and what J haye already faid about 


Of Nervous Fevers, &c. 231 

the Symptoms of Vapours , it is pretty evi- 
dent, what will be the principal Intention , 
and the beft manner of treating it, viz. the 
Grinding, Breaking, and Diffolving the Co- 
hefion, Vifcidity, and Sharpnefs of the 
Fluids, and throwing them off by the fafeft 
and moffc patent Outlets. All the Eva- 
cuations muft be gentle, except Vomiting , 
which may be repeated freely thro’ all the 
Stages ( if the Symptoms require, and 
Strength permit, but efpecially in the Be- 
ginning) and Blijlering , which necelfarily 
mull be as extenlive and univerfal as poffible, 
tho’ not violent, or all at once, but gradually 
applying one or more Blifters on different 
Parts, as the others dry up : As to Bleeding , 
I think it ought to be done once, and but 
cautioufly repeated, be the Blood ever fo 
fizy and Rheumatick , becaufe the Veffels 
muft be kept full, tho’ not turgid, in order 
to preferve their Tenfion , for grinding or 
concocting the Morbid Matter. The much 
better Way is to endeavour by all the Means 
poffible in Art , to thin and dilute, to re- 
move the Obftru&ions, and to roufe the 
weak and languiffiing Solids into a more 
hearty Struggle, both by Diet and Medi- 
cines, to conquer the Difeafe. This is to be 
done by the Cinnabarin , Antimonial , and 
Mineral Medicines chiefly, fuch as Antimony 
Diaphoretic'll , Bezoar Mineral 7 Cinnabar , 
and the like, joined with volatile and urinous 

CL 4 $alts 3 

The Englidi Malady. 

Salts, fuch as that of Hartjhorn , Amber , &c. 
and thefe again compounded with gentle 
Diapjooreticks , as Saffron, Contrayerva , Goa 
Stone, Oriental Bezoar , Gafcolgn Powder, or 
the warmer Compounds, as ConfeSlio Alker- 
mes, Venice Treacle, Dlafcordlum without 
Opium, Confetllo . Rawlelana , Elect uarlum ch 
Safflfras, &c. wafti’d down with appropriated 
juleps, and quickened with volatile Spirits, as 
thofe of Hartjhorn, Sal-volatile , or Goddard’s 
Drops, for here univerfally Liquid Forms 
are to be preferred to Solid ones ; and thus 
to try to overcome the Vifcidity of the Juices, 
and to rouze the Sluggilhnefs of the Solids 
to a. brisker Circulation and Struggle, for 
which Purpofe the Diet, at leaft, the Li- 
quids are allowed commonly a little ftronger 
and higher than in injlammatory Fevers ; 
tho’ I fhall ever be of Opinion, where there 
is any Degree of quick Pulfe or preter- 
natural Heat, Diluents and Coolers are 
diredly indicated, whether in Fevers Inflam- 
matory or nervous ; and Cordials and high 
Food only as the Pulfe and Spirits fink too 
low. I allow that if Art could always prompt , 
whip, Jpar , and JHmulate the Animal Oeco- 
nomy to grind the fizy Juices by a ftrong 
and brisk Circulation, the Fever w r ould be 
fhorter, and the Crife more complete, and 
the diluting, cooling Method of Cure lefs ne- 
ceffary : But as that is both uncertain and 
imfafe, becaufe none alive can afcertain the 

Of Nervous Fevers, See . 233 

precife Degree of Strength in the Patient, 
nor of the Malignity in the Difeafe, and 
that the Crife , (if attainable) under fuch a 
Method, is almoft ever with the quite De= 
ftru&ion of the whole Syfi.em of the Nerves , 
the Brain, the Faculties , the Limbs , or the 
whole rational Man : and therefore the cool 
Method, tho’ tedious, yet is ever without 
Danger, and the Recovery, when obtained 
(which the cool Method will always obtain 
at laft, if the Diftemper is not ftronger than 
the Patient, as well in Acute as Chronical 
Cafes) always complete, full, and pro- 
ductive of flrong Health after. This is all 
I need to fay of Nervous Fevers, as dif- 
tinguifhed from hot and depuratory ones. 
How to fetch up the Patient, if he re- 
covers, to Health and Spirits, I have fhewn 

C IV. The Nervous Cholick, as aiftin- 
guifhed from the Bilious , arifing chiefly in 
fuch Conftitutions as I have deferibed, dif- 
fers principally, if not only, from that, in 
the Violence and Duration of its Paroxyfms , 
and there being more of the Convulfive of 
Spafmodick Kind in them : produced chiefly 
by the fame Kind of acrid and Iharp Juices * 
but as the Solids, in the firjl Cafe, are more 
fenflble and irritable, a lefs Quantity of this 
irritating Matter throws them into more vio- 
lent Bumults and Convulsions, which lafts 


234 Englifti Malady. 

fometimes two or three Days with violent 
tortures, Reachings, and Vomitings , throw- 
ing up every thing that is taken down, till 
at laft the morbifick Matter being quite 
fpent and eje&ed for this Time, Nature, 
almoft overlaid and worn out, finks down 
into a lethargick Doling, which leaves the 
Patient quite feeble and difpirited. A Cold- 
nefs upon the Extremities, Tawning , Anxiety , 
a Naufea , and Sickilhnefs, are the Signs of 
the Approach of this Kind of Cholick , and 
fuch recover but llowly, and at firft their 
Intervals are but Ihort. I generally fufpeft 
that the Liver of fuch is beginning to be 
faulty, bigger and larger than ordinary, or 
obftructed : becaufe of the great Quantity of 
Bile that is conftantly thrown off, and the 
Jaundice , that always fucceeds it for fome 
Days, which probably may have been occa- 
fioned by a Mal-Regimen , or too great a 
Quantity of high Food, at leaft, for fuch 
Conftitutions : for it is well known, that 
Cramming and Over-feeding with higher 
than a natural Food, as I have faid, will 
fvvell and increale the Livers of all Ani- 

^ V. The Cure of this Diftemper is al- 
moft: intirely the fame with that mentioned 
in a former Chapter of the Symptoms of 
Vapours. If the Fits are not prevented by 
frequent Vomits , proportioned to the Strength 

Of Nervous Fevers , See. 2^5 

of the Patient, or gentle Stomach Purges to 
throw off the peccant bilious Humour as 
colleded, nothing can be done in the Fit, 
but by repeated Dofes of Opiates , with pro- 
per Cordials , as often as they are thrown 
up, either in a folid or liquid Form : to Hop 
and allay the Torture till the Fit is quite 
fpent ; and a gentle Stomach Purge, (if the 
Bowels can bear it without too much Irri- 
tation) with a Dofe of Laudanum to quiet 
them afterwards \ the Intervals are to be 
filled up with Chalybeats , Mromaticks , Bit - 
tersy Mineral Waters , a ftrid Regimen of 
Diet, and much Exercife, or a total * Milk 
Diet , which feldom fails to cure this Dif- 
order, if the Patient is not too far gone in 
Life, or fome of the great Vijcera fpoiled, 
and irremediably ruined, in which Cafe, it 
terminates in one of the incurable Diftemr 
pers I have fo often mentioned. 

$ VI. A s to Nervous Gouts , Rheuma - 
tifms , and Jlflhma’s , they being generally 
denominated thus from thofe Conftitutions I 
have mentioned to be moft fubjed to Nervous 
Diftempers, it were a needlefs Repetition to 
fay any thing of thefe Difeafes ; in general, 
they being to be met with in thofe Authors 
that have treated profelfedly of them, and 

f Vide Sydenham Dillert. Epift. de Affectione Hyfterica. 


2^6 The Englifli Malady, 

what regards them fpecially as they are 
Nervous , being eafily deduced from the ge- 
neral Do&rine of Nervous Diftempers, and 
what has been faid of the feveral Symptoms 
in particular : only in Nervous Afthma’& with 
Flegm, or perhaps, (as I have already infi- 
nuated) in Humorous Aflhma’s, both of Per- 
fons of firm and lax Solids, Liquid Quickfilver, 
(or Belluji’ s Pills made with Gum Ammoniac ) 
will be found a fovereign Remedy, if dis- 
cretely managed, half an Ounce taken once 
or twice a Day, with a thin, light, fluid Diet, 
will do more than Ammoniacum alone, and all 
the Clafs of the Volatile and Foetid Medicines, 
to diffolve the Flegm, aflift Expectoration, 
and to make the Expiration and Infpiration 
eafy ; whether this be done by the Weight of 
the Mercury in the Guts, opening all their 
Glands and Valves , but efpecially by this 
Clump of Weight, turning the Mouths of the 
Latleals from circular to oval, and thereby 
driving out all their thick jlegmy Doffils 
that obftruCted them, whereby they becoming 
pervious, the Steams and Particles of the 
Quickfilver may pervade the whole Habit, 
diffolve the Yifcidity, and fcour all the Vef- 
fels. I fay, however this happens, the Faff 
is undeniable, and agreeable to innumerable 
Experiences, in the moft atrocious and ob- 
llinate Cafes of this Complaint. All that 
can be further fuggefled, without manifefl 
Tautology , will be comprehended in thefe 



Of Nervous Fevers, &c. 237 

two Particulars, fir ft ^ that in treating the 
particular Diftenrpers of fuch, befides the 
Medicines proper and peculiar to them, 
which are commonly fuccefsful or ufual in 
ftrong Conftitutions, thefe others are to be 
combined with them now, which I have 
fuggefted in the Cure of the Symptoms of 
weak Nerves , or, at leaf!, they are to be 
then ufed, when the Nervous Symptoms have 
the Predominance. The other Thing is, 
that the Dofes of the Medicines, and the 
Regimen of the Diet , ought to be propor- 
tioned to the Weaknefs of fuch Conftitutions. 
The fame Things are to be underftood of all 
other Diftempers, of whatever Denomination, 
that are called Nervous. 


$1% The Englifli Malady.' 


Of the Talfy , St. Vitus s Dunce , and 
other Taralytick Diforders . 

§ I. HERE is no Diforder inci- 

dent to the Inhabitants of this 
If llland and Climate more com- 
mon, of late efpecially, than the Palfy , or 
Paralytick Symptoms , nor of a more difficult 
Cure, when they happen to People of ori- 
ginal or acquired weak Nerves, or upon the 
Decline of Life. A Cold, or being expofed 
to a fharp freezing North-Eajl Wind, con- 
tinuing long in an unnatural Pofture, fo as 
to Hop fome great Blood Ydfels : hard and 
exceffive Labour, a moift and damp Situation, 
Antimonial or Mercurial external Steams, a 
Blow or Contusion upon Bome Parts of the 
Body, where there are t T greateft Collec- 
tions of Nerves ; all theie, I fay, are fuffi- 
cient Caufes to produce partial or temporary 
Palfies : but thefe arifing chiefly from fome 
Obftru&ion of the Blood VeflTels, where by 



Of tparalytick T)ij orders. 23 ^ 

the Paflage of that Balfamick Liquor, necef- 
iary to cheriih the Mufcles, is intercepted, 
and the Nerves, hurt only by Accident, 
yield generally to Bleeding, a&ive and pon- 
derous Remedies of the Mineral Kind , to 
break the coagulated Blood, and open Ob- 
ftru&ions, joined with Aftringents, towards 
the End of the Cure, fuch as the jjp uinquina, 
Oak Bark, Mi/letoe, and the like ; Bliftering, 
and warm, cauftic, outward Applications, 
as Fomentations, with a Deco&ion of Muf- 
tard Seed , Horje Radijh, Pellitory, Zedoary, 
"Juniper Berries , &c. with an Addition of 
camphorated Spitit of Wine, a&ive and pene- 
trating Ointments and Epithemes , as the 
Nervous Ointment , an Ointment made with 
Horfe Radijh, the Opodeldoc, and the like, 
or Friction with the Flefti- Brufh, and 
anointing with Opodeldoc, diffolved in cam- 
phorated Spirit of Wine after, or with the 
other warm Oils, as thofe of Amber, Cloves, 
Vitriol diluted, &c. and drinking the Bath 
Waters, lathing in the fame, or pumping 
on the Part affe&ed. Thefe Kinds, I fay, 
are not the Pallies I intended principally to 
treat of here^ fince they happen generally 
to good found Conftitutions and firm Nerves , 
and are thus eafily remedied. 

§ II. These I am principally concerned 
about, are fuch as happen in the Decline of 
Life , to Perfons of vitiated Juices and weak 


S4o T’he Englifli Maladt. 

Nerves , where Nervous Diforders have 
preceded, or in which Vapours commonly 
terminate, who have fpoiled their Habits, at 
ieaft, by relative Intemperance (which is 
always to be underftood when I fpeak of 
ExcefTes producing Difeafes) fuch P'alfies are 
either a general Seizure of moft, if not all 
the Maples and Nerves of the whole Ma- 
chine, or of one half of the Body only, as 
of the right or left Side, or of the upper 
Part of the Body on one Side, with the 
lower Part on the other Side, or laftly, of 
fome particular Limb or Mufcle. There 
is generally Reafon to conclude from 
the Appearances, that befides a Laxity of 
the Nerves , or a Defect in their innate 
Power of Contraction and Toni cal Nature, 
there are likewife ObftruCtions of the Capil- 
lary Blood Yeffels, from fome Fault in the 
Animal Juices, which, when rectified, cures 
the Palp. This is manifeCt, from the Cure 
of a great many inveterate Pallies, while the 
Patient is ftrong, by Salivation or Mercurial 
Medicines, and yet there is nothing more 
evident, than that much Mercury os frequent 
Salivations , in weak Conftitutions, will give 
Paralytick Symptoms j witnefs the Tremor 
Mercurialis , fo common in Perfons of weak 
Nerves , under fuch an Operation, from 
whence is further confirmed (what was 
pretty manifeft before, from other Appear- 
ances) that towards animal Motion, the In- 

Of Paralytick Diforders, &c. 241 

flux of a found balfamick Blood, to moiften 
and cherifh the flefhy Fibres, is as much 
or more neceffary, even than the Integrity 
and innate Adion of the Nerves , or animal 
Spirits (if you pleafe). And as the Faulti- 
nefs of both concurs towards producing all 
nervous Diftempers, fo more efpecially to 
thofe call’d Paralytick. There can be no 
Difficulty to one, acquainted with Nature, 
and the animal Oeconomy, why the fame Caufe, 
Mercury , for Example, ffiould cure, and yet 
caufe and produce in different Degrees and 
Quantities, the very fame Dileafe, to wit, a 
Palfy . We know, a certain Degree of Heat, 
which will only produce Smoak , rais’d to a 
higher Degree, will produce Light and 
Flame : A certain Degree of Heat, in the 
fame Fomentation , will diffolve and diffipate 
a Tumor, and a higher Degree of it will 
harden and make it Jchirrous ; and thus, 
Mercury , in moderate Dofes, will break, 
diffolve, and attenuate the Blood and Juices, 
whofe Vifcidity and confequen.t Comprejfion 
on the Nerves , interrupt their Vibrations 
and Action, and fo produce a Palfy , which 
a gentle Salivation will remedy and antidote. 
But when the attive Steams and fmall pon- 
derous Particles of Mercury have penetrated 
and faturated the Subftance of the Nerves 
and Solids , they will fpoil and alter their 
whole Subftance and Action, and fo caufe 
an univerfal Palfy . But the Juices feem 
' ' R to 

X4^ ‘The Hnglidi Malady. 

to be the principal Caufe of the Difficulty of 
the Cure of Paljies in the Decline of Life; 
becaufe towards old Age the Solids lliffen 
and harden at a greater Rate, than in the 
younger Part of Life,, fo the fpoil’d Juices- 
are then mere hard to be remedied*. 

§. III. I f a Ferfon,. at or about the Meri- 
dian of Life, be leiz’d with fuch paralytiok 
Diforders, and they are not cur’d, or at leaft 
prevented from fettling or confirming at firft,, 
they are feldom ever afterwards totally freed 
from them, whatever Methods be tried with 
them : And therefore, as foon as the Difeafe 
ss difeover’d, Bleeding at firft, if the Patient is 
ftrong, and the Pulfe full, and then Blitter s r 
hrft over all the Head, then on the Nape of 
the Neck, the Legs and Arms, and efpecially 
©n the Parts affe&ed, and in the Intervals, or 
when the Effe&s of thefe are pretty much 
worir off ; active warm Purges, efpecially 
of Hellebore and Sena y on a vinous Menttruum y 
ought to be uled and repeated as often as the 
Strength of the Patient will bear, with fome 
cordial Medicines, as that of Sir Walter 
Raleigh , Eletluariam de SaJJafras , &c. (at 
Night, after theOperation is over) wafh’d down 
with a nervous Julep y mix’d with Volatile Spi- 
rits. When theie Evacuations have thus 
been duly made, a Courfe of Chalybeats y 
Aromaticks and Bitters , is to be preferib'd, 
to recruit the Strength of the Solids, and 


Of ^Paralytick Diferders, See. 24 $ 

warm and aftive Oils and Ointments pecially 
the Opodeldoc : and ftimulating Fomentations 
applied to the Parts affected, they being firft 
well curried with a Flefh Brujh. Cold Bath- 
ing may be alfo tried on found Conftitudons, 
but hot Bathing of any Sort or Kind, will, I 
fear, be of little Ufe, and may, in fome deep 
rooted Cafes, do hurt by a temporary, at leaft 
greater Relaxation, unlefs the Juices be 
extremely well thinn’d by ponderous Medi- 
cines firft. 

IV. If thefe Medicines are duly and 
effectually tried, under the Direction of a 
proper Perfon, and with little or no Succefs, 
the Cafe may be deem'd incurable. Not that 
it is always mortal, for I have known them 
laft as many Years under a par aly tick Stroke, 
as under an Amputation, efpecially if the 
Paljy had not followed after an ^IpopledUck, 
Epileptick , or fome ftrong nervous Paroxyfm 
or Fit : And even then, if the Conftitution 
was tolerable, and the general Method of 
Cure of nervous Diftempers has been duly 
and fteadily purfued, feldom any thing 
worfe has happen’d from it than the Lofs of 
that Organ or Limb, which the Diftemper 
had feiz’d, and difabled : Life in other 
Refpefts, and under fuch a Management, 
having gone on pretty tolerably. 

244 The Engllfh Malady. 

J. V. Saint Vitus’s Dance (as it 
is call’d) the mimicking Dijlemper , and 
all fuch irregular and equivocal nervous 
Diforders, may be ealily reduced under 
fome of the general Heads I have afligned. 
The Jirfl is certainly a Mixture of para- 
lytick and convulfive Diforders. It very 
often arifes out of an Epilepjy , efpecially 
in young People, when the original Dif- 
temper is overcome, and a greater De- 
gree of Strength is obtain’d, tho’ fome- 
times it is only a Prelude to that fevere 
Diftemper, and may itfelf fometimes be 
an original Difeale; I have cur’d it, as I 
mention’d in my Book of the Gout , in 
young Perlbns, by repeated antimonial Vo- 
mits, mercurial Purges , Steel , and Aroma- 
ticks, and the • other general Methods fo 
often mention’d. 


Of the Apoplexy and Epilepfy. 245 


Of the Apoplexy and Epilepfy. 

k LnpHE apoplexy , in its Fit and 
■ Paroxyfm , is one of the moft 
-A- frightful and fatal Diftempers 
belonging to the nervous Clafs of Difeafes, 
few out-living the firft Fit, fewer the fecond, 
and, as it is commonly faid, none at all the 
third', tho’ this Obfervation is not altogether 
without Exceptions ; for it is in this, as in 
all other bodily Diftempers, thofe who are 
ftrong and robuft, and in whom the Caufe 
is but juft beginning to operate, and meets 
with a greater Reliftance from the State of 
the Solids, will hold it longer, and ftruggle 
more than the weak and tender. Few are 
ever feiz’d with this Diftemper, if it comes 
naturally, and without an Accident, till 
towards the Decline of Life , unlefs they 
have been much troubled, with violent 
and acute Head-aches , or Inflammations 
upon the Brain , or its Membranes , or have 
fame inflammatory Diftemper tranflated from 

R 3 the 

24 6 The EngliOi Malady. 

the Extremities upon the Head, fuch as the 
Gout, Rheumatifm , Eryfipelas , and the like : 
thofe who are fciz’d with a deep Stroak of 
it, have fcarce any Warning, but a fudden 
violent Head-ach , a Sicknefs at the Stomach, 
or a Cholic k, and drop down immediately, 
without Senfe or Motion, and have fcarce 
any Sign of Life, except now and then an 
uncertain Twitch or Twinkle in the Pulfe 
(if it is not from Flatulence) and lcarce any 
Breathing that can be difcover’d, even on 
the Surface of a Glafs, but a conftant Snort- 
ing or Snoring in the Throat and Noftrils. 
Thole in whom it comes naturally, are 
obferv’d generally to be either grofs Feeders , 
or thole who deal too plentifully in ftrong 
and fpirituous Liquors , of a grofs and full 
Habit, port and thick neck'd , voluptuous 
and lazy ; tho’ fome thinner Habits, may 
fuffer under it, but they are thofe who have 
formerly been fubjed to violent Heach-achcs , 
or are worn out by Lechery. 

$ II. There are three kinds of apoplexies 
diftinguilh'd by the different Caufes that pro- 
duce them; as jirjl, a Symptomatick ylpoplexy, 
fuch as I have mention’d, from a Tranllation 
of the Gout , Rheumatifm , ' &Cc. idly. An 
accidental one, from a Fall, Brnife, Wound , 
or the like; and ^dlyu an acquir'd one, ari- 
fing from an Jpoplemck Difpofition or Dif- 
crafy, proceeding from Intemperance and 


Of the JpopJexy and Epllepfy. 247 

Excelfes, Lazinefs, and Neglect of the Non- 
naturals in Perfcns of the abovemention’d 
particular Make and Conliitution of Body. 
It is of this lafi chiefly that I intend to lay 
?.ny thing here, the Treatment of the others 
being obvious. As to the immediate CauJ'e 
of the Mpopleffkk Fit , I think it mult be one 
of thefe two, viz. * either a Rupture of the 
Blood-Veflels in the Brain, whereby a great 
Quantity of Blood being extravafated upon 
its including Membranes, or into its Cavities, 
prefles upon the Origin of the Nerves, fo as 
to intercept their Operation and Funttions^ 
from whence the mention’d Appearances may 
be eafily deduc’d. And this may be either 
occafion’d by a Fall, a Bntife , a Wound, or 
any other violent Accident upon the Skull , 
or by too great a Quantity of Blood , or its 
being overheated by ftrong Liquors, violent 
Exercife, or immoderate ienfual Pleafures, 
in thole who have the Configuration, I have 
defcribed. This feems to be the Cafe of 
thofe Apoplexies that happen in Southern 
Countries , where, tho' the Climate confines 
them to a very moderate Diet, yet as they 
wallow in Jenfual. Fleafures of another 
Nature, and deal fometimes pretty freely 
with fpirituous Liquors, and Opiates (which 
have the fame deleterious Effects) thefe things 

"* Vide Philofoph. Tran fact. N° 313. 

R 4 


248 The Er.glifli Malady. 

in a fcorchingf Climate, may kindle a Flame 
in the Blood l'ufficient to produce thefe men- 
tion’d Effects. 

$ III. The other kind of apoplexy, which 
happens naturally, and is moft frequent in 
Northern Countries and colder Climates , 
feems to arife chiefly from an Extravafa- 
tion , or rather Ouzing out thro’ the Sides of 
the relax’d and worn out Capillary Blood- 
VefFels, of a thin putrid Serum, upon the 
mention'd Parts, which I have hinted in the 
former Cafe. This chiefly happens to grofs 
and full Feeders , to thofe who are too free 
with ftrong and /'pirituous Liquors, and are 
confequently very unactive and lazy. I 
have formerly fhewn how fuch a Courfe and 
Regimen will almoft, or altogether, deftroy 
the red or grumous Part of the Blood , and 
turn the whole Mals of the Fluids into a 
dirty Paddle of thin alcaline Jaltifh Serum , 
which Corrodes or Ouzes thro’ the flabby 
and relax’d Capillaries. That this is pretty 
near the Truth, is evident from opening the 
Heads * of thofe who have died of a natural 
apoplexy , the Cavities of the Brain having 
been found generally quite filled, either 
with extravafated Blood , or fuch a Serum , 
as I have mention’d. Thofe who want fur- 

* Vide Boned Sepulchret. Anatom: Lib. I. 

t her 

Of the Apoplexy and Epilepfy. 249 

£her Light in this Affair may confult fVepfer, 
The mildeft apople&ick Fits, of all, where 
the Patient efcapes for once or twice, feem 
to arife only from an ObftruCtion or Fume- 
faftion of the Blood-Veffels, or Glands in the 
Cavity of the Skull, upon the Removal of 
which ObftruCtion, by the Struggle and Effort 
of Nature, in the Paroxyfm, it ceafes. This 
Degree is what feems only capable of be-? 
ing cured ; but if it is fuffer’d to go on 
without any effectual Method, us’d to re- 
move the apopledtick Difpofition by rectifying 
the Juices, two or three more fuch Pa - 
roxyfms burft the Veffels, and bring on the 
incurable Kinds mention’d. 

§ IV. If the Account here given of this 
terrible Diftemper be juft, there will be no 
Difficulty in forming the true Indications , 
and the moll effectual Method of Care, as 
far as it is poffible. Which of thefe Caufes 
have the Prevalency in a particular Cafe, 
will be evident, from the Manner of Life, 
the Age and Conftitution of the Patient, and 
the Symptoms of the Fit. There is very 
little Hope of Succefs in either Cafe, unlefs 
the Caufe be but juft beginning and very 
weak ; or the Perfon very ftrong and young, 
and otherwife found. To rouze them out 
of the prefent Fit ; in the f, rft Ca/e, the 
moft plentiful Bleeding that can poffibly be 
ventur’d upon, is to be attempted at the 


Hoe EngliHi Malady. 

Arm, in the temporal Artery, or the jugu* 
hr Vein, in the Foot, and by Cupping 
on the Nape of the Neck, together with 
fharp, cooling and acid Glyflers , while 
Blifters are laid on in every Place where 
they can conveniently be. In thofe Fits 
produced by fuch a Serum as I have 
mention'd, or from an Obftru&ion in the 
Glands , Vomits are alio immediately to be 
forc’d down, (but avoided in thofe occa- 
fion’d by a Haemorrhage, becaufe in 
this laft, the great Affair is to Hop the 
Violence of the Hcemorrhage, and to 
draw it off by all poffible Means from 
the Brain) : And Care is likewife to be 
taken, neither by inward Medicines nor 
outward Application, to increafe the Hurry, 
Heat, or Inflammation of the Blood : and 
therefore the Solids are not to be ftimu- 
lated to too violent Efforts. Whereas, in 
the other Cafe, neither of thefe can be 
done too much : and therefore, not only 
lharp Sternutatories , foetid Smells , and vola- 
tile Spirits , may be applied to the Nofe, 
but (other Things not fucceeding) even 
a&ual Cauteries are to be applied to the 
Soles of the Feet, and Crown of the Head, 
as far as it can be done fafely,to raife Sensibility 
and Pain : befides the warmeft cordial Medi- 
cines, in a liquid Form, if they can be thruft 
down any how. 

Of the Apoplexy and Epilepfy. 251 

£ V. As to the Apopleffick Difpofition, 
in thofe of the inflammatory Kind, all pro- 
per Means are to be ufed that tend to cool 
the Blood, and allay its Fermentation and 
Heat, fuch as Acids , acidulated Draughts, 
mild BaJJamicks , gentle Cat har ticks, with an 
extremely cool, moderate, and fpare Diet, 
abftaining from violent Exercife, and every 
thing that may heat and inflame the Blood. 
The other ApopleUick Difpofition mull be 
treated much after the fame Manner, with 
this Difference only, that the Medicines mult 
be ftronger and warmer, the Exercife greater 
and more conftant, that continual Drains, bjr 
Blifters, IJfues, Set on s , and the like, be let a 
going, and that the Diet be fomewhat 
higher in Quality, tho’ not in Quantity, and 
the other general Methods for the Cure of 
the Nervous Symptoms that fucceea upon it, 
be purfued according to the Directions for- 
merly given. 

§ VI. Next to the Apoplexy , th c Epi- 
lepfy is the molt dangerous, terrible, and 
diiheartening Diftemper that belongs to the 
Nervous or cold Clafs of Difeafes ; feldom 
any, or, at leaft very few, efcape from it, 
unlefs they be otherwile very llrong and 
vigorous, without a Stroke of an Apoplexy , 
which generally ends their Lives: a partial or 
half-Body Palfy, or a total Demolition of the 

Intel ~ 

2 5 i The Englifli Malady. 

Intellectual Faculties. Young Children, well 
treated, may be recovered, and get ftrong 
and lufty, by flronger Dojes , and a longer 
Courfe of the fame Medicines and Methods 
I have advifed for their Convulfive Fits. The 
Symptoms that attend grown Perfons are, 
their dropping down fuddenly, as if fhot • but 
fometimes with violent Convulsions and 
Throws in the Belly ^ Breajl , and Limbs ; 
beating and tearing themfelves, clinching 
their Fi/ts, biting their Tongues , grinding 
their Teeth , and foaming at the Mouth, with 
a fmall Trembling , unequal and fometimes 
interrupted Pulfe , and an involuntary Secre- 
tion of all the natural Difcharges : having 
fcarce any Senfe or Knowledge of what they 
do, or what is done to them : but the molt 
dangerous of all, are their violent Convuljons 
and involuntary Motions, by which they 
would tear, bruife, and deftroy themfelves, 
if not with-held : the Fit generally terminates 
in a Doling or Lethargy , which continues 
longer or fhorter, according to the Violence 
of the Paroxyfm , and then by Degrees their 
Spirits and Strength return, tho > with a 
greater Degree of Lownefs and Confufion, 
or Stupidity. This Diftemper fometimes 
follows the Periods of the * Luminaries , 
nfpecially their Conjunctions and Op portions ; 

b ut 

* Vide Mead de Imperio Solis & Lunas. 

Of the Apoplexy and Epilepjy. 253 

but this is uncertain, and in fome Cafes 
only, as all Periods are in our inconftant 

Climate . 

$ VII. From this Account of the Symp- 
toms of this Dlftemper, I think it is pretty 
evident, that it differs very little, or not at 
all, or at moil, in a few Circumftances only, 
from Hypochondriacal and Hyflerick Fits: 
which laft, when violent, terminate always 
in thefe Epileptick Fits, as they, on the 
other Hand, when they become weak, 
dwindle into the Hyjlerick Kind : So that 
having treated of thefe laft fo fully, it will 
be needlefs to fay any thing further about 
thefe others; only this, that the Diet mu ft 
be much more ftrid, cool, and moderate, 
and the Medicines ftronger and oftner re- 
peated, efpecially Vomits , Steely and Bitters. 
Dr. Vaylor of Croydon cured himfelf intirely 
and abfolutely, of the moft violent, conftant, 
and habitual Epilepfy that perhaps ever was 
known, after having, in vain, tried all the 
Methods and Medicines advifed by the moft 
eminent Phyjtcians of his Time, by a total 
Diet of Milky without Bread, or any other 
Vegetable, or any thing (belides a Spoonful 
of compound Peony Water fometimes, to 
prevent its Curdling) confining himfelf to a 
Pint in a Morning, a ppiyart at Noon, and a 
Pint at Night, of the Milk of Grafs-fed 




254 The Englifh Malady. 

Cows in the Summer , and of thofe fed with 
Hay in the Winter, the Milk of Cows fed 
with Grains always inflating him, and lying 
uneafy on his Stomach. He had continued 
in perfed Health and Vigour (having had 
ieveral Children) feventeen Years when I faw 
him, and received this Account from him, 
inl'omuch that he could have play’d four or 
live Hours at Cricket , on Banjlead Downs , 
without Wearinefs or profufe Sweating, and 
probably might have continued many Years 
longer in perfed Health (as he did feven or 
eight Years more) had he not entered upon 
a different Regimen of Diet (as 1 am in- 
formed fince 1 firft wrote this Hiftory, in 
my Treatife of the Gout , by a Perfon of 
great Credit) and come to eat Animal Food , 
by which, in a fhort Time, he was deftroycd. 
Some others have been cured by me, by a 
Regimen of Diet lefs Arid, and the Medi- 
cines already fuggefted ; but 1 believe none 
ever were cured who have been come to 
Maturity , without a very exad low Regimen , 
continued during all their Lives, the tranf- 
grefling it for any long time, always bring- 
ing their Diforders back, if not fomething 
worfe : and I believe a total Milk, and 
Vegetable Diet, as abfolutely neceffary for 
the total Cure of the Epilepfy , as it is for the 
Gout or a Confumption. Here were the pro- 
per Place to fay fomething of Lunacy and 
Madnefs , being fatisfied that the Methods 



Of the Apoplexy and BpUepfy, zjy 

here laid down are fufficient, and the moft 
effe&ual for thefe Diftempers j but defigning 
this principally for common intelligent 
Readers, and thofe who fuffer under Nervous 
Diftempers, tho’ not regularly bred to the 
Practice of Phyftck : and People under thefe 
mentioned Diftempers being ineapable of 
Reading, or at leaft, of ferious and clofe 
Application, and thefe Diforders being the 
Province of particular Phyficians , or thole 
appointed by the Publick for that Purpofe, 1 
fhall here put a Period to this Part of the 

. > ‘ ■* 



■i - 


€ngltfl) jlalatip: 

O R, A 


O F 

Nervous Difeafes of all Kinds, 

A S 

Spleen, Vapours, Lownefs of Spirits, 
Hypochondriacal and Hyfterical 
Diftempers, &c. 



Variety o/Cases that illuftrate and confirm 
the foregoing Method of Cure . 

With the A u t ho r’s own Case^/ Large. 


TAaxTD d&loev r i, S'lxaiordrcDV dvQpch7r&v, 



Fellow of the College ofPhyficians at Edinburg , and F. R. S. 


Printed for G. S t r a h a n, and J, Leake, 



H I S LaJlj has been by far 
the mojt difficult and un- 
pleafant Parc of my Work . 
The obvious Sneer of its 
being a Quack’s Bill, has been the leafl 
Tart of that Difficulty ; for when I fei 
about fnifhing this Work , for the Be- 
nefit of the Sedentary , Tender and De- 
cay d, I made a Sacrifice of fome part of 
my Vanity and Inter eft. But among 
the very many Injtances I could have 
adduced , I was obliged to lay ajide all 
thofe whofe Cafes were pretty much 
alike , and to pick out fuch only , as 
S 2 feemd 

160 Advertisement. 
feewd to vie, to be more particular , 
or < which ’were wop proper to illuf- 
trate and confirm the feveral Steps 
of the preceding Dotfrine, and to 
direbi the Valetudinarian, in the lefi 
obvious and uncommon Symptoms. But 
that which dijlrefsd me mojl, was , the 
Names of the Berjbns, whcfe Cafes / 
was oblig'd to mention , mojl of them 
being f ill alive, and jew caring to be 
made Examples of in any Refpcbl. fhe 
Diftempers of Patients are facred, (Res 
facra mifer) and nervous Tdijlempers 
efpecially , are under fome Kind of 
Difgraee and Imputation, in the Opi- 
nion of the Vulgar and Unlearned; 
they pafs among the Multitude , for 
a lower Degree of Lunacy, and the 
firft Step towards a diftemperd Brain : 
and the bejl Conjlrublion is Whim, 1 11- 
Humour, Peevifhnefs or Particularity • 
and in the Sex, Daintinefs, Fantaftical- 
nefs or Coquetry. So that often when I 
have been confulted in a Cafe , before I 


Advertisement. 261 

was acquainted with the Character 
and Temper of the Fatient , and 
found it to be what is commonly 
call'd Nervous, I have been in the 
utmolt ‘Difficulty , when defir d to 

define or name the Diftemper , for 
fear of affronting them , or fixing a 
Reproach on a Family or Ferfon. 
If l call'd the Cafe Glandular with 
nervous Symptoms , they concluded I 
thought them pox’d, or had the King's- 
Evil. If I faid it was Vapours, Hyfie- 
rickor Hypochondriacal DiforderSy they 
thought I call'd them Mad or Fan- 
tastical: and if they were fuch as 
valued themfeheSy on fearing ?ieither 
God nor Devil , I was in Ha* 
%ard of a Drubbing for feeming' to 
impeach their Courage : and was 

thought as rude , as if I had given 
them the Lye ; and even the very 
left has been, I myfelf was thought 
a Foof a weak and ignorant Cox - 
comby and perhaps dtfmifsd in Scorn $ 

S 3 and 

1 6 1 Advertisement. 

and fome I have actually lojt hy it. 
NotwithJlanding all this, the Tif- 
eafe is as much a bodily Dijiem- 
per (as I have demonjlrated ) as the 
Small-Pox or a Fever 5 and the 
T ruth is, it feldom, and I think 
never happens or can happen , to any 
hut thofe of the liveliejt and quickest 
natural ‘Parts , whofe Faculties are 
the brightejl and mojl fpiritual, and 
vtfhofe Genius is mojl keen and pe~ 
netr citing , and particularly where 
there is the mojl delicate Senfation 
and Tap, both of Pie a Jure and 
Pain. So equally are the good and 
bad Things of this mortal State di- 
flributed l For J feldom ever objervd a 
heavy, dull, earthy, clod-pated Clown, 
much troubled with nervous Dijbrders , 
or at leaf, not to any eminent (Degree 5 
and I fcarce believe the Thing poJfi~ 
lie , from the animal Oeconomy and 
the prefent Laws of Nature. 


Advertise me n t. 26 3 

But befdes this , when I was 
determin'd to publifh this Work , the 
Lerfons whofe Cafes I had pick’d 
out for my prefent Lurpofe, were 
all fatter d and at great Difiances 
from me , fome being in other King- 
doms and foreign Parcs, and mofi of 
them were in fuch Circumfiances and 
Situation , that it was by no means 
convenient or proper to publifh their 
Names without Leave 5 and I was un- 
willing to put my Friends and Patients 
to the 'Lain , either of a Confent or Re- 
fufal , and refolved even to bear the 
Slur of Forgery, and let the Whole 
reft on my own Credit , rather than 
contend with fuch Difficulties . I have 
therefore mentioned their Names, only 
in thofe Cafes where I was abfolutely at 
Liberty } but folemnly declare , that the 
others were fuch in the main, as I have 
reprefented them 5 and in any particular 
Cafe, if called upon , I am ready to 
ajfgn the Perfon, under proper Con - 

S 4 ditions , 

264 Advertisement. 

ditions, and have always defcrib’d the 
Cafe from the Name and Chara<5ter of 
the Patient, and the Hiftory of the 
fDtpmper placed before my Eyes . 

I have clajfed the Cafes, as / 
had done the federal Stages of this 
E)ijlemper in the former Part, viz. 
into the three different Orders. Ehe 
firft Clafs and Chapter contains Ex- 
amples of thofe whofe nervous Dif- 
prders being chiefly confin d to the 
alimentary Tube, the Juices being 
tolerably found and good , and the Solids 
pretty firm, a Regulation only of com- 
mon SDiet, as to Quantity and §ua- 
lity , and a general Courfe of ner- 
vous Evacuants, for Prevention, and 
Volatiles on Paroxyfms, has been fuf- 
fuient. The fecond Clafs and Chap- 
ter contains Injl ances of thofe whofe 
Cafes being deeper and more obfi - 
nate , where the Juices have been 
Either fizy, thick or inflam’d, or 

Advertisement. 265 

fome noble Organ beginning to be 
(poil’d : more powerful Evacuants and 
Alteratives, especially of the ponde- 
rous Medicines , have been neceffary * 
and a trimming middling ‘Diet , of 
alternate Days of yonng tender Flefh 
Meat , and Milk and Vegetables , with 
Wine and Water for Drink , were 
requir'd. The laft Clafs and third 
Chapter is of fuch , where the Cafe 
being almojl incurable other wife , ex- 
tremely frightful and painful , /rom 
yito of the neceffary Organs vifibly 
fpoild and decay d^and the Juices verge - 
ing towards Putrefaction ; the Jtrong - 
eft Evacpants and Alteratives, with a 
total Milk and Vegetable Diet, long 
perjifled in , indifpenfably neceffary . 
Tide Medicines I have only hinted 
/o prevent the Quacking 0/ Fatients 
themfelves , to pointed them out 
fo clearly , General , ?to »o 

0/ common Senfe and liberal Educa- 
tion can mijlake them 3 in any thing 


2 66 Advertisement. 

but the compounding and dofeing : and 
that none hut a regularly-bred Phy- 
fician can be fufficient for 5 and of the 
Medicines , I have mentioned only the 
preventive or extirpative ones. It 
had been endlefs to have fet down all 
thofe prefcrib’ d under the Fits 5 thefe 
I have fufficiently defcrib’ d in the 
former Fart . 




Of thofe whofe Nervous Complaints ’were 
cured by Medicine , under a common , 
though temperate ‘Diet. 


Tender young Gentleman , of great 
Worth and Ingenuity, here in 
our 'Neighbourhood , had from 
his Infancy been troubled with 
a molt violent Nervous Head- 
achy which returning at certain Periods , 
overcame and funk him to Extremity ; and 
even fometimes approached near to Epilep - 
tick Fits. I advifed him, when feized with 
them or it, to go to Bed as foon as he could 


268 The Englifh Malady. 

conveniently, and to take four or five of 
the PiluL Gummof. and de Aloe Lota a ae. p. 
and to drink plentifully of fmall Sack Whey, 
or Water-Gruel, with Spt. C. C. Vol. Gutt. x 
in each Draught, repeating the Pills every 
Night till well, and after weekly, or as often 
as his Illnels ever returned ; by which alone 
he has been conftantly relieved. I advifed 
him allb to keep a very temperate (though 
a common) Diet of Animal Foods , at Dinner 
only, and not to drink above half a Pint, or 
at moft a Pint of Wine a Day, ufing conftant 
Lxercife 0 n Horfeback, or otherwife. He 
has continued this Method ever lince, is in 
the main well, and has grown yearly better 
and ftronger now for above thefe twenty 
Years, and in all probability will grow 
flumger and heartier so a great old Age. 

C A S E II. 

A Lady of great Fortune in this Town, 
eminent for her great Charity, Piety, and 
fine Breeding , was originally of very weak 
Nerves ; her chief Complaints were, tender 
Bowels , extreme low Spirits, with great 
Sinking, and fometimes Hyfierick Paroxyfmst 
to an eminent Degree. Upon thefe laft Oc- 
cafions, I have given her feveral Medicines, 
as the Cafe indicated ; but for Prevention, 

I prelcribed only gentle Emeticks, when her 
Stomach was loaded, Rhabarbarat and Car- 
minative Catharticks, Bath-Waters almofl 

Of Nervous Complaints , See. i6p 

conftantly now for near thefe twenty Years, 
(for the Benefit of which fhe chofe to 
live here,) with conftant Exercife, efpeci- 
ally on Horfeback, and a Diet of the 
plaineft, lighteft and moft fimple Animal 
Foods , at Noon only, and a little of the beft 
French Wines \ and by thefe Means fhe has 
yearly grown better and ftronger, and con- 
tinues to do fo ; her Diforders returning 
now feldom, and being eafily removed. 


A Gentleman of Scotland , eminent in 
the Law , and of great Honour , Probity , 
and fine Parts , had been long troubled 
with a Nervous Headach ; and having neg- 
lected it many Years, it came to fuch a 
Height as was no longer tolerable. Befides 
this almoft inceffant Headach , he had conftant 
extreme Lownefs , Opprejfion , and at laft the 
greateft Difficulty to attend his Studies, or to 
apply to the Bufinefs of his Profeflion ; and 
the Diforder terminated in Want of Sleeps 
Lofs of Appetite, and Inquietude ; and all 
thefe Symptoms brought him to fuch a State 
as to render his Condition moft miferable^ 
He came here, to Bath , in this Condition. 
His Diforders were the moft diftincHy Peri- 
odical of any Nervous Cafe I had ever met 
with, (though in moft I have obferved fome- 
thing of that Nature.) One Night it was 
extreme, fo as to make him pafs it almoft 


270 The Englifh Malady.' 

entirely without Sleep ; next Day an unex- 
preffible Lownefs, and a conftant BtyaliJ'm 
or fpitting thin Rheum enfued, by which 
the following Night was more tolerable, 
and thus alternately. I prefcribed feveral 
Vomits , Quinquina-Bitters , the foetid Gums , 
with the Extraft of the Bark , and the Ani- 
mal Salts , Aloetick Purges , together with li- 
quid Steel in the Bath Waters. But above 
all, a light, fparing Diet of tender Animal Food, 
and at Noon only, and a very little hVine^ with 
conftant Exercije on Horfeback, or other wife : 
By thefe he was much relieved, while here ; 
and purfuing the fame Method at Home, 
for feveral Years: drinking in the hot Wea- 
ther the Mineral Chalyheat Waters of his 
own Country, by flow Degrees he grew 
perfectly well, and has for many Years en- 
joyed a complete State of Health, which 
he preferves by great Jemferance and Exer- 


A Lady of the firft Qiiality , and of 
eminent Virtues , was fo much oppreffed 
with thefe Sinkings , Anxiety , and Hyflerick 
Diforders, together with violent Colicks , 
Watchings , and Inflation , as to be extremely 
miferable. She had drank the Waters, 
and taken Medicines a long Time here, 
without any Relief, and was juft defpond- 
ing, and about leaving the Place. Being- 


Of Nervous Complaints, &c. 27 i 

called, I ordered her to repeat fome V omits, 
gave her Quinquina-Bitters with and without 
Rhubarb daily, made her drink the Bath in 
the Morning, and Byrmont Waters with her 
Meals ; regulated her Diet both in Quantity 
and Quality, confining it to the lighteft, 
youngeft Animal Foods, and the leaft Wine 
poffible, and by continuing her in this Way 
fome time, fhe was recover'd to perfeft 
Health , Vivacity and Activity. 


A n Officer’s Lady of fine Barts and great 
Worth , was fent here to drink the Waters, 
for a conftant Bilious Vomiting and Hyfle - 
rich Lownefs : She had been ordered by her 
‘Phyfician to take an Ipecacohana Vomit every 
Morning, (without any ReftriSUons on her 
Diet,) which file had taken for fome Time. 
Being called, I told her, I thought it was 
fufficient to repeat the Vomits when (he had 
an Urging and Sicknefs ; and that when the 
Choler was actually derived from the Liver 
into the Stomach , that Symptom would in- 
fallibly happen, and then, and only then, 
was a Vomit ufeful or necelfary. I advifed 
her a Qmnquinated and Rhabarbarated bitter 
Wine, to be taken every Night, with a 
weak liquid Steel in the Morning, and at 
the fame time regulated her Diet, and by 
Degrees fhe recover’d perfe&ly. 



2?z The Englifh Maladt. 


A young Lady from the Weft, had' for 
feveral Years fo frequent Hyfierick Fits and 
Colicks , and to fuch a Degree, that they had 
made her extremely miferable, and at laft 
crippled her both in Hands and Feet , (which 
is common to Nervous Colicks,) fo that they 
were of no more Ufe to her, than if they 
had been cut off. I repeated feveral Vomits 
in the Courfe of the Waters; regulated her 
Diet with Exa&nels to young Meats at Noon 
only ; gave her a Jp uinquinated Bitter before 
Meals, and a Quinqiiinated and Rhabarbarated 
Tincture daily at Night; and, in a proper 
Time, gave her Steel in the Waters, and 
made her pump both Hands and Legs, rub- 
bing them often after with the Opodeldoc difi- 
folved in Spirit oj Vine camphorated ; by thefe 
Means only, in fix Months, (he perfectly re- 
cover’d both her Limbs and her Health. 

Wh en the Caje was obftinate, and the 
Patient young, firm or ftrong, and I was 
left to my own Liberty, I always began 
with the ponderous Medicines, continuing 
them for Months, and finifh’d with the Jpuin- 
cpuinated Bitters , or with Rhubarb and Bark 
compounded with other Bitters, and liquid 
Steel : And even in common, flight, Scorbuti- 
cal , CoVtcal and Nervous , but efpecially Rheu- 
matic, Scrophulous or Cutaneous Cafes, of fuch 
as came here for the Benefit of the Waters, if 


Of Nervous Cafes, See. 273 

not conftrain'd, I always began with the pon- 
derous Medicines, or fome one Preparation 
of Mercury , or another, continued for fome 
Time, and only finifh’d with the Bitter , 
Jfiringent , and Chalybeat ones • but ftill regu- 
lated their Diet, without which I fcarce ever 
fucceeded, even in the very flighteft Cafes. 


Of Nervous Cafes , requiring a mix’d 
or trimming Regimen of ‘Diet, viz. of 
tender , young Animal Food, and a 
little Wine and Water one Day, and 
the other only Milk, Seeds, and 
Vegetables . 

Case I. 

A Gentleman well known, and as much 
belov’dby all that know him for his 
fine Parts, great Probity , and the dif- 
tinguifh’d Figure he has conftantly made in 
the Senate ; having been long troubled with 
bilious Vomitings , conftant Heart-burnings , 
Lownefs and Opprejfion, for which, after all 
r T the 

2?d The Englifli Malady. 

the Nervous and Stomachick Medicines, pre- 
scrib’d by the moft eminent Phyficians in 
England , together with the whole Circle of 
Mineral Waters at different Times, and at 
laft a Jour (when he was near Sixty) thro’ 
the Southern Climates , came hither to Bath , 
once and again ; but without any lafting 
Benefit or Relief, the fame Miferies of this 
finking Diftemper ftill perfecuting him. I 
at laft perluaded him to enter upon a Jr lin- 
ing Diet , one Day light Pudding or Milk 
and Vegetables drefs’d, efpecially of the fari- 
naceous and feed Kind ; the other, a little 
young , tender , plain Animal Food for Dinner 
only, and not to exceed two or three Glaffes 
of Wine a Day, taking fometimes uinqui - 
nated and Rhaharharated Bitters , and fome- 
times Mineral Waters , as his Cafe required, to 
wit, the Bath in temperate or cold Weather, 
and the Cold (as Tunbridge, Spa or Pyrmont ) 
in hot Weather. By perfifting in this Method, 
he has recovered and grown better every 
Year, and is now (at Seventy-three) one of 
the healthieft, haleft Gentlemen of his Age 
in England , being from Lean , grown Plump , 
Full and Active , without Oppreftion or 
Lownefs, and is in great likelihood to hold 
it many Years ; to which, no doubt, his 
having given up Bufinefs, has greatly con- 
tributed ; tho’, I think, his Regimen has had 
the far largtft Share in his perject Recovery. 


Of Nervous Cafes , See. 27$ 

Case II. 

A Gentleman of Scotland , of an Antient 
and Honourable Family, loving, and be- 
lov’d of, all Mankind, was early in Life 
fubjedt to Nervous Diforders, which, tho* 
uniyerfal, did chiefly affect his Auditory Or- 
gans , fo as to impair his Hearing. For this 
he had try’d a great many Abiive and Dan- 
gerous Remedies, which, I think, had damag’d 
an otherwife naturally clean and firm Confti- 
tution. After having ferv’d his Country long 
in eminent Employments, he was feiz’d, 
about the Sixty-feventh Year of his Age, 
with Nervous , Hypochondriacal , and Convul - 
Jive Fits and Paroxyfms , the moft fevere, 
terrible, and obftinate that I had ever feen. 
At firfi, they return’d three or four times 
every Day, Jhakeing and convuljing every 
Limb , Nlufcle , and Organ of the whole Ma- 
chine, tho’ all the Time his Senjes and Fa- 
culties were found and entire ; only at their 
going off, they left him languid , low-, and 
exhaujled. He had try’d various Remedies, 
and run through the whole Circle of the 
nervous , volatile , and foetid Medicines, pre- 
ferib’d by the moft eminent Phyficians of the 
whole lfland. He came at laft to Bath, and 
was under my Care, and drank Bath , 
T 2 Brijlol , 

2 y 6 The Englifh Malady. 

Brifloi, and Pyrmont Waters occafionally, 
for the Space of almoft two Years : The 
effectual Medicines, were Antimonial and 
Ipecacuhana Vomits mix’d, which always 
weaken’d or Hop’d the Fits , (the Cafe, in 
my Opinion, being chiefly an obftru&ed 
f chirr ons Liver') with Calomel Purges, Gum 
and Aloetick Pills , phiinqiiinated Bitters , 
and fometimes Foetids and Volatiles, only as 
a prefent Relief. Thefe were the principal 
Remedies which reliev’d, and, at laft, cur'd 
him ; but what chiefly accomplifh’d the Cure, 
was that (of his own Accord, I not daring 
to offer fuch an Advice to one who was fofar 
advanc’d in Life) he enter’d into a Trimming 
Diet , chiefly of Milk and Vegetables , with weak 
Broths and Fifh but fometimes, and two or 
three Glaffes of Wine at Dinner only, which 
Regimen I much approv’d of and encourag’d. 
After he had recover’d a tolerable good 
State of Health, I advis’d him, both on his 
own, and the Account of fome others of his 
Honourable Family, to finifh the Cure , by 
fpending a Seafon or two at Spa, and win- 
tering in Italy j and now, by the Divine 
Blefling, he is as Stout and Healthy as any 
Man of his Age can poflibly be, being free 
from all his Nervous Symptoms , unlefs on 
Accidents, and then by the fame Method 
and Medicines eafily reliev’d. 


Of Nervous Cafes , See. 277 

Case III. 

A Knight Baronet of an Antient Family, 
by keeping bad Hours, in attending upon 
the Bufinefs of the Parliament , and living 
freely about Town, had fo worn down his 
Conftitution, that he run into an habitual' 
Diarrhoea , attended with extreme Flatulence, 
Lownefs , Opprejfion, Watchfulnefs , and In- 
digeflion. Thele conftantly returning upon 
the leaft Excefs, or catching Cold, had quite 
enfeebled and enervated a formerly robuft 
and healthy Conftitution, even into almoft a 
Nervous Atrophy. He had confulted again 
and again the moft eminent of the Profeftion, 
but all the Benefit he reap’d was only a 
temporary Relief, or having a Drag put upon 
the Wheel, to prevent its running too faft 
down the Hill. He at laft came to Bath , 
and was for a conliderable Time under my 
Diredlion, to try if he could by any Means 
be aflifted to a lafling Cure , he being then 
not far paft the Meridian of Life, tho’ wafted 
and reduced from a round , , mufcular , and 
brawny Natural Frame, almoft to a Skeleton ; 
and his Alimentary Fube being fo much re-, 
lax’d, that the moft moderate common Meal 
of Butcher’s Meat was too much for him, and 
run off Crude , leaving him quite funk and 
flat. I was unwilling to advife him to a 
total Milk and Vegetable Diet , being uncer- 

T 3 tain 

zy 8 The Englifli Malady. 

lain if he would perfevere, and knowing 
well the Danger of a fudden Return } but put 
him into a ‘Trimming one, allowing him white 
Meats fome Days, and only light Pudding, 
with Milk and Seeds other Days, with two 
or three Glaffes of Claret at Moon , and 
Bath Waters tepid in a Morning, but 
Brijlol Waters at Meals, and only Vegetable 
Seed Meats , with Milk, for Breakfaft and 
Supper ; giving him, at the fame Time, Ve- 
getable Aftringent Medicines, and fometimes 
gentle Vomits , Tejlaceous Powders, and toafled 
Rhubarb with Diafcordium. Under this Re- 
gimen and Medicines , (with conftant riding a 
Horfeback in the Forenoon,) he grew bet- 
ter by Degrees, his Diarrhxa became more 
moderate, his Spirits brisker, and his Sleep 
longer and founder. He continued thus the 
whole Winter , and next Summer , tho’ thin 
and low, yet not to fuch a Degree as before ; 
in the hot Weather he drank Spa Water, 
with a liquid, weak Jpuinyuinated Chalybeat. 
Next Winter I advis'd him to go to the 
South of France , where he continued a Year 
or two, under the fame Regimen and Medi- 
cines, came Home much mended in Flejh and 
Spirits, and by Degrees acquir’d an Athle- 
tick State of Health ; and has been thefe 
twenty Years a hale, ftrong, fine Gentleman, 
on common plain Diet, with due Temperance, 


Of Nervous Cafes , See. ly p 
Case IV. 

A Worthy Merchant of the North of Eng- 
land, came here to Bath for my Advice, in a 
molt deplorable State, viz. a total Lofs of 
Appetite, exceeding low Spirits : He had 
Rigors and Night Sweats, a fix’d Melancholy , 
terror, and Dread , a violent Headach , and 
a want of Natural Sleep, with Paintings and 
Paralytick Numbneifes, and, in a Word, all 
the Symptoms of the mentioned fecond Stage' of 
thele Nervous Diforders. I repeated Vomits 
often, gave him phiinquinated Bitter Wines , 
Liquid Chalybeate, fo me times Hi era Pi era, 
Tindure of Rhubarb with Bark, Aromaticks and 
Bitters of feveral Sorts, fometimes the Gum 
with Aloetick Pills ; Bath Waters in a Morn- 
ing, and Pyrmont, with but a little Wine at 
Meals, and elpecially a rigid, alternate, vege- 
table, and young Animal Food Diet, with con- 
ftant Exercife of one Kind or other. Under 
this Method he got perfectly well and chear- 
ful in five or fix Months, and has continued fo 
thefe feveral Years. 

Case V. 

A young Lady from the Wejhern Sea - 
Coaft came here miferably opprefs’d with 
Sinking , Lownefs , Porraceous Vomitings, 
frequent Rigors and Chills, fucceeded by 

T 4 feverijh 

280 The Englifli Malady. 

j feverijh Heats, Rejllefnefs and Jnxiety. I 
try’d gentle Vomits , Fhiinquinated Bitters , 
with and without Rhubarb , feveral Kinds 
of the flighted: Chalybeats , as Atfc Mart. 
Vitriol. Mart. Elixir Vitrioli , and Tintlura 
Mntiphthijica , 6^ and Pyrmont Waters, Vin . 
Chalybeatum , with Volatiles andFoetids, and va- 
rious Kinds of Bitters, but all without Succefs. 
I found, upon Obfervation, that fhe was 
always word about five or fix in the After- 
noon, to wit, after the great Meal, and that 
her feverijh Paroxyfms came on as the Day 
wore out, and rofe higher in the Courfe of 
the Digeftion, till towards the Morning. I 
learned likewife, that lhe eat and drank too 
heartily and fully for one of her Conftitution 
and Complaints, three times a Day, (the 
Bath Waters, and the mention'd Medicines 
giving her a Craving.) Upon this, being 
fatisfied that all her Symptoms proceeded 
from her Difficulty in Digeftion, (as almoft: 
all fuch hyfleric Cafes do) I confin’d her to 
Broths, with light Pudding, and the finall 
frefh River Filh, and at Dinner only, and 
Milk and Vegetable Food for Breakfaft and 
Supper, allowing her little or no Wine, but 
Spa or Fyrmont Waters for Drink at Meals ; 
for I have always found Bath in the 
Morning, and Spa or Pyrmont at Dinner, 
a mofl: effe&ual Method in fuch Cafes. By 
continuing the mention’d Diet and Medi- 
cines, as the Symptoms indicated, in two 


Of Nervous Cafes , &c. 181 

Months fhe became perfe&ly wqII and free 
of all her Lownefs , Fain tings, Fits , and 
feverfh Heats , and went away freih, chear- 
ful and ftrong, 

Case VI. 

A Gentleman of fine Parts, grieveufly 
afflicted with the Gout, and with a perpe- 
tual Lownefs , Sinking , and Oppreffion , both 
in Fits and the Intervals: to wit, a conftant 
Sicknefs and Reaching before the Forma- 
tion, and after the Fit was over ; and for a 
long time after, a much longer (than is com- 
mon) Si chief, Inappetency , Weaknefs, and 
greater Lamenefs : fo as to be one half of 
the Year almoft under its Effe&s ; and being 
weary of a Life under fuch Miferies, he was 
willing to attempt any thing probable to 
mitigate them. But being juftly afraid of a 
total Milk and Vegetable Diet , left by relaxing 
and cooling too faft, the thus inflamed Solids, 
he might give occafion to the Bilious and 
Goutifh Humours and Salts, to flow too faft 
upon the common Shoar of the Stomach and 
Bowels , and there to beget Sicknefs , Pain , and 
Danger ; therefore a trimming and middling 
Diet being propos’d, chiefly of light, freih 
River Fifh, (as leaft inflaming, and not over- 
enriching the Juices) alternately with Milk 
and Vegetables: and every Day the Value of 
a Pint of fome generous, foft, balfamick 


The Englifh Malady. 

Wine, (as Sack, Canary, or Palm) he readi- 
ly and cheerfully enter’d upon it. This Me- 
thod abated both the Violence , Duration, and 
Frequency of his Fits in a few Years, 
without any Danger ; and by Degrees 
effectually remov’d thefe Vomitings andSick- 
neffes with which the Fits began and termi- 
nated : efpecially, by almoft every Night 
taking a few Spoonfuls of a Rhubarb and 
Bark Bitter, made on Wine with Aroma- 
ticks, in the Intervals ; and he has now only 
a very tolerable, ihort, regular Fit once a 
Year, and foon gets about his Bulinefs again, 
and is in likelihood to go cn with Health 
and Strength to a great Age. 

I cannot omit here toobferve, that if any 
Perfon defigns, either for the Sake of Health , 
Long-Dfe , or Freedom from Difeafes, to re- 
gulate his Diet, I univerfally prefer to all 
others this trimming Method, of an alternate 
Diet of Milk and Vegetables one Day, and the 
other plain or young Jnimal Food, and a mo- 
derate Portion of Wine ; for if his Cafe requires 
his defeending ftill lower, yet this trimming 
Diet will be the belt and fafeft firft Step 
to begin with ; and if his Recovery there- 
by be fo perfect, that he may rife to a 
higher Diet, this will make the Fran fit ion 
fafer; and even thofe who love palatable 
and delicious Foods, to a great Degree, 
will bear a Maigre Day more eafily, when 

Of Nervous Cafes , See. 285 

they know they fhall have a Gandy one the 
next ; and I have known thofe, who from 
a weak Nervous and Cachetic Habit have 
arriv’d to a confirm’d State of Health, noble 
Spirits, and great Age, by this Trick alone ; 
fo that Falling and Abftinence in this Man- 
ner, might feem not more a religious than it 
ought to be reckon’d a medical Inftitu^- 


284 The Englifh Malady: 


Of Nervous Cafes, requiring a Jlrifi 
and total Milk , Seed, and Vegeta- 
ble Diet. 

Case I. 

A Young Lady under my Dire&ion, 
being naturally of a tender and 
delicate Conftitution, had by a Mal- 
Regimen , and too flrong and high Food while 
at a Boarding School at London , fallen into 
hyjlerick Dil'orders of all the Forms and 
Shapes were everobferv'dor defcrib’d ; fome- 
times Laughing , Dancing , and all Jollity , 
at other times Weeping, Crying, Sighing, and 
Melancholy ; often fhe was taken with Faint- 
ing Fits and Convulsions : now in great Chills, 
again Hot and Feverijh ; fometimes great 
Quantities of pale, at other times but a little 
high-colour' d Water; fometimes CofiiveneJ’s to 
an Extremity, at other times purging and 
Jlippery Bowels; and moft, if not all thefe 
Symptoms, fometimes three or four times in 


Of Nervous Cafes , See. 285 

twenty-four Hours, infomuch that ignorant 
People thought it Witchcraft and Inchant - 
ment. Various Nervous and Antihy (lerical 
Medicines had been preferib’d by the Phy - 
(ictan in Ordinary at London , which had 
relieved and eas’d her for a Time, but ftill 
fhe relaps’d in a Month or two ; and Ride- 
ing , Country Air , and even Changes of that 
Air were try’d with little or no Succefs. 
At laft, her Parents being under the greateft 
Concern about her, and fearing left her Fa- 
culties (which were above Mediocrity) might 
be impair’d by fo tedious and unaccountable 
a Diftemper, put her intirely under my Care, 
with an abfolute Power to do by her, both in 
Diet and Medicines , as I fhould think beft. 
I firft try’d all the common Nervous and An- 
tihyferical Medicines over again, under a 
common Diet, with no Manner of Benefit. 
But tir’d out at laft, I refolved to put her 
upon an entire Vegetable Diet , without Flejh , 
Fijh , or fermented Liquors ; Milk fhe lik’d 
not, befides, by its Curdling on a bilious 
Stomach , it both inflated and made her more 
fick; the only Medicines I ever after ufed 
in the whole Courfe, were gentle Vomits , 
when the Bile feem’d to be gathered or flow 
(which fhe always found by a greater De- 
gree of Sicknefs, Oppreftion, and a greater 
than ordinary Headach that recurred Month- 
ly) and a conftant Courfe of Cinnabar , frefh 
and finely levigated, half a Dram Morning 



2 86 The Englifh Malady. 

and Night for a long Time, and once a 
Week the Pilul. Gummof. & de Aloe lota 
J p. ce, with Bath Waters in a Morning 
in the temperate, and Pyrmont in the hot 
Weather: fometimes Riding a Horfehack , 
other times Walking , as Ihe could beft like, 
or could bear them. After the firft Month 
of this Diet and Medicines , fhe never had 
any one Fit more to be oblerved ; fometimes 
indeed Ihe had a good deal of Lownefs , 
Headachy or Sicknefs , but a Vomit always 
relieved her. By going on fteadily in this 
Courfe, Ihe grew fenfibly better every two 
or three Months, and in lefs than two Years 
was perfe&ly cured of all her Complaints, 
and then returned to common Life, though 
with great Care, Caution , and exaSl tem- 
perance, drinking not above a Glafs or two 
of Wine a Day, and for moft part eating 
only the tender, young Animal Foods , be- 
ing but of a tender Fabrick and weak Con- 
flitution by Nature, though now Ihe is per- 
fectly Well y Chearful , and Healthy . 

Case II. 

A Voting Lady of an Honourable and Opu- 
lent Family, and of the moft diftinguifh’d 
Merit, and the fineft Parts I ever knew in 
the Sex, had from her Parents inhe- 

Of Nervous Cafes } See. 287 

rited weak Nerves , which, for want of 
due Care and proper Management, brought 
on at lafl: the moft violent, extreme, and 
obftinate Nervous Paroxyfms , (with their 
whole Circle of » Symptoms) I had ever feen. 
She had been naturally of a thin Habit , but 
of a fudden had grown exceffively Fat ; and 
had had often Threatnings, and fometimes 
pretty long Seizures of the fame Clafs of Dif- 
orders before; which from time to time other 
Phy ficians, and often I, had cured by the com- 
mon Medicines, viz. Vomits , Volatiles , Cha- 
ly beats, Bitters , Pyrmont and Bath Waters y 
with gentle Evacuations . But at laft all 

thefe Nervous Symptoms became fo extremely 
obftinate, frightful, and painful, that nei- 
ther I, nor any other of her Physicians (of 
whom Ihe had confulted many) could pro- 
cure her any lafting Reprieve. She came 
at laft to Bath, where I had often had the 
Honour to dired her, and the reft of the 
Family for many Years; the Waters with 
Apainquhiated Bitters , and c Pilul. Gummof. 
cum Aloe lota , at firft gave her the moft fen- 
fible and longeft Relief, but at laft they 
fail’d alfo. I afterwards try’d the greateft 
and moft extenfive Variety of Nervous Me- 
dicines, I had ever us’d in any fuch Cafe, 
ftnee I firft pra&ifed Phyfick. I try’d over 
and over all the Tribe of the Nervous , An- 
tihyf erica! , and De - objlruent Medicines, 

Bitters , 


288 The Englifh Maladt. 

Bitters, Volatiles , Chalybeats, Foetids , Al- 
teratives ; all Kinds of Evacuations, (as 
Bleeding, Blijlering, Vomiting again and 
again) together with the Ponderous, Mineral 
and Mercurial Medicines of all the proper 
Preparations, and at laft even Opiates them- 
felves, combined with all th q Ant ihy fieri cks ; 
Indeed every thing I had ever ufed, heard of, 
or read in approv’d Authors, and each of thefe 
for a Time fufficient for Trial. Notwith- 
ftanding all this, her torturing Headachs , 
her conftant fcr earning Fits, burning Heats, 
Jleeplefs Nights , Terrors, and other inex- 
prefiible Sufferings, were intolerable and in- 
fupportable. I was in the utmoft Concern 
and Anxiety about her, and knew not what 
Hand to turn me : for tho’ other Physi- 
cians had been join’d, yet, I having been 
hitherto always fuccefsful in the Family, they 
did me the Honour to place a particular 
Confidence in me, and I was as heartily and 
warmly defirous of ferving them fuccefsful- 
ly. At laft (after above a Year fpent un- 
der this Method and thefe Medicines) I 
told them and her, that I had but one 
thing more to propofe, which I had done 
long before, but that Ihe had been often 
and ftrongly caution’d and warn’d againft 
it, and I was afraid neither fhe nor her 
Friends would willingly come into it, after 
fo many, fo weighty Remonft ranees a- 
gainft it, and from thofe whofe Duty it 


Of Nervous Cafes , See. 289 

was todired her, fo that I was willing to have 
effected the Cure by the common Means and 
Medicines, but found they would not do ; 
and therefore I told her at laft plainly, 
that the only Hopes of her Recovery was 
from a total Milk and Vegetable Diet, and 
Abftinence from all fermented Liquors, but 
as a Cordial. I met indeed with a readier 
Compliance on all fides than I had expeded j 
and accordingly the Lady went chearfully 
into a total Milk and Vegetable Diet, and in 
lefs than three Months Ihe was much better, 
in fix Months tolerably well, and in nine 
Months almofi: perfedly well j this chiefly 
by her cool Diet, for after fhe enter’d upon 
it, fhe had occafion to take very few Me- 
dicines, fo that fhe went away with no 
other Directions, but the Continuance of 
gentle Vomits when required, Pyrmont Wa- 
ters for her common Drink, and Perfeve- 
rance in her Diet : with the Gum and Aloe- 

tick PUL on tranfient Diforders. The pon- 
derous Medicines fhe had long taken at firfl, 
had made the Liver pervious, (which had 
been evidently obitruded before,) fo that 
there was conftantly Choler poured out into 
the Stomach fora long Time after, which made 
Vomits fometimes neceflary to difeharge it. 
I hear fhe continues extremely well, without 
any means but her Diet and thefe few 
Medicines on Occafions with Exercife, and 
grows more hardy, adive, and chearful, as 

U I was 

2<?o The EngliOi Malady. 

I was certain fhe would, and doubt not 
file will long continue fo. 

Case III. 

A Gentleman of Fortune , and an Officer of 
Dijlintiion in the Army, was affli&ed with 
the moft painful and frightful Colicks I had 
ever known, which often terminated in Eft - 
leptick Fits. Some of his Family, about the 
fame Time (viz. the Meridian ) of Life, had 
died of the fame Sort of convulfive and ner- 
vous Colick , which had juftly made him the 
more cautious and careful. He came here 
to Bath , to put himfelf under my Di- 
rection : I at firft try’d with the Waters, 
all the common Nervous Medicines, as Quin- 
quin ate d Bitters , Volatiles , Fcetids , and Al- 
teratives of the mineral Tribe of all 
Kinds, and in all the Shapes I could con- 
trive •, befides conftant riding, on Chalyheats 
(which always makes them more effec- 
tual) but all without Succefs : So that 

I have often feen him rolling on the 
Ground in Agonies , crying out to put an 
End to his Pains any how. Nothing gave 
him Eafe, except great Dofes of warm 
Opiats in ftrong Nervous Cordials , and 
they always left him difpirited, low, and 
reftlefs, even to Extremity. I was willing 
to try every thing firft, before I propo- 
fed the la.fl Remedy ; ' lor I never found 


Of Nervous Cafes , Sc c. 29 i 

any one would come into it, till their 
Sufferings were extre?ne , and that they 
found nothing elfe would do, and fo were 
brought to be willing to purchafe Eafe at 
any Rate. Gold may be bought too dear ; and 
as long as common Remedies , and common 
Life will do, I own, it is not reafonable to 
expeSt that any fhould fubmit to uncommon 
and extraordinary Methods. Dying alone, is 
not fo terrible to an honed: and good Man ; 
tho’ all the Bounces about it, I have fbme- 
times heard, feem really unnatural , and pals 
with me for nothing ; the Author of our 
Nature has wifely implanted the Terror of 
Death in us, to fupport our Endeavours of 
living under the many Miferies and Misfor- 
tunes of our prefent Imprifonment ; the only 
Misfortune is, when we come too late in the 
Application of this lajl Remedy , and the 
Time is elaps’d for a perfect Recovery; 
This Gentleman , being one of finely cultiva- 
ted Parts , as well as of good, found natural 
Senfe, comply’d more readily than I expe&ed 
from a Gentleman of his Profejjion : when I 
propos’d a Milk and Vegetable Diet , as the 
foie Means left for his total Recovery front, 
all his Complaints, and for a firm State of 
future Health. When he enter’d upon itiat 
firft, his Appetite was quite gone, fo that 
he lived in it for fome time on the lead: I ever 
knew a Man do* I have known him pais 
many Weeks , and form Months , with a little 
U % Bohea 

lyz The Englifh Malady, 

Bohea tfea, and a fmall Cup of Milk, with 
about half a Penny Roll, without Butter, for 
Breakfaji : and about a Bint of boil’d Milk, 
with fcarce a whole Roll for Dinner \ and 
his Supper (if any) was two or three Spoon- 
fuls of Homy boil’d and skim’d in a Pint of 
Water, with a Slice or two of a Penny Roll 
toafted ; and he told me, he found Honey 
thus boil’d in Water, and thus skim’d and 
defecated, one of the moft heartening and 
enlivening Meals he could then take ; and 
certainly this is an excellent Method to take 
off the Rawnejs , Crudity , and Colicking 
Quality of Honey, which being a Kind of Na- 
tural Balfam or infpiffated Juice of the Meal 
of young Vegetables on the BloJJ'oms of Plants ; 
is confequently, when thus boil’d, skim’d, 
and diluted, a moft excellent tender Food 
for weak Stomachs. After palling a Winter 
at Bath, to inure him to this Regimen, re- 
peating Vomits and warm Opiats on Pa- 
roxyjms, Rideing, and Drinking the Bath- 
Waters, 1 fent him through the South of 
France Into Italy, where, being out of the 
Way of Temptation, and an ingenious, well- 
educated Gentleman , he paffed his Time both 
agreeably and ufefully ; and after about two 
Years ftay, he brought Home with him a 
found, firm Vegetable Conftitution, and a 
Stock of ufeful Knowledge, for the Orna- 
ment of the Country herefidesin, and has been 
now Healthy for many Years ; (and Father 

Of Nervous Cafes, &c. 295 

of fine Children,) by continuing his Vegetable 

Case IV. 

A Gentleman of fVahs , of ftrong natural 
Parts and great Ingenuity, but defeended of 
a Gouty Family, was early in Life feized 
with that Diforder, which in a few Years 
rofe to fuch Height, that he was almoft con- 
ftantly confined to his Bed by it, at leaft for 
eight or ten Months in the Year ; and when 
his Hands, Feet, Knees, Hips or Shoul- 
der 'Joints were not affe&ed, it was in his 
Head, Stomach, or Bowels, lb that he had 
no Eafe but from pouring down conftantly 
great Dofes of ffcrong fVi ues. Drams, or 
Cordials. Thus wearied out, crippled, and 
crucified, he came here to Bath, to be un- 
der my Direction; ready and willing to fub- 
mit to any Difcipline or Self-denial I lhould 
preferibe, to get, at leaft Eafe, if not rid, of 
fo tormenting a Diftemper, As he was in 
this Difpofition, I put him immediately on a 
Vegetable Diet, (it being in Summer, and he 
then in his lucid Interval.) Befides the Diet , 
I gave him a medicated opening Wine, wjth 
Rhubarb , Quinquina, Aromaticks and Bitters ; 
(or a Kind of Lower's Tintfure, without Steel ) 
this, with the Waters, I defigned lhould 
cleanfe the Primes Vice throughly, and leften 
fhe Quantity and -Acrimony of the Arthritick 
U 3 Salts 

294 Th e Englifh Malady. 

Salts by degrees. He continued here four or 
five Months, drinking the Waters, and ufeing 
this Medicine, by which his next Fit was lefs 
painful and dureable ; and he has kept to this 
Regimen , and thefe Medicines, under fome 
Form or other, at times, ever fince. In the Fit 
I ordered him to drink plentifully of Jmall 
Sack Whey or Sage Pojf'et , with Hartfhorn 
Drops, and to live moftly on the Seed and 
Meal Meats then, (as Bread , Budding , Water- 
Gruel \ Panada, Rice , and Sago, with or 
without Milk ;) in the Intervals of the Fits , 
on Milk , Fruit, Roots, and Herbs, and to 
take often the medicated Wine I have men- 
tioned, and on Occafions the Bath Waters, 
with the conftant Ufe of the Flejh Brufh . 
By this Method he has not only recovered 
the Ufe of his Limbs in a great 
in the long Intervals, is as light J'ome , chearful , 
and happy as any Man can be, after having 
been fo long crippled by fo violent Hereditary 
a Biftemper. His Fits are with very mode- 
rate Pain and little Inflammation , and their 

• J . • . 

coming on and going off, is with little or no 
Sicknefs. He looks healthy , hearty, and 
chearful, and, I believe, would not change 
his prefen t Life, for his paft, for the greatefi: 
fenfual Gratifications ; he is now yearly grow- 
ing better, and is like to hold it out to a great 
and green old Jlge ; whereas formerly, under 
fhe Management he was forced to ufe for 

u Wh Rdief> 

Of Nervous Cafes , See. 295 

Relief, he could have held it but a very- 
few miferable Years. 

Case V. 

A dignified Clergyman , of great Learning 
and Worth , well known by his excellent 
Works , had naturally a great deal of Spirit 
and Fire , but by a fe dent ary and fludiom 
Life, had brought on Flatulence , Giddlnefs , . 
Opprelfion, Lownefs, and Anxiety to a great 
Degree, by which he had been long op- 
prefTed. He had been always very tempe- 
rate, of a flight tender Make, but of late 
had grown very thin, dry, and was run- 
ning almofl: into a Scorbutical and Nervous 
Atrophy. I had advis’d him formerly in the 
beft Manner I could, fometimes the Gum 
Fills , with an Ahetlck , fometimes Sylphium , 
or Steel and Bitters , and fometimes Spa, 
Pyrmont ,' or Bath Waters, by which he had 
been much reliev’d ; but at laft none of 
thefe, nor any thing I could fuggeft, would 
have any dureable Effect. In fine, I told 
him, that nothing, in my Opinion, but a 
total Milk and Vegetable Diet could effectu- 
ally and entirely cure and reftore him, which 
he readily and chearfully complied with, 
and entered upon diredtly, being, as I faid, 
thin and temperate , and without grofs Hu- 
mours. So he had no Reafon to expedt any 
Jdifp amatory Fits by this Method . And with no 
U 3 other 

2 $6 The Englifh Malady. 

other Affiftance from Art, but fometimes 
an Aloetick Fill, or the Rheum ghiinqui- 
natum, he got in a very fhort Time eajy , 
chearful , of full and free Spirits, and capa- 
ble of any Degree of Application and Study, 
without Wearinefs and Oppreffion, and 
without the Neceffity of that Pajiing Life of 
Horfe- Service, fo neceffary to carry off the 
fuperfluous Load in others, under the fame 
Kind of Complaints, and in a full and free 
Diet. He is now like to continue long 
healthy, chearful, and lively. 

Case VI. 

A Gentleman’s Lady of Oxfordfhire, of as 
much Virtue, Piety, Charity, and good 
Senfc, as any one I ever was acquainted 
with, came here to Bath, for fchirrous Knots 
and Tumors in her Breaft, which both I and 
other Phyfcians believed to be a Threatning 
or Beginning Cancer. I tried here with her 
Cinnabar, Milliped, Lenitive Fie Liu ary, Dia- 
cajfa cum Manna , and other cooling and loft 
Openers, with a regulated young Animal 
Food Diet, and a very little Wine, under 
the Courfe of the Bath Waters, which fhe 
purfued here for many Weeks with great 
Exa&nefs and confiderable Benefit. I ad- 
vifed her to continue the fame Medicines at 
Home, with AJfes Milk and Brifiul W'aters , 
which fhe perfifted in all that Winter ; but 


towards Spring her Pains and Shootings be- 
came more intenfe and frequent, being 
attended with a Cough, by which flic began 
to be alarmed, as far as one of her admirable 
Patience and Refigndtion could be. I then 
told her plainly, that nothing but a total 
Milk and Fegetahle Diet could fave her from 
a Cancer , which fhe moft implicitly fubmit- 
ted to, and has continued in ever fince, and 
is now become the moft lively, eafy , and 
chearful Lady alive, being a publick Blefling 
to her Neighbours and poor T s wants , and a 
Happinefs to all her Friends and Acquaint- 

I. Tt ANY more Cafes I could men- 
l\/| tion, of fuch as, in the like 
-k ▼ -A, Diflempers with thefe here fpe- 
cified, have a&ually obtained under my 
Dire&ion a lajling and folid Cure, by a Regi- 


2p8 The Englifli Malady. 

men of Diet and fuch Medicines , as I have 
hinted. But if thefe will notfatisfy my Rea- 
der, Volumes of Cafes would not; they will 
be fufficient for the Candid Miferable and Sin- 
cere ; the Captious Healthy , and the Diffident , 
nothing I can fay will fatisfy. It is certain 
none will undertake fuch a Method , till they 
have found all others vain and ineffe&ual ; 
nor can I blame any one for fo doing : If the 
Gratification of their Palate and Tafle be of 
greater Pleafure to them than their Sufferings 
are of Pain, they are as yet unfit for any fuch 
Regimen or Method ; they muftbe worfe , be- 
fore they can be better . I think it pretty cer- 
tain from the Way of Living of the lower Rank 
of all Nations, that fuch a Regimen will not 
dire&ly kill or Jlarve any thing but Dijlem- 
pers : Unlefs the Wound bea&ually mortal and 
incureable in its own Nature and Degree : and 
even then it will prolong their Days , and make 
their Paffage lefs miferable and painful, than 
any other Method ; and I daily fee many 
wretched Perlbns complaining , grumbling , and 
inwardly curling the Creator of the JJniverfe 
for their Miferies and Sufferings, who I am 
morally and medically certain, bring all their 
Wretchednefs on themfelves, by conftantly 
over-loading, burfting and cramming the poor 
pajjive Machine : and who, by the Methods and 
Medicines I have mentioned, might be made 
eafy^chearful, and happy , tho’ not perhaps al- 
ways at jirjl, (unlefs they have few Humours 

Objections confideved. 299 

or Salts in their Juices) yet furely in fome Time. 
A vegetable Patient of mine, very juftly ob- 
ferved to me, that whereas before, he could 
never truft his Appetite'sLongingsor Craving, 
while on an animal high Diet, without fuffer- 
ing to Extremity : Now he found, he might 
fafely and fecurely truft Nature and Appe- 
tite, without Danger, Fear or Suffering. 
Others I have known, who having entered 
upon, and being in fome Degree recovered by 
this Method and thefe Medicines, yet have 
continued Weak, Poor, and Valetudinary all 
their Days, for Want of Reflation and Per- 
fever ance in it, by being divided and frightened 
by the unexperienced Gainfayers . But in about 
thirty Years Practice, in which I have in fome 
Degree or other, advifed this Method in pro- 
per Cafes, I have had but two Patients , in 
whofe total Recovery, I have been miftaken, 
and theirs were both fcrophulous Cafes , where 
the Glands and Tubercules were fo many, fo 
hard and impervious , that even the ponderous 
Remedies and Diet joined, could not difculs 
them, and they were both alfo too far gone 
before they entered upon them ; and I have 
found deep fcrophulous Vapours, the moft ob- 
ftinate and perverfe of any of this 'Tribe of thefe 
Diftempers : and indeed nothing can poffibly 
reach Inch, but the. ponderous Medicines, joined 
with a liquid , cool, foft Milk and Seed Regi- 
men ; and if thefe two do not in due Time, 
I can boldly affirm it, nothing ever will. 

II. One 

The Englifh Malady. 


II. One of the moft terrible Objections, fome 
weak Perfons make againft this Regimen and 
Method , is, that upon accidental 'trials , they 
have always found Milk, Fruit , and Vegetables 
fo inflate, blow them up, and raile fuch Tu- 
mults and tempefls in their Stomach and Bow- 
els, that they have been terrified and affrighted 
from going on. I own the truth and Faff to 
be fuch in fome as is reprefented : And that in 
Stomachs and Entrails inured only to hot and 
high Meats and Drinks, and confequently in an 
injlammatory State, and full of Choler and 
Phlegm, this Senfation will fometimes happen y 
juft as a Bottle of Cyder ox fretting Wine, when 
the Cork is pulled out, will fly up, fume, and 
rage : And if you throw in a little Ferment or 
Acid, (fuch are Milk, Seeds, Fruit and Vege- 
tables to them ) the Effervefcence and tempefl 
will exafperate to a Hurricane. But what is 
Wind, Flatulence, Flegm, and Choler? But 
flopp'd Perfpiration, fuperfluous Nourifhment, 
inconco&ed Chyle of high Food and ftrong Li- 
quors, fermenting and putrifying? And when 
thefe are fhut up and cor k’d, with ftill more and 
more folid, ftrong, hot, and Jlyptick Meats and 
Drinks, is the Corruption and Putrefk&ion 
thereby leflened? Will it not then at laft 
either burft the Veffel or throw out the Cork 
or Stoples, and raife more lafting and cruel 
tempefls and tumults ? Are Milk and Vegeta- 
bles, Seeds and Fruits, harder of Digeftion, 


Objections confedered. 301 

more Corrofwe , or more capable of producing 
Chyle, Blood , and Juices, lefs fit to circulate , 
to perfpire, and be fecreted ? But what is to be 
done > The Cure is obvious. Begin by De- 
grees, Eat lefs Animal Food : the moft tender 
and young, and drink lefs ftrong fermented Li- 
quors for a Month or two; then proceed to a 
trimming Diet, of one Day Seed and Vegetables , 
and another, tender young Animal Food ; in 
the mean Time take frequent gentle PVa/h- Vo- 
mits, and Rhubarb and Bark Stomach Purges ; 
drink Mineral and Chalybeat Waters, and Aque- 
ous Bitters ; take Teflaceous Powders and Al- 
kaline Earths, and then by Degrees Aide into a 
total Milk , Seed , and Vegetable Diet : Cooling 
the Stomach and Entrails gradually, to fit 
them for this foft, mild, fweetening Regimen ; 
and in Time your Diet will give you all the 
Gratification you ever had from ftrong , high , 
and rank Foods and fpirituous Liquors: And 
you will enjoy to the Bargain at laft, 
Eafe, free Spirits , per fed Health , and long 
Life. Milk of alt Kinds, and Seeds , are 
jfitteft to begin with in fuch Cafes, when 
dried, finely ground and drefs’d, and con- 
fequently the leaf! flatulent. Leffen the 
Quantity even of thefe, under what your 
Appetite would require, at leaf! for a Time. 
Bear a little , and jorbear. Virtue and good 
Health are not to be obtain’d without fome 
Labour and Pains againft contrary Habits. 
It was a wild Bounce of a Pythagorean , who 



yoz The Englifli Malady. 

defy’d any one, to produce an Inftance of a 
Perfon who had long lived on Milk and 
Vegetables : who ever cut his own Throat , 
hang’d or made away with himfelf • who had 
ever fuffered at Tyburn , gone to Newgate , 
or to Moorjields , (and he added profanely) 
or would go to Hell hereafter. 

III. Another doughty Objection againft a 
Vegetable Diet , I have heard has been made 
by learned Gentlemen : And is, that Vegeta- 
bles require great Labour , ftrong ExerciJ'e , 
and much Atlion, to digeft and turn them 
into proper Nutriment , as (fay they) is evi- 
dent from its being the common Diet of 
Day-Labourers , Handy-Craftfmen , and Farm- 
ers : This Objection I Ihould have been 
aftiamed to mention, but that I have heard it 
came from, the Men of Learning ; and they 
might have as juftly faid, that Free-Jlone 
is harder than Marble , and that the Juice of 
Vegetables makes ftronger Glew than that of 
Fijh or Beef l Do not Children and young 
Perfons, that is , tender Perfons, live on 
Milk and Seeds , even before they are capa- 
ble of much Labour and Exercife ? Do not 
all the Eajtern and Southern People, live in- 
tirely almoft on them ? The Afiaticks , 
Moors , and Indians , vvhofe Climates incapa- 
citate them for much Labour, and whofe 
Indolence is fo juftly a Reproach to them ? 
Are there lazier and Itfs laborious Men than 



Objections conftdeved . 30 $ 

the Highlanders and Native Irijb ? The 
Truth is, Hardmfs' of Digejlion does princi- 
pally depend on the Minutenefs of the Com- 
ponent Particles : as is evident in Marble and 
precious Stones ; and Animal Subftances be- 
ing made of Particles that pafs through innu- 
merable, very little, or infinitely / mail excre- 
tory Duliis) muft be of a much finer texture, 
and confequently harder and tougher in their 
Compofition, than any Vegetable Subftance 
can be : And the Flejh of Animals that 
live on Animals are like double diftill’d 
Spirits, and io require much more La- 
bour to break, grind and digeft them : 
And indeed, if Day-Labourers and Handy- 
Craftfmen were allowed the high, ftrong 
Food of Men of Condition : And the quick 
and much thinking Pcrfons' were confined to 
the Farmer and Ploughmens Food, it 
would be much happier for both. 

IV. The lafl Objebiion I fhall take Notice 
of againft a Milk and Vegetable Diet , is, that 
it breeds Phlegm , and fo is unfit for tender 
Perfons of cold Conftitutions, efpecially 
thofe whofe predominant Failing is too much 
Phlegm : But this Obje&ion has as little 
Foundation as any of the precedent; Phlegm 
is nothing but fuperfluous Chyle and Nou- 
rilbmen-t, or the taking down more Food, 
than the Expences of Living, and the Wafle 
of the Solids and Fluids require ; the People 


304 The Englifh Malady. 

that live moft on fuch Foods, (the Eaflern 
and Southern People, and thofe of the Nor- 
thern I have mentioned) breed lefs Phlegm 
than any others. Superfluity will always 
produce Redundancy , whether it be of Phlegm 
or Choler ; and that which will Digeft the 
moft readily, will breed the left Phlegm, (as 
is evident from infinite Experiment and the 
beft Phdofophy) fuch are Milk , Seeds , and 
Vegetables. Generally fpeaking, the Phlegm 
in the Glands, in the Lungs, and on the 
Stomach , is nothing but the Vifcofy of the 
Serum of the Blood, and that which will 
leaft produce Vifcofity, will produce leaft 
Phlegm , it is true, by coolipg and relaxing 
the Solids, the Phlegm will be more readily 
thrown up and difcharged ; more, I fay, by 
fuch a Diet , than by a hot, high, caujlick, 
and reftringent one; but that Difcharge is a 
Benefit to the Conftitution, and will help it 
the fooner and fafter to difpumate and purify, 
and fo to get into perfed good Health ; 
whereas by Uniting thefe up, the Cafe or 
Cask muft fly and burft 16 much the fooner. 

Y. The only material and l'olid Objedions 
againft a Milk, Seed, and Vegetable Diet 
are, Eirjl, That it is particular and unfocial, 
in a Country where the common Diet is of 
another Nature: 'But I am lure Sicknefs , 
Lorjonefs, and OppreJJion is much more lb ; 
and I fhould never ad vile any one to fuch a 

Diet , 

Objections conjiderd. 305 

Diet, who can do tolerably under a common 
one : Tho’ thefe Difficulties happen only at 
firft, while the Cure is about : for when good 
Health comes, thefe Oddnejfes and Speciali- 
ties will vaniffi, and then all the contrary to 
thefe will be the Cafe. Secondly , That it is 
weakening, and gives a Man lefs Strength and 
Force than common Diet. It is true, that 
may happen at firft alfo, while the Cure is im- 
perfect ; but then the greater Activity and 
Gayety which will enfue on Health, under a 
Milk and Vegetable Diet , will liberally fupply 
that Defect, if real ; and I fhould never ad vile 
any one to luch a Diet , whofe Manner of 
Living and Occupation requires great Mecha- 
nical Force, Labour, and Strength; for they 
feldom or never can want fo poor and low a 
Diet for this Diftemper, becaufe their Labour 
and Fxercife drawing off and antidoting the 
Faults and Inconveniencies of a full, ftrong, 
and free Manner of Living, will prefervethem ; 
fo it will never be required or be neceffary or 
fit for thz governed, but the governing', never 
for thofe whofe Excellence lies in their Limbs , 
but thofe whofe Superiority lies in their Heads 
and thinking Faculties ; never for the AStive^ 
but for the Sedentary. But thirdly , The molt 
material Objection againft fuch a Diet, is, that 
it cools, relaxes, foftens, and unbends the Solids 
at firft, fafter than it corrects, thins, and 
fweetens the Juices, and fo brings on greater 
Degrees of Lownefs, than it is defigncd to 

X Cure, 

6 The Englifli Malady. 

Care, and fo finks inftead of railing. But this 
Objedion is not univerfally true, for there 
are many I have treated, who without any 
Ruby Inconvenience , or confequent Lownefs , 
have gone into this Regimen , and have been 
free from any OppreJJioiiy Sinking , or any 
Degree of Weaknefs ever after; and they 
were not only thofe who have been gene- 
rally Temperate and Clean , free from Hu- 
mours and Sharpnefles ; but who on the 
Decline of Life, or from a naturally weak 
Conftitution or Frame, have been opprefs’d 
and funk, from their Weaknefs and their 
Incapacity to digefi common Animal Food y 
and fermented Liquors. Thofe who have 
been very Voluptuous , or very Grofsy when 
this cooling Diet has loofened their grofs 
Humours , acrid Bile and (harp Serum y mull 
fuffer in throwing thefe off ; but I have fug- 
gefted Means conftantly to relieve thefe 
Symptoms. Bark , Rhubarb , Bit ter j, Steely 
and Chalybeat Mineral Waters , will always 
keep up the Tenfion of the Solids in a De- 
gree fufficient for fuch a Diet ; and I 
very much queftion if any Diety either 
hot or cooly has any great Influence on the 
Solidsy after the Fluids have been intirely 
fweetened and balmifed. For then I have 
always found the Solids return to much 
the fame State of Strength and Springy 
they were in before the Diftemper; and 
all the Fundions return to the fame ‘Tenor. 


Col Townfhendj Cafe, 30? 

Sweeten but and thin the Juices , the ref will 
follow of Courfe. 

The Cafe of the Honourable Colonel 

f^Olonel Townfhend , a Gentleman of excel- 
^ lent Natural Parts, and of great Honour 
and Integrity , had for many Years been 
afflicted with a JSfephritick Complaint, at- 
tended with conftant Vomitings , which had 
made his Life painful and miferable. Dure- 
ing the whole Time of his Illnefs , he had 
obferved the ftricteft Regimen , living on the 
fofteft Vegetables and lighteft Animal Foods , 
drinking AJfes Milk daily, even in the Camp : 
and for common Drink Brifol Water, which, 
the Summer before his Deaths he had drunk 
on the Spot. But his Illnefs increafing, and 
his Strength decaying, he came from Brifol 
to Bath in a Litter, in Autumn, and lay at 
the Bed- Inn. Dr. Baynard (who is fince 
dead) and / were called to him, and attend- 
ed him twice a Day lor about the Space of a 
“Week, but his Vomitings continuing Hill 
incelfant, and obftinate again!! all Reme- 
X 2 dies, 

go 8 Tile Englifh Maladt. 

dies, we defpaired of his Recovery . White 
he was in this Condition, he fent for us 
early one Morning: we waited t>n him, with 
Mr. Shrine his Apothecary (fince dead alfo) ; 
we found his Senfes clear, and his Mind 
calm, his Nurfe and feveral Servants were 
about him. He had made his Will and 
fettled his Affairs. He told us, he had fent 
for us to give him fome Account of an 
odd Senfation , he had for fome Time ob- 
ferved and felt in himfelf : which was, 

that compofing himfelf, he cou’d die or 
expire when he pleas’d, and yet by 
an Effort, or fome how, he could come 
to Life again : which it feems he had 
fometimes tried before he had fent for 
us. We heard this with Surprize , but 
as it was not to be accounted for from now 
common Principles , we could hardly be- 
lieve the Fact as he related it, much left 
give any Account of it : uniefs he fhotild 
pleafe to make the Experiment before us, 
which we were unwilling he fhould do, 
laft, in his weak Condition, he might 
carry it too far. He continued to talk very 
diftindly and fenfibly above a Quarter 
of an Hour about this (to Him) fur- 
prifing Senfation , and infilled fo much 
on our feeing the Trial made, that we 
were at laft forced to comply. We all 
three felt his Pulfe firft: it was diftind, tho* 
foiall and threedy : and his Heart had 

Col. TownOiend^ Cafe • 309 

its ufual Beating. He compos’d himfelf 
on his Back, and lay iri a Bill Pfifture 
fome time : while / held his right Hand, 
Dr. Baynard laid his Hand on his Heart, 
and Mr. Shrine held a clean Looking- 
glafs to his Mouth. I found his Pulfe 

fink gradually, till at laft I could not 
feel any, by the tnoft exad: and nice 
Touch. Dr. Baynard could not feel the 
leaft Motion in his Hearty nor Mr. Shrine 
the leaft Soil of Breath on the bright 
Mirror he held to his Mouth ; then each 
of us by 'Tarns examin’d his Arm, Heart 
and Breath , but could not by the niceft 
Scrutiny difeover the leaft Symptom of 
Life in him. We reafon’d a long Time 
about this odd Appearance as well as 
we could, and all of us judging it in- 
explicable and unaccountable, and finding 
he ftill continued in that Condition, we 
began to conclude that he had indeed 
carried the Experiment too far, and at 
laft were fatisfied he was actually dead, 
and were juft ready to leave him. This 
continued about half an Hour, by Nine 
a’Clock in the Morning in Autumn. As we 
were going away, we obferv’d fome Motion 
about the Body, and upon Examination, 
found his Pulfe and the Motion of his 
Heart gradually returning : he began to 
breath gently and fpeak foftly : we were 
.all aftonifh’d to the laft Degree at this 

X 3 miexpetled 

310 The EngliOi Malady. 

unexpected Change, and after fome fur- 
ther Converfadon with him, and among 
ourfelves, went away fully iatisfy’d as 
to all the Particulars of this Fad, but 

confounded and puzled, and not able to 
form any rational Scheme that might ac- 
count for it. He afterwards called for 
his Attorney , added a Codicil to his JVill , 
fettled Legacies on his Servants, re- 
ceived the Sacrament, and calmly and 

compofedly expir’d about five or fix a’Clocfc 
that Evening. Next Day he was opened, 
(as he had ordered) his Body was the 

foundeft and bell made I had ever feen ; 
his Lungs were fair, large and found, his 
Heart big and ftrong, and his Intejlines 
fweet and clean ; his Stomach was of a 
due Proportion, the Coats found and thick, 
and the villous Membrane quite entire. 
But when we came to examine the Kid- 
neys, tho’ the left was perfectly found 
and of a juft Size , the right was about 
four Times as big, diftended like a blown 
Bladder , and yielding as if full of Pap ; 
he having often pafs’d a Wheyifh Liquor 
after his Urine, dureing his lllnefs. Upon 
opening this Kidney , we found it quite 
full of a white Chalky Matter, like Plaijler 
of Paris , and all the flefhy Subftance dif- 
iolved and worn away, by what I called 
a Nephritick Cancer. This had been the 
Source of all his Miferyj and the fympto - 


2 )r. Cranftoun's Cafe . 3 1 1 

matick Vomitings from the Irritation on 
the confentient Nerves , had quite ftarved 
and worn him down. I have narrated the 
Fads, as I faw and obierved them deli- 
berately and diftin&ly, and fhall leave to 
the Philofophick Reader to make what In- 
ferences he thinks fit ; the Truth of the 
material Circumftances I will warrant. 

The Cafe of the learned and inge- 
nious Dr. Cranftoun, in a Let- 
ter to the Author at his Dejire } in 
2 )r. Cranftoun’s own Words . 

Jedburgh, Sept. 20, 1-32. 


Y OURS of May laft was moft agree- 
able : I am much oblig'd to, and at the 
fame Time charm’d with, that mafierly 
Reafoning in fuch mafiy Exprefiions, as 
brings the moft fubtile Speculations in a 
Manner to the Senfes, in plain Concep- 
tions, vaftly like the Simplicity of Nature , 
which is never perplex’d, however much 

X 4 £0 

1 x i The Englifli Malady. 

lb our Accounts of it may be. What 
you are pleafed to communicate, of a 
Treatife you defign for the Prefs, gives 
me great Pleafiire. A C lafs of Difeafes 
lb univerfally frequent, and fo peculiarly 
the Cloud and Bane of the moft worthy 
and valuable Lives ; deep fet in the Oeco- 
nomy and fo little gained upon by 
Medicine : faperjicially treated by its Pro- 
■fejfors, and carekjly or weakly trifled with 
by the Patients; demands and well de- 
ferves a Majler s Hand. I rejoice to find 
the Task undertaken, by one equally 
qualify’d to do Juftice to the Subject, 
and Good to Mankind. For my own 
Part I fhajl never refled upon the mile- 
Table Di ft refs I have fuffer’d, but with 
grateful Remembrance of that kind Hu- 
manity, wherewith you communicated your 
frank and friendly Advice. The clear 
diftind Knowledge, from fmall imperfebfc 
Hints, you had at firfl: of my Diftemper, 
was equally furprizing, with the pofitive 
Affurance of Succefs, with which you prelfed 
to perfuade and encourage my following 
your Method of Care ; nothing but ma- 
ture Experience and well-taken Obferva- 
tions, upon certain Principles of Science , 
cou’d have warranted, or fupported a Predic- 
tion more like prophetick Security , than 
■phyfical Progno flick, which hitherto has 

anfwer’d ; as I have faithfully the Con- 

2)r. CranAourus Cafe 3 \ -y 

d'ition.~And now Dr. Dr. Infandum ! —Jubes 
remvare Dolorem. But as fo good a Friend's 
Commands are facred, if it may in the 
lead be ferviceable to your Purpofe, I 
fhall, befide what you know already, 
give a fhort AbflraPt, as I can now re- 
coiled:, of the Origin and Progrefs of 
my Difeafe, wherein, without the lead 
Reafoning, Conjecture or Term of Art , 
1 fhall coniine it to a fimple Narration 
of molt effential Matters of Fall, without 
troubling you with every Circumftance 
and Symptom , which however proper to 
the true Hijiory of a DiJeaJ'e , would be 
too tedious and perhaps fuperfluous here. 
And tho’, at bed, I'm always at a vaft 
Lofs for Language and Expreflion, I mull 
beg you’ll forgive my carelefs Freedom 
in this : While I write with Eafe and 

Opennefs to a Friend : if you can but take the 
Meaning, I hope whatever Ufe you pleafe to 
make of it, you'll be fo kind as to treat 
me and it as your own. 

(1) A Conftitution rather trattable than 
ftrong, nor fubjed to confiderable Difor- 
ders, except fuch tranfient Symptoms of a 
Colluvies Serofa , upon Cold or Errors in 
Life, as commonly denominate a fcurbu - 
tick Habit , never afflided fince Childhood 
with any formed Difeafe, till at Leyden, 
| got an autumnal Quartan in 1715s then 


314 ST& Englifh Malady. 

Epidemical in Holland ; which gave eafy 
Way to the Cortex , and the whole fuc- 
ceeding Winter had no Relapfe ; but that 
fame Winter I firft fuffer'd by Gripes and 
Purging, which always feiz’d me early in 
the Morning without the leaft further 
Trouble through the Day. The follow- 
ing Spring Sealon, a Return of the Jgue 
in a tertian Type, carried off that Symp- 
tom, which never return’d more for fe- 
veral Years, to interrupt good Health, 
in purfuing my Bulinefs with confidera- 
ble Fatigue, carelefs altogether of either 
Diet , or Expofures to all Airs in all Seafons 
without much Inconvenience. 

(2) About Spring Time 1727, I began 
to be vifited now and then with an odd 
uneafy Senfation in the right Side, between 
the falfe Ribs and Spine of the Ilium , or, as 
I judged, at the Seat of the Coecum , which 
feldom came up to acute Pain ; but of 
various Feelings, fometimes of Goldnefs, 
at other Times of Heat, and often it felt 
like vermicular Motions, or fpafmodick 
Workings in that Part; and thefe Symp- 
toms would fometimes be communicated 
to the external .teguments, at other Times 
fpread inward to the Bowels in different 
Commotions. This Trouble, without much 
further affe&ing the Body, came and went 
at firft a long Time, but, always irri- 

2 )r. Cranftoun’s Cafe. 315 

tated by Cold, became at laft more con- 
ftant through the whole Summer, when 
I draggd about with a great deal of Trouble; 
now become moreuniverfal, as frequent chilly 
cold Horrors , fick Periods , with a quick 
fmall Pulfe and dry Mouth, infuperable 
Coldnefs in the Extremities , even in the 
hotteft Days, &c. 

The Beginning of Autumn 1 727, after 
being much expos'd to cold rainy Wea- 
ther, my former Complaints formed more 
directly into Gripes , and lick Throws in 
the Guts ; which often arofe from, or at 
leaft moft affeded that firft Seat of Trou- 
ble in the right Side, and fettled into 
periodical Returns, which were about the 
Evening Sun-fet: and the fame Hours in 
the Morning : which Periods , or I may 
call them Paroxyfms , continued always 
till by repeated Evacuations of crude Foe- 
ces and glutinous Lentor the Intejlines 
were throughly evacuated. But retaining 
an Appetite lharp enough, and being to- 
lerable eafy in the Intervals, without mind- 
ing its Progrefs or Confequence, I perfi- 
fled in my ordinary Courfe of Living and 
Bufinefs, tho' with fevere Incommodement, 
and daily Aggravations from Cold: till 
the Middle of Otdoher , when the Seafon 
turning Bitter Cold and Wet, all the 
Symptoms increafed, attended with a La- 

^16 The English Malady: 

tent Fever , I was difabled at once and 

(3) Thus, tho 5 better and worfe, I con- 
tinued after the fame Manner all the Win* 
ter in great Diftrefs ; opprefs’d with in- 
numerable Symptoms , which partly arofe 
from the Genius of the Difeafe, and partly 
from its Effects on the Oeconomy , and 
io more common to an exhaufted Con- 
ftitution and debilitated Nerves ; which need 
not be enumerated here. When the Dif- 
eafe was not diverted from its Courfe by 
Medicine, Management or an exceflive Fever , 
that fometimes made its Violence conti- 
nual without Regularity ; the Dyjenterick 
Symptoms feem’d generally inclined to pe- 
riodical Exacerbations , which commonly be- 
gan in the Morning early about four or five, 
end kept near the fame Evening Hours. 
The Gripes and ‘ Purging were ufhered 
in with a mortified Coldneft, efpccially 
in the Extremities; deep felt in the ten- 
denous Parts: the Gripes thro’ all the Guts , 
but chiefly the Colon , and that on the 
right Side, which foon after affected the 
Rectum with wringing Violence, and rigid 
Prejfiure on Dejection ; after one Motion, 
no more quiet, but by repeated Irritation 
all the mucous and crude Contents were 
difeharged, after which the fucceeding Stools 
were furprizingly different, at different 


2 )r. Cranftoun ? 5 Cafe. 3 \y 

Times: liquid purely, or Crafs, in all the malig- 
nant Variety of Colours and Confidence that 
has ever been obferved in that Difcharge ; and 
while that Matter was moving in its Defcent 
thro’ the Guts, the horrid Senfations, Rigors, 
Heart-lick Throws, &c. which attended its 
Progrefs, always prognofeicated the virulent 

After this Courfe of feveral Hours was 
finifhed, there was fomeRefpite till the Inte- 
rims were again replete, or the new Time of 
Accefs approached, when the fame Scene was 
repeated. In the mean Time the Urine was 
variable, of a deep faturate Colour, when the 
lever was fenfibly high, with a lateritious y 
dusky or dark Sediment fometimes, elpeci- 
ally when the Purging was retarded or aba- 
ted ; good Quantities of crude, limpid, or 
greenifh tindur’d Urine , of a bitter acrid Pun- 
gency ; often attended with nervous Affec- 
tions, forordinary about ioor 12 a’Clockofthe 
Day, the Urine would cometo fomeSeperation: 
towards the Evening more crude and limpid, 
and the fame again at the Morning Period. 

For Ordinary, when the Fever was 
moderate and no immediate Naufea affed- 
ing the Stomach, the Appetite was to- 
lerable • fometimes fharp and an unnatural 
Craving, with an ungrateful acid Tafte in 
the Mouth ; but eating was but laying 


3 i 8 The Englifli Malady. 

in a new Load, rather to be prelTed 
down in new Commotions than digefled. 
Little Thirft, except fometimes, when a 
Drynefs of the Mouth, &c. or feveriflj 
internal Heat, made it unquenchable. Com- 
monly a rigid Drynefs of the Skin, tho’ 
oft-times Symptomatick Flufhes of Sweat, 
rarely universal and natural : which when 
it happen’d of a critical kindly Sort with 
gentle urinous Difcharge, feldom fail’d of 
doing Service. By labouring thus thro’ 
the whole Winter, you may believe I 
was pretty much exhaufted and emacia- 
ted, with confiderable Swelling, of the 
Legs, &c. 

ME D I C INE (S’, I us’d feveral to little 
Effect, Rhubarb , or the gentleft Stimulus enra- 
ged all the Symptoms ; all eafy gentle 
Aftringents of every kind had no Effect, 
and flrong ones, as DecoCt. DiaJ'cord. with 
tferra Japonica , proved violent Catharticks ; 
Injections of any kind, when the Difeafe 
rag’d, promoted it; Opiats only, tho’ not 
always, check’d the Purging ; but only 
by filling the Adtion of irritate Fibres, 
the Load was accumulated for a redoubled 
Difcharge : and in the mean Time moft 
always produced a Naufea , Vomiting, with 
many other nervous Symptoms , till their 
retentive Power was gone, and never failed 


2)r. Cranftoun’s Cafe. 319 

effectually to debar Sleep, tho' by quieting 
Pain, it gave eafy -watching Reft. 

(4) About March 1728, with the Affi- 
ftance of Opiats , the Dileafe began to abate, 
and at laft the Purging went off, but left the 
Syflem vaftly debilitated ; and fubjed to 
many Diforders, proper to fuch a State; 
however I pafs’d the Summer and next 
Winter without the Dyfentery ; but in con- 
tinual Hazard of a Relap fe, and little Con- 
firmation of Health or Strength. All that 
Time I made choice of the moft drying 
Food, and red Wines in fmall Quanti- 
ties ; with a fimple Intention to abftradb 
from the Materies Morbi , and corroborate 
the primes Vis, abftaining from whatever 
might be faid to moiften or relax. 

(5) Towards the End of Simmer 172^, 
the old Symptoms (2) began to recur. I 
negleded them, ftill expofing to the au- 
tumnal Colds, till all came to the fame 
Heights as before; (3) went through the 
fame Courfe of Diftrefs that Winter with 
little effential Variation, fave what might 
arife from the greater Violence of the 
Difeale, and lefs equal Strength in the 
Subjed. Except a few Weeks of Refpite 
from the Dyfentery that Spring , without 
which it is likely Nature had yielded. I 
had no more Intermiffion all the Summer 


320 The Englifli Malady. 

i 7 30, the Difeale rag’d with more HeaL 
and Thirft, &c* 

Bur the warm Seafon allow’d me to drag 
a feeble and diftreffed Body abroad, and 
that as far as Airbridge ; I made Trial of 
the Waters there, you know, without any 
Succefs, returning to London in as great Di- 
ftrefs as ever; I wanted much to be deter- 
min’d, doubtful if I fhould be carried towards 
Bath or Home : I then firft made free with 
a CharaLier I was a little acquainted with by 
the Prejs y and asked your Opinion : by a 
fpeedy and kind Return, you diffuaded me 
from Bath , upon good Reafons, confirmed 
by Experience, and with a friendly Warmth , 
advis’d a Method of Living , as the only Cure 
remaining, prefTed by molt encouraging Af- 
furance of Succefs, if I was not beyond the 
Power of natural Agents. I obey’d, came 
Home through a Journey of the greateft Di- 
flrefs ever one travelled, and immediately be- 
gan your Method , of -a Milk and vegetable Diet , 
but the Difeafe rag’d with fuch Violence,, 
and natural Strength was fo far gone, that 
I was not able to obferve any Rules with 
Exa&nefs. Ail the Symptoms (3) formerly 
mentioned were aggravated with feveral 
Changes, which I cannot particularly re- 
late, only, in general, more fenfible Heat, 
Thirft, and evident Fever , then had ever 
been before. 



2 )r. Cranflotin’s Cafe. 3 2 i 

At this Time, fan. 1731. when exhauD 
ted more than ever, the Purging, by a little 
Aftiftance of Opiats , after a Day’s Naufea 
and Vomiting, was abated, which preferved 
the remaining Life. I then began to be 
exact in Diet, reftricting it only to Milk and 
Grdins of Rice , Millet , 6tc. and abdicated all 
animal Food; in about fix Weeks or two 
Months, the Dyfentery gave Truce, in which 
Time I was often fretted with frangurious Sym- 
ptoms. I fometimes took Notice of one Rfice- 
vomenon in the Urine, which I never remem- 
ber to have feen, or heard, or obferv’d before, 
which was the (Pellicle, which it commonly 
carry’d on the Top, was powdered with ex- 
ceeding fnlal l fbinewg Particles , like Gold- 
daft', the Sides of the Glafs befet with the 
fame, and the mucous Cloud in the Centre 
wrought full of them : Thefe glittering 

Atoms, when gathered on the Finger, had 
the Feeling of fine hard Duft, and the Urine 
faturate with thefe, at its firft Evacuation, 
would fparkle and rife in the Glafs ; at fuch 
Times there was deep Diforder in the Oeco- 
nomy and nervous Syjlem. 

(6) The Beginning of next- March 1731. 
the Seafon being a fharp Froft, after fome 
Days of chilly mortify’d Cold, I was feiz’d 
with a heavy Stupor and feverifh Heat, with 
a Return of the Dyfentery ; by this Time, 
feeble, and little able to ftand the Shock: the 

Y Stomach 

yzz The EngUfli Malady. 

Stomach felt loaded, which came to a Vomit- 
ing of a heavy Pituit : the SenSe of a fluf- 
fing Load ftill remaining, I took a Vomit, 
which discharg'd a vaft Quantity of crude 
FJegm , clear and glaffy, juft as the unbroken 
White of Eggs ; ftill the Weight at Stomach 
continued, the Fever increafed with biteing 
Heat and great Thirfh, a Pi life feeble, unequal 
and quick \ at the lame time a languid In- 
flammation feized my Throat, and Parts 
about it : A little after appeared an Eruption 
of Flpthce in the Mouth, especially on the 
Tongue, which was all over thick fet, with 
very Small pellucid Pearl- coloured Puflles : 
thefe were attended with a great Salivation of 
crude, infipid crafs Stuff, Such as I had vo- 
mitted ; the dpthce remained conftant, the 
Sinking and Riling as the Fever varied, moff 
Part higheft at Night. After about a Week, 
the yjpthco changed their Colour to pale-red, 
then darker, Sometimes livid, and at laft a 
black Depreftion on the Top of every one of 
them. By this Time, natural Strength was 
juft a going, moftly Supported by SlJJes 
Milk , which too I was reftrained from by 
reafon of the great Effufion of Urine, which 
it provok’d. Scarce able to move out of Bed, 
after two or three Weeks thus on the Brink 
of Di (Solution, it pleafed God to fet the 
Bounds !" The Symptoms all gradually, flowly, 
and infenfibly declined, and the Dyfentery 
went off at the Same Time. 


Dr. Cranftoun 'sCafe. 

VII. I refolutely, as foon as capable of a 
Diet, held myfelf clofe to your Rules of 
bland vegetable Food, and elementary Drink ; 
and, without any other Medicine, fave fre- 
quent chewing of Rhubarb , and fometimes 
a little Cortex. I pafled laft Winter and this 
Summer without a Relapfe of the DyJ'entery ;■ 
and, tho’ by a very flow Advance, I find 
now more Reftitntion of the Body, and Re- 
gularity in the Oeconomy , on this primitive 
Aliment , than ever I knew from the Begin- 
ning of this Trouble. This encourages much 
my Perfeverance in the lame Method , and 
that fo religioufly, as to my Knowledge, 
now for more than a Year and half, I have 
not tailed any thing that had animal Lifer 
There is Plenty in the vegetable Kingdom, 
and Milk taken itfelf, affords Variety : And, 
fay it were otherwife, Health fhould be 
thought an eafy Purchafe at a little Reftric- 
tion of I’dfte , did not its principal Enjoy- 
ment fhamefully confift in Pleafure of Senje. 

Every one, upon the moll obvious Con- 
^derations, may be convinced of the great 
Influence that Aliment rhu'ft have on the 
Crajis and Conftitutiofi of our Bodies, which 
it daily fupplies, and of which, at laft, it 
becomes corftitaent Materials. And yet for 
want of dueAttention to this noble Branch of 
Medicine , or from a vicious Indulgence, and 
Weaknefs of Refolution, how often is our 
Y a Prattle# 

3 14 The EngliOi Malady. 

Practice rendered miferably unfuccefsful ? 
and in many, the moft confiderable chronical 
Diftempers, degenerates into meer I’rijiing or 

I have too much tried your Patience with 
an unpolifhed but faithful Relation of FaBs, 
and muft leave fuch Speculations to more 
Experience and a better Judgment. 

When it is not mifpending your Time* 
you'll believe, I hope, it is real Plealure, as well 
as improving, to have a Letter from my good 
Friend j being moft fincerely, Dear Doctor ? 

Tour ageciionate-) 

and obliged humble Servant^ 

W. Cranstoun. 

I Chose to give this Cafe in the Doctor s 
own Words, thinking it would be more fatif- 
fadory in its native Drefs ; for tho’ He mo- 
deltiy thinks it might want a little of the mo- 
dern polifhing, yet the ftrong good Senfe, the 
nice Obfervations, and unaffeded Simplicity, 
is infinitely preferable to all Varmjh , and 
fhews him equally an excellent Fhyfician , and 
a Man of Probity. Other Cafes of the fame 
Kind under my Care, I have from feverat 
Gentlemen of the Faculty , which fhall be pro- 
duced (if neceftary) in due Time, after ob- 
taining their Permillion. 

The Author's Cafe. 32 j 

The CASE of the Author . 

§ I. IT Was born of healthy Parents, in 
the Prims of their Days, but dif- 
pos’d to Corpulence , by the whole 
Race of one Side of my Family. I palled 
my To nth in clofe Study, and almoft con- 
ftant Application to the abflraTted Scien- 
ces, (wherein my chief Pleafure confifted) 
and confequently in great Temperance and a 
fedentary Life ; yet not fo much but that I 
fometimes kept Holiday , diverted myfelf 
with the Works of Imagination, and roufed 
Nature by agreeable Company and good 
Cheer\ but, upon the Highteft ExceJJes, I 
always found flippery Bowels, or a Spitting 
to be the Crife whence afterwards, on Re- 
flexion, I concluded, that my Glands were 
naturally lax, and my Solids feeble ', in which 
Opinion I was confirmed, by an early Shakeing 
of my Hands , and a Difpofition to be eafily 
ruffled on a Surprize. Upon my coming to Lon- 
don, I all of a fudden changed my whole Man- 
ner of Living ; I found the Bottle-Companions , 
the younger Gentry, and Free-Livers , to be 
Y 3 the 

3 16 The EngliOi Malady. 

£be moft eafy of Accejs , and moft quickly 
fufceptible of Friencjbip and Acquaintance , 
nothing being necellary for that Purpol'e, but 
to be able to Rat luftily, and fwallow down 
much Liquor ; and being naturally of a large 
Size, a cheerful Temper, and tolerable lively 
Imagination , and having, in my Country Re- 
tirement, laid in Store of Ideas and Faffs, by 
thefe Qualifications I foon became careffed 
by them, and grew daily in Bulk , and in 
Friend fliip with thefe gay Gentlemen and 
their Acquaintances : I was tempted to con- 
tinue this Cotirfe , no doubt, from a Likeing , 
as well as to force a Frade , which Method I 
had obferv’d to fucceed with fome others- 
and thus conftantly Dineing and Supping in 
Faverns, and in the Houles of my Acquain- 
tances of Fajle and Delicacy , my Health was 
in a few Years brought into great Diftrels, 
by fo fudden and violent a Change. I grew 
exceflively y^Y, Jhort-breatb'd, Lethargic and 

§ II. The firft lenfible Shock I had, was 
an autumnal intermittent Fever \ this I con- 
quer’d in a few Weeks with the Bark , 
which, at that time, I found exceeding 
frefh , thin , Cinnamon- coloured , and curled'. 
This fort (as I know from long Experience) 
greatly contributing to the Speed and Cer- 
tainty of the Cure of fuch Diftempers, being 
more eafily digefted, and entering more rea- 

The Author s Cafe. 3 27 

dily into the Mafs of the Blood, while the 
Stomach is fpoilt by a Difeafe , and the Juices 
under a preternatural Ferment . For one 
Year I went on tolerably well, .tho* as it 
■were jumbled and turbid , and neither fo Yew 
in my Faculties, nor io gay in my Temper: 
But next Autumn I wasfuddenly feized with 
a vertiginous Paroxyfm , fo extreamly fright- 
ful and terrible, as to approach near to a Fit 
of an Apoplexy, and I was forced 4 n k to lay 
hold on the Ports of my Bed, for fear of 
tumbling out, as I apprehended. After im- 
mediate Bleeding and Vomiting (whereby its 
Violence was abated) I thought -it might be 
owing to an anomalous Fit of my relapfing In- 
mittent , and thereupon took about four Oun- 
ces of this fine Bark in 48 Hours, hut with- 
out any fenfible Benefit or Injury, I found 
after this, fome fmall Returns of my Vertigo 
(in Bed efpecially) on lying on a particular 
Side, or preffmg upon a particular Part of my 
Head ; but by Degrees it turned to a con- 
ifant violent Head-ach , Qiddmefs , Lownejs 
Anxiety and Terror, fo that I went about 
like a MalefaPlor condemn’d, or one who ex- 
pected every Moment to be crufhed by a 
ponderous Inrtrument of Death, hanging 
over his Head. At this time I left off 
Suppers of all kinds, and have never refum’d 
them fince ; then, even at Dinner, eating 
but a fmall Quantity of anhnal Food, and 
drinking very little fermented Liquor, well 
Y 4 knowing^ 

328 The Englifli Malady. 

knowing, that Difeafes muft always be 
cur’d by their Contraries. On this Occafion, 
all my Bouncing , protejling , undertaking Com- 
panions forfook me, and dropt off like au- 
tumnal Leaves : They could not bear, it Teems, 
to fee their Companion in fuch Mifery and 
Piftrefs, but retired to comfort themfelves 
with a cheer -upping Cup, leaving me to pafs 
the melancholy Moments with my own Ap- 
prehensions and Remorje. Even thofe who 
had fhar’d the beft Part of my Profufions, 
who, in their Neceffities, had been affilted by 
my falfe Generofity, and in their Diforders 
relieved by my Care, did now entirely relip- 
quifh and abandon me ; fo that I was forc’d 
to retire into the Country quite alone, being 
reduc’d to the State of Cardinal tVolJey, when 
he faid, that if he had ferv’d his Maker as 
faithfully and warmly ap he had his Prince^ 
he would not have forfaken him in that Ex- 
tremity ; and fo will every one find, when 
Union and Friendjhip is not founded on folid 
Virtue , and in Conformity to the Divine 
Order , but in Jenfual Pleafures and mere 
Jollity. This filly Circumftance I mention, 
becaufe 1 thought then, it had fome Share in 
my fucceeding Melancholy , 

$ III. I retir’d, I fay, to the Country, 
into a fine Air, and liv’d very low : I had a 
Set on made in my Neck, which 1 carried 
about for many Months; I took frequent 

Vomit jj 

The Author $ Cafe. 319 

Vomits , and gentle Purges, try’d Volatiles , 
Fcetids, Bitters, Chalybeats , and Mineral 
Waters, and had the Advice of all my Phy- 
sical Friends, but with little or no fenfible 
Benefit; my Head-ach, Giddinefs, Watchings , 
Lownejs , and Melancholy rather increafing on 
me. I had by chance heard of the great Be- 
nefit, which one of my particular Acquain- 
tances had reap’d from fome active mercurial 
Medicines (tho’ prefcrib’d by a very inl'uffi- 
cient Practitioner) in a violent ftupifying 
Head-ach, which I had Reafon to believe came 
by the fame Intemperance; thefe I refolv’d 
to try. I firft took 20 Grains of what is call’d 
the Princes Powder, which gave me twelve 
Vomits, and near twice the Number of 
Stools ; and I had certainly perifhed under 
the Operation, but for an Over-dofe of Lau- 
danum after it. In two or three Days more, 
I took 1 1 Grains of Furbith-mineral, which 
had not quite fo violent an EfFed; after 
that I took 10 Grains of Calomel, twice a 
Day, for about ten Days together ; this put 
me into a Petit Flux de Louche : After which 
in three Weeks Time I got abroad lightfomer 
indeed, and lels confus’d, tho’ ftill very bad, 
and fcarce any thing better, but not worfe; 
but two Months after that, I found an extream 
Sicknefs in my Stomach, which obliged me to 
take frequent Vomits, thefe now pumping up 
Oceans of Choler , which they had never done 
any Degree before ; Whence I concluded, 


"The Englifh Malady. 

that the ponderous Remedies I had taken, had 
opened my obftruded Liver , Gall-bladder , 
and Porus Biliarius , and broken the Cohe- 
fion of the vifcid Juices. 

$ IY. While I was thus (as I have faid) 
forfaken by my Holiday Friends, and my 
Body was, as it were, melting away like a 
Snow-ball in Summer, being deje&ed, me- 
lancholy^ and much confin’d at home, by my 
Courfe of mineral Medicines, and Country 
Retirement, I had a long Seafon for undi- 
fturbed Meditation and Refetfion ( my Fa- 
culties being then as clear and quick as ever) 
which I was the more readily led into, that 
I concluded myfelf infallibly entering into an 
Unknown State of Things. Having had a liberal 
and regular Education, with the Inftrudion and 
Example of pious Parents (who, at firft, had 
defigned me for the Church) I had preferv’d 
a firm Perfwafion of the great and fundamen- 
tal Principles of all Virtue and Morality'. 
viz. the Exigence of a fupreme and infinitely 
perfett Being , the Freedom of the Will , the 
Immortality of the Spirits of all intelligent 
Beings, and the Certainty of future Rewards 
or Punifhments. Thefe Dodrines I had ex- 
amined carefully, and had been confirmed in, 
from abfradled R’eafonings, as well as from 
the belt natural Philofophy , and fome clearer 
Knowledge of the material Syftem of the 
World in general, and the JVijdom , FitneJ's 


The Author's Cafe. 33a 

and beautiful Contrivance of particular 
Things animated and inanimated \ fo that the 
Truth and Neceffity of thefe Principles was 
fo riveted in me (which may be feen by the 
fir ft Edition of my Philofophical Principles , 
publifhed fome Years before that happened) 
as never after to be fhaken in all my Wander- 
ings and Follies :• And I had then the Confo- 
lation to refled:, that, in my loofeft Days, I 
had never pimp’d to the Vices ox Infidelity of 
any, but was always a determined Adver- 
fary to both. But I found, that thefe alone 
were not fufficient to quiet my Mind at that 
Jundure, efpecially when I began to refled: 
and confider ferioufly, whether I might not 
(through Car ele (fiefs and Self-fuff ciency, Vo - 
luptuoufnefs and Love of Senjuality , which 
might have impaired my Spiritual Nature) 
have negleded to examine with fufficient 
Care: If there might not be more required of 
thofe, who had had proper Opportunities and 
Leifure ; if there might not, I fay, be higher 
more noble, and more enlightening Prin- 
ciples revealed to Mankind fomewhere ; and if 
there were not more encouraging and enliven- 
ing Motives propofed, to form a more exten- 
five and Heroic Virtue upon, than thofe ari- 
ftng from natural Religion only (for then I 
had gone little farther than to have taken 
Chrijlidnity zxx&Rev elation on frufi) and la fly y 
if there were not Iikewile fome clearer Ac- 
counts difcoverable of that State I was then 


3 $2 The Englifti Malady. 

( I thought ) apparently going iqto, than 
could be obtained from the mere Light of 
Nature and Philofophy. Such were my Re- 
flexions in this my melancholy Retirement, 
and this led me to call to Mind, which , of 
all my numerous and various Acquaintances, 
I could wilh to refemble mojl , now in thele 
my (to me feemingly) approaching lafl Mo- 
ments ; and who among all thofe of my par- 
ticular Acquaintances, was He , who being of 
found natural , and duly cultivated Parts, had 
moft ftriXly and conftantly liv’d up to their 
ConviXions, under the commonly received 
Principles, and plain Confequences of Chri- 
ftianity. In a Word, who it was I could re- 
member to have had received, and lived up to 
the plain Truths and Precepts contain’d in 
the Gofpels , or more particularly in out Savi- 
our’s Sermon on the Mount . At that Time 
among many whom my Memory fuggefted to 
me, I fix’d on one, a worthy and learned 
Clergyman of the Church of England , fuffici- 
ently known and diftinguifhed in the Philo - 
fophical and Theological World (whom I dare 
not name, becaufe he is ftill living, tho’ now 
extreamly old) ; and as in ftudying Mathe- 
maticks , and in running over (as I was able) 
Sir Ifaac Newton’s Philofophical Works, I 
had always pickt out, and mark’d down the 
Muthors and Writings moftly ufed and 
recommended by thofe others, and by him, 
becaufe I thought they could belt judge of 

fuch j 

The Author's Cafe. 333 

fiich ; fo in this Cafe the more quickly to 
fettle my Mind , and quiet my Conference , I 
refolved to purchafe, ftudy, and examine 
carefully fuch Spiritual and Dogmatic Authors , 
as I knew this venerable Man did moft ap- 
prove and delight in. In this Manner I col- 
le&ed a Set oj religious Books and Writers , of 
moft of th zfrftAges fince Chrifianity , recom- 
mended by him, with a few others of the 
moft Spiritual of the Moderns , which have 
been my Study , Delight and Entertainment 
in my Retirements ever fince ; and on thefe I 
have formed my Ideas , Principles and Senti- 
ments: lb as, under all the Varieties of Opini- 
ons , Sells, Difputes and Controverts , that of 
late , and fince the Earlieft Ages, have been 
canvaffed and bandyed in the World, I have 
fcarce ever fince been the leaft lhaken, or 
tempted to change my Sentiments or Opini- 
ons, or fo much as to hefitate in any material 
Point. This tedious, perhaps impertinent 
Circumftance I mention, becaufe the Fright , 
Anxiety , Dread and Terror, which, in Minds 
of fuch a Turn as mine (efpecially under a 
broken and cachedlick Conftitution, and in fo 
atrocious a nervous Cafe ) arifes, or, at 
leaft, is exafperated from fuch Refle&ions, 
being once fettled and quieted, That after 
becomes an excellent Cordial , and a conftant 
Source of Peace , Tranquillity and Cheerful - 
nejs, and fo greatly contributes to forward 
the Cure of fuch nervous Difeafes ; For I ne- 
ver found any fenfible Tranquillity or A- 


334 The Englifh Malady. 

mendment, till I came to this firm and fettled' 
Reflation m the Main, viz. To negletf nothing 
to Je cure my eternal Peace , more than if I had 
been certified I fhould die within the Day : nor 
to mind any fhing that my J'ecular Obligations 
and Duties demanded of me kjs , than if I had 
been enjured to live fifty Dears more. This, 
tho’ with infiniteWeaknefs and Imperfection, 
has been much my fettled Intention in the 
Main fince. 

§ V. The Spring following I was advifed 
and preffed by all my Friends, and the Phy- 
Jicians I confulted, to try the Bath Waters. 
I went there accordingly, for the firft Time, 
as a Patient ; and, for many Weeks, was 
much relieved both in my Stomach and Spi- 
rits by them : And tho’ in the Opinion of 
the World, I liv’d very temperately, yet by 
increafing the Quantity of my Plnimal Food, 
and flrong Liquors (my Appetite being now 
ftronger and more craving, and my Spirits 
brisker, from the drinking of the Waters (in 
the Space of four or five Months, I was 
heated fo, as to apprehend a Heblic. I then 
changed the Bath for Briflol Waters, re- 
trenched my Diet , and increafed my daily 
Rideing and Exercife, and continued fiome- 
times gentle Vomits : by which I paft that 
Year better than the former, tho* far from 
well j but, on the Return of the next Spring, 
fome Symptoms were exafperated, infomuch 
that their Severity, the Continuance of my 

Mi fe vies. 

The Authors Cafe. 335 

Miferies, and the conftant Complaints, com- 
mon to Hypifh People, made Life a Burden, 
to myfelf, and a Pain to my Friends. I ac- 
cidentally met with a Clergyman, who told 
me of a wonderful Cure, which Dr. fay lor of 
Croydon had wrought on himfelf in an Epi- 
leptick Cafe , by a total Milk Diet. This Hint 
accidentally dropt, wrought fo on me, that 
I began to recoiled; a great many Things, 
that before had efcaped me without much 
Reflection. I had read in Dr. Sydenha?n , 
that in violent and obftinate Hyfterick Fits 
and Colicks, he had, with great Succefs, pre- 
fcribed a total Milk Diet , as the laft and 
fureft Remedy. Dr. Fit cairn, my Mafter and 
Friend, in his Dilates had recommended it as 
the only infallible Cure in an inveterate Scur- 
vy, Cacochimy and totally vitiated Juices : And 
I myfelf knew it to be the only Remedy in the 
Gout , a confirmed Heffiic and Confumption , 
and had feen Miracles wrought by it in fuch 
Cafes ; befides, I knew nervous Diftempers 
of all Kinds, differed only in Degrees. All 
thefe Confiderations determined me, next 
Day, in the Middle of Winter, to ride to 
Croydon to advife with Dr. Taylor perfonally. 
I found him at home, at his full Quart of 
Cow’s Milk (which was all his Dinner.) He 
told me, he had had the Advice of all ther 
moft eminent Phyficians of his Time about 
London , and had taken all their Medicines, 
and all he had ever read or heard of, for his 

Epilepfy % 

3 3 <5 The Englifh Malady. 7 

Epikpfy, but with lo little Succefs, that he 
ufed frequently to be feized with it on the 
Road, while he was rideing in the Country 
about the Bufincfs of his Profeflion, fo that 
dropping from his Horfe, he remained fenfe- 
lefs, till by the next Waggoner or Paflenger 
he was carried to the neareft Houfe ; and that 
both his Life and Faculties had been in the 
utmoft Danger by it ; but that, on reading 
Sydenham , he had firft dropt all fermented 
Liquors, whereby his Fits became lefs vio- 
lent and frequent, and then, by Degrees, he 
had given over ail animal Food , living in- 
ti rely on Cow- Milk, with which, at firft, he 
ufed only to take a few Drops of Sal volatile 
or Harts-horn , or a Spoonful of compound 
ePoeony Water, to prevent its curdling ; that, 
in a Year or two his Fits had entirely left 
him : and that now, for feventeen Tears , he 
had enjoyed as good Health as human Na- 
ture was capable of, except that once in a 
damp Air and foggy Weather, rideing thro’ 
FJJeX) he had been feized with an Mgue, 
which he had got over, by chewing the Bark. 
He told me, he could then play fix Hours at 
Cricket on Banftead-Down , without Fatigue 
or Lownefs, and was more atfive and clear in 
his Faculties and Senjes than ever he had been 
in his Life before. He informed me alfo of 
a great many Perfons he had cured of invete- 
rate Diftempers by this Diet , and particularly 
that he had removed the Barrennefs of fome 


The Author s Cafe . 3 3 7 

great Families by it, who before had wanted 

f. VI. Having thus fully fatisfy’d all 
my Doubts and Difficulties, I return'd to 
London , fully determin'd to enter upon this 
Courfe, for which I was fufficiently before 
prepared, by the low Animal Diet , and 
fmall Quantity of fermented Liquors, I had 
of a long Time been accuftomed to. I 
drank Cow-Milk from the Park every Morn- 
ing, and engag’d a Milk Woman, at a 
higher Price than ordinary,' to bring me 
every Day as much pure and unmix’d, as 
might be fufficient for Dinner and Breakjajl ; 
(for, as I mentioned before, I had given over 
all Kinds of Suppers, and never after re- 
fum’d them, having always found myfelf 
worfe on the fighteft Attempts that way at 
Night, tho’ even in Milk and Vegetables.) 
I uled Seeds, Bread, mealy Roots , and Fruit 
with my Milk indifferently, taking them all 
to be pretty near of the fame Nature and 
Clals of Foods : Milk being Vegetables im- 
mediately cook'd by Animal Heat and Organs, 
and diredtly (without going the Circulation) 
drawn from their Chyle, or from an Emulfwn of 
Vegetables in the Stomach. I thought fcarce any 
grown Perion was fo delicately fram'd by Na- 
ture, or that I was not reduced to fuch extreme 
Weaknefs, that infnitejimal Errors, could do 
great Hurt ; and therefore I continued all thefe, 

Z for 

The Englifh Malady. 

for a little Variety, left I fhould be cloy’d hy 
only one Kind of Food ; and ever fince have 
ufed and prefcribed Milk and Vegetables indif- 
ferently, in extreme low and dangerous Cafes 
only, when fufficiently prepared by Culinary 
Heat and Organs, and amperfuaded they differ 
little in their Nature. In five or fix Months 
I was confiderably recovered ; only upon the 
Glands being loaded, and the peccant Matter 
of the old Habit being thrown upon the chy li- 
fer ous Duel, and theconftantly enfuing Op- 
prefiionand Reftlefnefsthereupon • I was forced 
to cleanfe them often by a gentle Vomit, or an 
udloethh Pill, which as conftantly reftored me 
to my ufual clear and free Spirits, and to a 
good Appetite for my then Food. 

VII. By this Time I had been ex- 
tremely reduced in my Flefh, and was be- 
come Lank, Fleet and Nimble; but ftill, 
upon any Error even in this low Diet, I 
found more or lefs Oppreftion and Lownelk 
Next Spring tho’ I began to feel a conftant 
Fain, fix’d in the Pit of my Stomach, which I 
miftook for a Pulmonary Cafe, and therefore 
became ftill more temperate and abftemious 
even in this my Milk and Seed Diet. Dure- 
ing all this Time, I generally rode a 
Horfeback -ten, or fifteen Miles a Day, 
both Summer and Winter ; in Summer on 
the Downs at Bath , and in Winter on the 
Oxford Road from London, I began more fre- 

T he Author s Cafe . j 3 p 

quently then to take an Aloetick Pill \ once 
in ten or fourteen Days, (for Rhubarb never 
agreed- with me) which always gave me 
great prefent Relief in my Stomach , and 
consequently in my Spirits. All this Time 
I followed the Bufmcfs of my Projej[Jion t 
with great Diligence and Attention, in Sum- 
mer at Bath , and in Winter at London , ap- 
plying myfelf more particularly to chronic 
cal , and especially to low and nervous Cafes t 
they Teeming more immediately to concern 
my felf, and offering more frequently at 
Bath , where all of that Kind, in both 
IJlands, arriye fiift or laft, who can afford it. 

§. VIII. The Pain in the Pit of my Sto- 
mach, being now conftant, violent, and 
Teeming to increafe, I began to think of 
Dr. "Baylor’s Chewing the Bark to cure his 
Ague ; and knowing it to be fo foyereign a 
Remedy in Stomach and Nervous Cafes, I 
got Tome of the fin-eft, and chewed about 
half a Dram of it twice or three times a 
Day, on an empty Stomach ; and in ten Days 
or three Weeks at moll, I found To wonderful 
a Change on my whole Man, as to Spirits s 
Chearfulmfs , Strength and Appetite, by it, that 
1 thought it Enchantment , and could Scarce 
believe I was myfelf ; and had I been much 
Enthufiafiically given, would have accounted 
it Miraculous , being naturally one of thefe 
Duick-Thinkers, who have a great Senfibi- 
■ Z 2 lity'" 

34° Englifli Malady. 

lity either of Pleafure or Pain. My Juices 
being thin, fvveet, and fluid by the Diet , it 
feems there was nothing wanting to the per- 
fecting Health, but the winding up and 
bracing the Solids, for which the Bark was 
fpecijick. From that Time forward I en- 
creas’d in Spirits , Strength, appetite and 
Gaiety , till I began to find a Craving and 
infufferable Longing for more Solid and 
Toothfome Food , and for higher and 
ftrongcr Liquors ; but being well apprifed 
of the Danger of too fudden and quick a 
i franjition, from a low to a high and fuller 
Diet 5 I proceeded at fir ft with great Cau- 
tion and Warinefs, eating only the Wing 
of a finall Chick, and drinking but one 
Glafs of white Wine (for 1 found all red, 
and efpecially French , by a grating on my 
lax Stomach and Guts , keep me awake 
three or four Hours in the Night) all that 
Summer and the next Winter (which I pafs’d 
at London) I enjoyed perfect good Health 
and Spirits, tho’ I had ufed little or no Ex- 
ercife ; but notwithstanding all my Caution, 
I had certainly gone too faft and too far 
into this new animal Diet j for the Spring 
following I was feized with a depuratory 
Fever , which notwithftanding all the Skill 
and Care of my Brethren, the Phyjjcians , 
lafted above ao Days, and the Medicine 
(after the univerfal Evacuations) that had 
the greateft Share in my Recovery, was, I 

The Authors Cafe. 341 

think, large Draughts of warm Barley Water or 
fmall Sack-W hey , acidulated with Gas Sulph . 
which was advis’d by Dr. Baynard , towards the 
latter End of my Fever \ this, at lad, threw me 
into a profufe Sweat, which laded above three 
or four Days, and reduc’d me fo extremely 
low, that for fome Time i liv’d chiefly on 
French Claret, with Water and toafted Bread, 
this being the only Food I could relifh ; and 
tho’ I never exceeded half a Pint, or at 
mod a Pint of Wine a day, mixed with Wa- 
ter, yet having ufed myfelf to fo little for a 
great while before, this fmall Quantity kept 
me perpetually HeBtcal and Reftlefs for 
many Weeks, even after the Crije, : fo that 
I began to think I had done wrong before, 
in uleing myfelf to fo little Wine; and 
therefore to fee are againd fuch an Accident 
for the future, I began (after my perfect 
Recovery) to inure myfelf by Degrees to 
.more Wine, gradually dropping or leffening 
the Quantity of my Milk and Vegetables , and 
by flow Degrees and in moderate Quantities, 
living only on the lighted and tendered 
animal Food for fome Time, and at -lad 
gradually went into common Life, with great 
Freedom , but exact common ‘Temperance. 

<£. IX. But the long and violent depur at ory 
Fever, which I did not get over entirely in 
lefs than fix Months, had fo drain’d, drench’d 
and waded roe, that upon my total Recovery 

£ 3 m Y 

The Englifli Malady. 

my Appetite being infatiable, I fuck’d up 
and retain’d the Juices and Chyle of my Food 
like a Sponge, and thereby fuddenly grew 
flump, fat and hale to a Wonder ; but indeed 
too fall. However, for near twenty Years, I 
continued foher , moderate and plain in my 
Diet, and in my greateft Health drank not 
above a Quart, or three Pints at moft, of 
Wine any Day, (which I then abfurdly thought 
necelfary in my Bulk and Stowage , tho’ cer- 
tainly by far an over Dofe ) and that at Din- 
ner only, one half with my Meat, with 
Water, the other after, but none more that 
Day, never tailing any Supper, and at Break- 
fall nothing but Green Tea, without any 
Eatable ; but by thefe Means every Dinner 
necelfarily became a Surfeit and a Debauch , 
and in ten or twelve Years, I fwell’d to fuch 
an enormous Size, that upon my laft Weigh- 
ing I exceeded 32 Stone. My Breath became 
fo Ihort, that upon llepping into my Chariot 
quickly, and with fome Effort, 1 was ready 
to faint away, for want of Breath, and my Face 
turn’d Black. At Aynhoe ( waiting on the late 
Honourable Mrs. Cartwright ) and going up 
only one Pair of Stairs, with high Steps, 
haftily, by pulhing my Breath a little too 
violently, to make room for thofe that were 
following, I was immediately feiz’d with a 
Convulfwe Afhrna , returning by repeated 
and llrong Infpirations, Fits and fmall In- 
tervals, which lafted above a Quarter of an 


The Author s Cafe. 345 ' 

Hour, lo that I thought to have died on the 
Spot ; but by Evacuations and low Living 
I got rid of this Diforder alfo, in fome De- 
gree, tho’ after that, I was not able to walk 
up above one Pair of Stairs at a Time, 
without extreme Pain and Blowing, being 
forced to ride from Door to Door in a Cha- 
riot even here at Bath ; and if I had but an 
Hundred Paces to walk, was oblig’d to have 
a Servant following me with a Stool to reft on, 

§. X. About this Time (twelve Years 
after my firft Recovery) my Legs broke 
out all over in Jcorbutick Ulcers , the Ichor 
of which corroded the very Skin, where it 
lay any Time, and the fore Parts of both 
Legs were one continued Sore. I had the 
Advice and Care of many of the mo ft emi- 
nent Surgeons in England , none of whom 
could heal them up even in three Years. 
Tir’d out at laft, I took AEthiops Mineral 
for four Months, in the mid ft of Winter: 
half an Ounce at lead: twice a Day, and a 
Purge with twelve Grains of Calomel once a 
Week, obferving a much lower Diet than 
before ; I found that the Mercury had not 
only colour’d the Money in my Pocket, and 
the Buttons in my Shirt ; but to all my Ob- 
fervation, the very Subftance of the AEthiops 
was tranfpir’d upon the Plaifter , every 
Day, when my Legs were drefs’d, viz. to- 
wards the End of the Cure; at leaft, the Ap- 
pearances feem’d to me, on the Plaifters, like 
Z 4 a Steam 

544 < % 7 oe Englifh Malady. 

a Steam or Smoke from Sulphur and Mercury , 
and was quite different from what it had been 
before I began that Courfe: This I was per- 
fectly allured of, tho’ I did not then think of 
making fuch a critical Obfervation, as that 
this Inftance might ferve as a Proof, that the 
JLthiops paired through the Habit; tho’ I am 
certain fince, from repeated Objervations , that 
every Preparation of Mercury , and even the 
Crude itfelf, in Time, and in fome lax Habits, 
will Salivate in fome Degree or another : and 
that Mercury , in its minute ft Particles and in- 
fenfible Stearns , does penetrate the folid Parts of 
all living Animals , as inflammable Spirits moft 
certainly do. After this Courfe, my Legs heal- 
ed perfedly, with common Dreflings, and have 
continued found ever fince ; my Health was 
likewife very good for four or five Years after. 
But continuing thefamefull, tho’ (commonly 
accounted) temperate Diet , and tiling little 
or no Exercife, I became at laft Heavy , 
Dull and Lethargick to an extream Degree, 
efpecially after Dinner ; and the Midjummer 
1723. I was feiz’d with a fevere Symptoma ■? 
tick Fever , which terminated in the moll 
violent Erifipelas , and with the largeft and 
full eft Blifters all over my Thighs, that I had 
ever feen. I fuffered extremely in the Sympto- 
matick Fever , by violent Headaches^%y at Sick- 
pejffes and Sinking ; and having lately had two 
full-bodied Patients, who had died of Mor- 
tifications from that Diftemper, I was much 
frightened at mine-' My Blood was then, I 


The Author s Cafe . 345 

found, one continued impenetrable Mafs of 
Glew , and my Erifypelatous Inflammations 
were fo painful (and attended with Luwnejs , 
Sinking and Inquietude ) as reduc’d me to the 
very laft Degree of Mlfery. I had always 
refolv’d, upon any great Change in my 
Health, to return to my old Friends , Milk 
and Vegetables, and to abftain from Wine in 
a great meafure, provided I had but fuffici- 
ent Warning by any Chronical Illnels. I 
then made a long Journey in a Coach, and 
liv’d on Milk and white Meats , drinking 
Briflol Water, and only a Pint of Wine a 
Day, by which I was fomewhat relieved, 
tho’ not fo much as to conquer my Fears or 
my Sufferings; fo that having continued this 
Method for two Months, I began gradually 
to leffen the Quantity of my Animal Food 
Hill more, and at la ft, to live entirely on Milk 
and Vegetables : This, infomeTime,mademy 
Spirits vaftly better ; but ft ill, for two Years, 
I was regularly and periodically feiz’d every 
third Month, almoft to a Day, with this Eri - 
fypelas , the Symptoms of which were indeed 
not fo grievous as at firft, tho’ Hill attended 
with violent Headaches , a Svniptomatick Fe- 
ver for forty-eight Hours before the Erup~ 
tion } large Blifters full of Scorbutick Ichor , 
and great Lownefs for the Space of a Week; 
after which I recovered my priftine State. 
But I was always obliged to vomit before 
the Eruption, to pnfh it out: And relieve 
the Headach and Fever : and to purge after 


54^ Sfi&f Englifh Malady. 

It was over. Thus I went on for feven or 
eight Months, wafting daily, but at the fame 
Time recovering Spirits, A&ivity, and the 
’life of my Limbs. I had all that Winter had 
a flight Pain in the back Tendon of my left 
Leg, reaching down to my Heel, which in 
March following terminated in a regular Fit 
of the Gout , in the Joint of my big Toe ; 
this confin’d me a Fortnight or three Weeks, 
and it had no fooner left that Place, than 
It fieiz’d my Shoulder 'Joints , where it con- 
tinued for above a Month. I pafs’d the 
reft of the Summer pretty tolerably, but 
for thefe periodical Returns of that Erifypelas , 
which continued very regular, above two 
Years. About the Michaelmafs of that Sum- 
mer, I was feiz'd with fuch a perpetual 
Sicknefs , Reaching , Lownefs y Watchjulnefs , 
Emulation y and Melancholy , continuing fix 
or eight Months : that Life was no longer 
fupportable to me, and my Mifery was al- 
rnoft extreme. 

$ XI. At laft, my Sufferings were not 
to be expreffed, and I can fcarce deferibe, 
or reflect on them without Horror . A per- 
petual Anxiety and Inquietude , no Sleep nor 
Appetite, a conftant Reaching , Gulping , and 
fruitlefs Endeavour to pump up Flegm , IVind y 
or Choler Day and Might: A conjlant Colicky 
and an ill Tafte and Savour in my Mouth and 
Stomach, that overcame and poifoned every 


i The Author s Cafe. 3^7 

Thing I got down ; a melancholy Fright and 
Pannick , where my Rcafon was of no Ufe to 
me: So that I could fcarcebear the Sight of my 
Patients, or Acquaintances, that had not been 
daily about me, and yet could not bear being 
a Moment alone, every Inftant expeding the 
Lofs of my Faculties or Life ; and furely no- 
thing but Almighty Power preferved them 
both, fuch as they are. I had a conftant 
violent Pain in the Neck of my Stomach , and 
was obliged almoft every Week to take a 
ffrong Emetic &, without which I could not 
enjoy a Moment’s Eafe, belides daily urging 
with my Finger, or chewing Tobacco. I had 
Recourie to my old Friend the Quinquina in 
feveral Shapes, but to no Purpofe. I drank 
Bath Waters without fenfible Relief. I 
went out in my Chariot, in the coldeft Winter 
Weather, for four Hours every Day; but 
nothing mitigated my Suffering. At laft I 
tried the Fattids , the Gums , the Volatiles and 
Vipers Powders (not indeed regularly and 
fteadily) but all in vain. In fine, I had Re- 
courfe to Opiats , which I knew' were a flow 
Poifon ; but one wil flick at nothing for 
even a Moments Refpite in fuch Extremi- 
ties. This, inftead of relieving, aggravated 
my Miferies ; for fo foon as the ftupifying 
and confounding Effeds of them were over, 
my Anxiety and Sinking was lb extream 
after, that I was forced to repeat them fo 
<sften, and in fo large Pofes, that I was juft? 

34$ The Englifh Malady: 

ly afraid, left by their becoming fo familiar, 
they would, at laft, lole even the poor, di~ 
ftrading, uncomfortable Relief they afforded 
me ; yet all this Time, I attended indeed (in 
a Manner) the Bufinefs of my Profejfion , and 
took Air and Exercife regularly in the Day- 
time ; but in luch a wretched, dying Condi- 
tion as was evident to all that law me. I had 
many different and contradidory Advices, 
from my Friends and Acquaintances, who 
oblerved my Mifery; but I neither could, 
from the Nature of my Diftemper, nor from 
the ill Effeds jhe fmalleft Tryals of any 
Thing propoled, were attended with, conti- 
nue them any time. I well knew my Cafe was 
the Gouty and Enfypelatous Matter retired, and 
drawn into my Stomach and Bowels : I like- 
wife knew, that if I took hot and ftrong 
Medicines and Cordials to drive them out (as 
is ufual) I fhould thereby lofe all the Pains 
I had taken, and the Benefit of the Abfti- 
nence I had gone through, to thin and fweeten 
my Blood and Juices, to open the Obftruc- 
tions, and to obtain an Extirpative Cure , if 
poffible there might be Time enough remain- 
ing for it ; but the worft was, my Stomach 
would not retain any Medicine, for they 
had a prelent ill Effed, by making my Suf- 
ferings more intenfe; however, I was per- 
fwaded then to take a little ftrong warm YVine 
made with Spices , and to have Bread and 
this Wine mixed for my Dinner : Conti- 

The Authors Cafe, 349 

nuing Tea, with boiled Milk, and toafted 
Bread for Breakfaft; but all this time I had 
no fenfible Relief. My Family and Relations 
preffed me cxtreamly to go for London (where 
I had not been for many Years) to pafs the 
Dead of the Winter among my old Acquaint- 
ances and Friends, for Amulement and Diver- 
fion only: but to this I was extreamly averfe, 
apprehending I might be teized to change 
my Regimen , and fneer’d at by the Free- 
livers ; and being convinced, from former 
Experience, that if my Life was to be fav’d, 
it was only by this Regimen , at leaft, if 
my Time of Difblution was come, 1 knew 
I ffiould die under lels Mifery by it, than 
by any other Means. 

XII. However, at laft, to prevent 
Friendly Feazing, and the Character of Obfti- 
nacy, 1 promifed to be pafive , and to be go- 
verned by them ; fo in the Beginning of De- 
cember 1725, I let out, and with great Diffi- 
culty got to London. Next Day after my Arri- 
val, I lent to the very learned \ ingenious, my very 
worthy Friends , Dr .Jrbnthnot, and Dr. Brox - 
holm, who, at my Delire, brought with them 
Dr. Mead and the late Dr. Freind , with Dr. 
Douglas and Dr. Campbell all Gentlemen of 
great Learning, Worth and Experience. 
They unanimoufly advifed'me to try a warm 
chaly'beat Ele&uary, with Pyrmont Waters, 
and by all Means to drop my Opiats \ for as 


^5 o tfhe Englifli Malady. 

to Cathartics , which were mentioned, they 
fo exceedingly funk and ruffled me, that 1 
was always dying under them. This Method 
being reafonable and juft, I followed fome 
time, continuing tho’ the fame Regimen of 
Diet : And tho' fome of thofe Gentlemen and 
others thought I might have then, with 
Safety, changed my Diet , very flowly, at leaft. 
Yet having pafted through the fame Courfe 
twenty Years before, and having buffered to 
fuch Extremity, and in a younger and more 
vigorous Part of my Life, and ran the utmofi: 
Hazard, even by a very flow and gradual 
Change: And knowing the Danger others had 
undergone by the like Change • I was firmly 
fefolved to continue my Regimen , happen 
what w'ou’d ; and indeed when all this was 
reprefented to t'hefe Gentlemen and my other 
Friends , none had the Courage to prefs it • 
much leis to urge it, in io injolent and fneer - 
big a Manner as fome, who ridicule all Shame 
and Truth , have thought fit falfily to repre- 
lent it. I have once or twice, in nine or ten 
Years, been tempted to eat an Ounce or two 
of young tender animal Food, but with fuch 
fenfible Suffering and Oppreffion after, that I 
have relolved never more to make the Tryal : 
And I have known others much younger than 
I, on whom a potch’d Egg , under fo long and 
ftribt a vegetable Diet y for an Epileptick Cale, 
has had a difagreeable Effed. As the Winter 
advanced, meeting with fome true Sylphium 

The Author s Cafe . 3 j i 

to join with thefe other Medicines, I became 
fomevvhat eafier and more chearful by the 
Spring, though almoft every Month I was 
forc’d to have Recourfe to a ftrong Vomit to 
clear the Glands : But by thefe warm chaly- 
beat Medicines, and the vitriolick Waters, 
and drinking near half a Pint, or rather 
a Gill of Port a Day, I had, by the May 
following, forced out fuch a Fit of an 
Erijypelas , as the belt and moft experienced 
Surgeons (who then treated me) had never 
feen the like : the whole Leg, Jhigh^ .and 
Abdomen being tumifed , incrajied , and burnt 
almoft like the Skin of a roafied Pig : And 
fuch a Quantity of Ichor iffued from it, as 
was not to be exprelfed j at laft it ended in 
a linuous Ulcer in my Leg, which confined me 
near two Months, and the Jinking Effects 
were not quite worn off in almoft fix ; how- 
ever I palPed the next Winter again in Lon- 
don much better, and in the Spring was ex- 
treamly eajy , active and gay ; for from the 
Time of this laft and moft fevere erifipelatous 
Paroxyfm , I reckon I mended daily: For this 
had the fame Effed upon my whole Confti- 
tion now, as the depuratory Fever before- 
mentioned had then, both being the Crijt 
and Period of my Diftemper, and the Begin- 
ning of my perfect Recovery. This was 
above fix Years fince, tho’ I became not per- 
fectly well till the Spring following, and in- 

3 5 1 The Englifh Malady. 

deed not abfolutely fo, till about four Years 

XIII. Upon the Whole, as in my 
Nervous and Scorbutica!, Diforder, 1 had 
continued my Milk, Seed, and Vegetable 
Diet, with proper Evacuations, for above 
two Years, before I obtain’d a compleat Re- 
covery, lb in this laft Illnefs, I had obferv’d 
the fame Regimen near twice as long, be- 
fore my Health was perfe&ly eftablifhed * 
being in the fir ft Cafe twenty Years younger 
than in the laft ; tho v my Exccffes were 
much more violent in the Time preceding 
my ftrft Illnefs, than between that and the 
laft, having, during all that Interval, fcarce 
once been heated with Wine, and never eat- 
ing Animal Food but once a Day. But my 
exceeding Bulk and Want or Inability of 
neceflary Exercife, and a continued, tho’ tem- 
perate Fulnefs, with the Difference of twenty 
Years in my Age, concurred to make the 
Paroxyfms even more diftra&ing and painful, 
as well as more durable in this laft Cafe. 
And after all I have faid of my Exceffes, 
efpecially in Liquor, if it be confidered, that 
I was near thirty Years Old before I drank 
fcarce any thing ftrong, at leaft, for a Con- 
tinuance : and that for near one half of the 
Time fince, viz. from Thirty to Sixty , I 
fcarce drank any ftrong Liquor at all : It 
will be found, that upon the Whole, I 


The Author s Cafe. 353 

drank very little above a Pint of Wine, or 
at moft, not a Quart one Day with ano- 
ther, fince I was near thirty : And I was ne- 
ver fix times in my Life overtaken with 
Wine, and fcarce ever tailed any diftilled 
Liquors, but as a Medicine, however mix’d 
or brew’d. Always believing them to be 
actual Cauteries, and almoft diredt Foifon 
to an Animal Habit, from their Nature, 
and the Delicacy of the animal Machine : 
And during that whole Time, I fcarce 
ever eat Animal Food above once a Day. But 
Temperance is a mere relative Thing; and 
by much Obfervation I find, that notwith- 
ftanding my large Size , I was not made to 
bear Animal Food and fermented Liquors , in 
any Quantity, without fuffering to the laft De- 
gree. But 1 believe none will ever be brought 
to fuch a Regimen as mine is now, without 
having been firft extremely Miferable; and 
I think Common Life, with Temperance, 
is belt for the Generality, elfe it would not 
be Common. But extreme Cafes require ex- 
traordinary Remedies. 

£. XIV. I found I never began to reco- 
ver fully and laftingly, either firft or laft, 
till my Blood had entirely loft its Size (which 
I came to know by an accidental Occafion 
for opening a Vein) and all the former Ha- 
bit (except the mere Organical Membranes 
and Solids) was wafted, wore away, and 
A a difcharged 

354 ^ oe Englifli Malady, 

difcharged by Evacuations , Diet and Exer-- 
eife ; for I had wafted and loft of my former 
Size and Bulk, in this laft Illnefs, almoft one 
third in Weight and Meafure: and had pafs’d 
through a State of entire bodily Purification, 
and a true Cychs Metafyncriticus , both iirft and 
laft, before I began to recover and fill up 
again. Vomits were the firft Evacuations 
that with any Relief, or without infinite 
Ruffling, I could bear: and fo foon as I could 
endure gentle Stomach Cathartics , I began 
already to mend but no fooner had I reco- 
vered any Degree of Eafe and Freedom, but 
my Appetite and Digeftion returned to their 
ufual Stint towards my new Food, and Vomits 
were no longer neceffary nor indeed theft}!, 
they being only required to lqueeze the in- 
ternal Glands, open OhflruBions , arid pump 
op the Wind, C holer, and Phlegm from the 
j Alimentary ‘Cube when lodged there. 

§. XV. Upon any Accident, Diforder, 
or any greater Opprellion or Anxiety than 
ordinary, arifing naturally in the Courfe of 
the Cure, 1 found that living even much 
Joiner under my Milk and Vegetable Diet for 
two or three Days at leaft, would always 
help me out again, and reftore me to my 
ufual Serenity and Freedom, (for I found 
Temperance neceffary even in this, as well 
as a higher Diet, tho’ Exceffes were not at- 
tended with fuch extreme Suffering) and 


The Authors Cafe. 35 ^ 

fcarceany time lefs than three Days would do 
it ; for tho’ all my Symptoms were lefs levere 
under it, yet I found by indulging a falfe 
appetite, or a liquorifh Palate even in it, 
that 1 exafperated thele milder Symptoms, at 
leaft to fuch a Degree, as was fufficient to 
convince me, that the Stomach and digeflive 
Organs were the primary and principal De- 
linquents, Sufferers , and Patients, in moll, if 
not in all nervous Symptoms, tho’ this was 
not always lenlible and manifeft : And that 
by ufing them tenderly, 'and abftemioully, alL 
the reft of the Animal Fu nil ions were propor- 
tionably reliev’d. And, I think, I never once 
departed from the Simplicity of the Alimentary 
Gofpel, and indulged in Onions and Garlicky 
viz. the poignant, hard, fpicy ,oxun$uousS[ ege- 
tables, with much Butter or Oil, or in a greater 
Quantity than ufual, even of the common ones 
for any Time, but that I fuffered Pains and 
Penalties in Proportion. 

(J’.XVI. I found all my Rejllefnefs, Watch- 
ings, and want of Tranquillity or found 
Sleep, to be owing entirely to Inflation , ftored 
up Wind and Flatulence, constantly urge- 
ing and ftimulating as it were with its Spring, 
Flajiicity and Points, the tender fenlible 
Membranes of the Stomach and Guts , and 
the whole Glands and Membranes of the 
Abdomen \ for upon Faffing Home Tim e, Eating 
yery little, or very thin, light and foftFood, 
A a 2 or 

356 "The Englifh Malady. 

or on ufing a great deal of more Exercife , to 
urge the Perjpiration , and to throw off and 
dilcharge this Wind, Vapour, or Jharp Steams , 
I found my Sleep return in a greater Degree • 
and I am bold to fay* where no manifeft 
Fever, acute Fain, interrupted Circulation , 
or fpoil'd Organ is the Gale, that want of 
Sleep and natural Rell proceeds from the 
Dil'orders of the Jlhnentary Vube , continual- 
ly, tho’ perhaps not fenlibly, {Emulated by 
this Vapour. And hence it is, that AJJ'a, 
fcctida , Volatiles , Foetid Gums, gentle Diapho- 
retics and Opiats , procure Sleep ; merely 
by encrealing and promoting Perjpiration , 
and expelling this twitching Vapour or Steam, 
for which they ought chiefly to be ufed ; 
and this lerves to lhew the Neceflity, and 
infinite Preference of Exercife to all Anodyne 
Medicines whatl'oever, and even to Cordials, 
Diaphoreticks and Volatiles, except as a pre- 
fers Relief, Whip or Spur only. 

§. XYIL Want of Appetite and Digeftion 
moftly proceeds from the Thicknefs, Groff- 
nefs, and Vifcidity of the Juices and of the 
whole Mafs of Blood ; every Vein and Ar- 
tery thereby becoming like lo many Black- 
Puddings, or leathern Pipes, fluff’d with a 
glezuy or tenacious Fluid : by which all 

the Secretions being more fcanty, and lels 
being expended by them, lefs can be re- 
ceived thro’ the Lacleals into the Blood; 


The Authors Cafe. 357 

which (hews the Neceffity and Preference of 
the ponderous and deobftruent Medicines to 
procure an Appetite and Digeftion, even to 
Bitters , Cordials or Chaly beats themielves : 
whofe Efficacy principally lies in (Lengthen- 
ing the Solids, and winding up and contract- 
ing the Fibres , to make them play, and com- 
prefs with greater Force the circulating Fluids, 
which can never folidly anfwer the Intention 
of Digestion and Appetite. And accordingly 
by Agile kfi her, AEthiops , Cinnabar, but el'pe- 
cially by Mer curias Alcdifatus , and other mer- 
curial Preparations, I have been always able to 
cure the Diforders of the .Alimentary Fube, In- 
appetency, and even Colicks , when fcarce any 
other Method or Medicine could effeCt it. 
And feeing, by a thin, cool Milk and vegetable 
Diet long continued, I found my Appetite 
full as good as before, and likewife my 
Strength , Affinity, Flefo and Complexion, and 
every Power, Organ and Faculty reftor’dto as 
great a Degree as I could juftly expeCt at my 
Time of Life, had no fuch Diforder ever hap- 
pen’d ; it appears that the Fluids are chiefly 
and primarily the Seat of Diforders : and 
that when they are fufficiently Jweetened and 
diluted, they generally leave the Solids with a 
lufficient Force and Spring to play fuch 
Fluids off, and circulate them fully and free-* 
ly and then all the Animal Functions, and 
the Exercife of the Faculties will again be 
pleafantly and regularly performed, as in 
A a 3 perfeCl 

5 5 8 EngliiTi Malady. 

perfect Health 5 for good Health fuppofes 
this State: which does not depend on the Kind 
of the Diet , though mechanical Strength does. 
So that fuch a Diet is only proper for the 
thinking , fpeculative and fedentary Part of 
Mankind, and not for the acdive, laborious 
and mechanical. 

§. XVIII. A f t e r I began to recover, I 
found little Alteration from Cold or Heat , 
Wet or Dry , Summer or Winter Seafons, 
efpecially as to my appetite , Spirits or 
Sleep • at leaft not near fo much as I ufually 
found in my belt Health on thefe Occafions, 
under a full animal and fermented Liquor 
D let j fo that I can fit, and walk, and be 
abroad in all Weathers, Seafons or Times of 
the Year, Day or Night, without much 
Dread or Hazard of Cold, and with little 
Difference of Cloathing, providing I keep 
my Stomach and chiliferous 'Tube clear and 
clean 5 which often put me in mind of the 
Saying of a Roman Emperor , who affirmed, 
that Spitting, Coughing, Excreation , Eradia- 
tion, Pawning, and the like, were Symptoms 
and Effects of mere Lazinefs and -Luxury. 

§. XIX. After I had perfeftly recovered, 
obferying, that {till, on liquid, flip per y Stools, 
from craming 1 was fomewhat Ids lively and 
chearful, and rather more grip’d and in- 
flated) I refolved to change my half Pint or 
17 GUI 

The Author s Cafe. 35 9 

'Gill of Port at Dinner, into the fame Quan- 
tity of Florence, thinking it more binding 
and aftringent. I ate at the fame Time a 
good deal of more Butter with my Ve- 
getables, and Plenty of old rich Cheefe ; 
and likeing Nuts extremely, .! procur’d 
from Abroad and at Plome, great Plenty of 
all Kinds, as Filberts , Wall nuts , Chef nuts , 
Almonds, &c. eating them in great Quanti- 
ties after Dinner, by way of Defert. I 
went on all Winter, and for eight or ten 
Months in this Regimen extremely well • and 
out of Wantonnefs , to try what my Confuta- 
tion could now bear, I indulged freely (tho 5 
in thefe only) together with my ufual Milk 
and Vegetable Diet. But after my common, 
flight, vegetable Fjt of the Gout, (which I ftili 
have in the Spring , without neceffary Confine- 
ment, tho’ for an Hour, or altering either Re- 
gimen or Cloathing , or any other Circu enhance, 
but a Lamenefs for a few Days) I had firft a 
Touch of my Erifypelas on my Leg; after that 
I feemingly catch’d Cold, and began to be lick 
at my Stomach, Reaching, Inflated, Low-fpi - 
rited and Colick’d , with reftleis Nights, and al- 
moft all thofe aifmal Symptoms I had gone 
through in my late long illnefs. I foon found 
my Error , and that my Conftitution could not 
bear even that flight Alteration without fevere 
Sufferings. I had a violent humorous Cough, 
and threw up great Quantities of grols vifeid 
Flegm, which I knew to be the Nuts, not 
A a 4 ft 

l6o The Englifh Malady. 

fo fufflciently digefted and attenuated, as to 
become thin enough to circulate freely thro" 
the fmall Veffels : but were thrown off, and 
defpumated upon the larger Emundiory and 
open Glands. In a Word, I luffer’d all the 
Kind of Mifery I had formerly, tho’ not 
with quite fo much Violence and Duration- 
I went through the former lelfer Purgation 
again : Repeated Vomits , took frequent Sto- 
mach Purges , chew'd Bark, return’d to the 
Simplicity of my former Regimen , leffening 
their Quantities, and drinking no Wine 
(which I now have dropped for ever, but as 
others ufe Spirits , for a Cordial , if wanted) 
and drinking firft Briflol and then Bath , and 
after Pyrmont Water, as the Defluxion abated ; 
by thefe Means I got quite well in about three 
Months, viz. in the Jagujl after ; and fince 
that Time, I thank God, I have gone on in 
one conftant l > enor of Diet, and enjoy as good 
Health, as, at my Time of Life (being now 
Sixty) I, or any Man, can reafonably expedl, 
and have learned that young tender animal 
Food is lefs dangerous, in a fmall Quantity^ 
than hard , hot,Jpicy and oily Vegetables. 

XX. I know not if it be worth the 
mentioning, that during my Recovery , about 
four Years ago, I was thrown, or rather 
threw myfelf, out of my Chariot (upon the 
Fore- Kories being frighted, and the Coach- 
man being thrown off his Box) and falling 


The Authors Cafe . 3 61 

on my Head, was taken up dead and fenfe r 
lefs, being wounded in my Temple, and the 
Wheels of the Chariot having entirely fhav'd 
my Eye-Brow. But on being blooded, I 
found my Spirits and Stomach moftly affected 
with it. I grew, for fome fhort Time, low, 
feeble, and loft my Appetite ; but in two or 
three Months recovered to a Miracle, from 
what wouldhavekiirdanother with bad Juices, 
and have continued perfectly well ever fince. 

(f XXI. My Regimen, at prefent, is Milk, 
y/ith Tea , Coffee, Bread and Butter, mild 
Cheefe, Salladin , Fruits , and Seeds of all 
Kinds, with tender Roots (as Potatoes, Tur- 
nips, Carrots ) and, in fhort, every Thing 
that has not Life, drefs’d, or not, as I like 
it ; (in which there is as much, or a 
greater Variety than in animal Foods:) fo that 
the Stomach need never be cloyed. I drink no 
Wine , nor any fermented Liquors, and am 
rarely dry, moft of my Food being liquid, 
moift, or juicy ; only, after Dinner, 
I drink either Coffee or green Tea, but 
feldom both in the fame Day, and fome- 
times a Glafs of foft fmall Cyder. The thinner 
my Diet is, the eafier, more cheerful and 
lightfomel find myfelf; mv Sleep is alfo the 
founder, tho’ perhaps fomewhat fhorter than 
formerly under my full animal Diet : But thenl 
am more alive than ever I was, as foon asl awake 
and get up. I rife commonly at Six, and go to 


%6i The Englifli Malady. 

Bed at Ten. The Order I find in this Diet* 
from much Experience, is, that Milk is the 
Jighteft and beft of all Foods, being a Medium 
between animal Subllances and Vegetables ; 
drefs’d Vegetables, lels windy and griping, than 
raw ; ripe Fruit than unripe \ the mealy Roots 
more than the fibrous \ and the dry than the 
crude Vegetables. I find much Butter , Cream , 
fat and oily Vegetables, and Specially Nuts 
both hard of Digeftion, fluffing and inflating.. 
When I am dry (which is rarely) 1 drink 
Bath , Briflol or Pyrmont Water. 

$ XXII. I a m heartily afhamed, and 
humbly beg Pardon of my polite and delicate 
Headers ( if any fuch ffiould deign to look 
into this low Tattle , contrary to my In- 
tention.) I know how indecent and J hocking 
Egotifm is, and for an Author to make him- 
felf the Subjed of his Words or Works, efpe- 
cially in fo tedious and circumftantiated a 
Detail : But fo various and contradictory have 
been the Reportsof, and fneersonmy Regimen, 
Cafe and Sentiment j, that I thought thus much 
was due to Tfuth, and neceffary for my own 
Vindication^ and perhaps it may not be quite 
ufelefs to fome low, dejfonding, valetudinary , 
over-grown PerJ'on , whole Cafe may have 
fome Refemblance to mine; which every 
one’s has in fome Degree, that has a mortal 
Tabernacle , fubjed to, and affiided with nervous 
Diforders, by a miftaken Regimen x or heredi- 


The Author s Cafe. 363 

Cary Misfortune : and I have, on that Account, 
written this in a plain narrative Stile, with the 
feweftTerms of Art poffible, without fiippofing 
my Reader, or file wing myfelf to have look’d 
ever into a physical Book before ; thinking this 
Manner and Stile might be moft inftru&iv-e 
and beneficial to common valetudinary Read- 
ers : and tho’ fome may not have quite my 
Bulk and natural Strength, or have run into 
fuch Excefjes , or have not begun to manage 
fo early in Life as I did firft, yet they will 
only for that require leffer or greater Dofes 
of the fame Method , Medicines and Manage- 
ment; and if it have not quite fo full and 
perfect an Effed, as, under God , it has had 
with me, (tho’, perhaps, the worft Subjed and 
the molt difficult Cafe poffible, for fo abfo- 
lute a Cure ) yet it may, and will always have 
a better than any other Method ( I mean 
only in fo deplorable and excruciating a Cafe 
as mine was) and if it cannot cure , it will 
certainly reprieve , and make the Sufferings 
of all fuch miferable Perfons mbre tolerable: 
as I have experienced once and again, in the 
moft. eminent Degrees : who, from the moft 
extreme Mifery , do now enjoy as perfeffi 
■Health ,2 lS much. Hid ivity zn&CheerfulneJs, with 
the full, free and perfed Ufe of my Faculties'. 
a Facility of Study , and of going about the 
Bufinefs of my Frofeffion ; and, in ffiort, of 
every rational Function of Life , as I was ever 
capable of in my belt Days : and indeed 

1^4 The Englifh Malady. 

of every Thing worth living for as a free 
and rational Intelligence ; every Thing, I lay, 
except that I cannot eat and drink fo highly 
and voluptuoufly as I have formerly-, and, if 
I know my Heart (which I am lure Ido not 
fully) tho’ I were to b t eternal and unaccount- 
able, I {hould live (at leaf! wilh to live in 
the Main and as to Diet ) as I now do, and 
would not willingly and deliberately go thro’ 
the fame Mifery , for the mere Gratification 
of my Senfes only ; no, not to obtain the 
Dominion of our Syflem , and all the Glories 
and Pleafures in it. What I may happen to 
do, God only knows ; I am too old, 1 hope, 
to make any new Tryals and Changes in 
this my bodily Regimen ; and indeed to 
what Purpofe ? being as well as any, and 
much better than molt are at my Time of 
Day: And therefore, with God’s Grace , 
if my Health , Senjes and Love of Virtue 
continue with me the fame, I fhall, I 
hope, go on in the Method now defcribed, 
and live , and, I hope, die in continual Gra- 
titude to the Be (l of Beings , who, by an 
over-ruling Providence , and, as it were, by 
meer cafual Hints , far beyond the Reach of 
my Penetration , has irrefiftably (as I fhould 
almoft fay, if I felt not my own Liberty') 
directed the great Steps of my Life and 
Health hitherto. 

Mifericordias Domini in sternum cant aba ■« 


The Conch (ion. 


A FTER all the Pains I have taken, i 
have not yet got fo large a Share of 
Enthujiajm , as to hope, by thefe my 
poor Labours , to do Good to any, except, per- 
haps, to a few poor, low, valetudinary , dying . , 
miserable Creatures, who have not the Cou- 
rage magnanimoujly and glorioufly to fuffer, 
pine, and putrify. The Brave , the Bold , the 
Intrepid , the Heroic , who value not Pain , 
who can fuffer for Diver [ion, and who prefer 
Death with a Bounce , to Life, on fuch Con- 
ditions as I propofe : and choofe rather to 
extinguijb now, than forty or fifty Years 
hence, will heartily defpife and pity me and 
my Lucubrations. Nunquamperfuadebis etiamfi 
perfuajeris. You fhall never convince tho’ you 
convidft me. I have heard of a great modern 
Bhilofopher, celebrated for his Wit, Wealth, and 
high Living , who ufed, in the Sun -fine of his 
Days, to boa ft, that if 'Temperance and Abfli- 
nence could make a Man live half a Century 
longer, in Gayety and Mirth, it were worth 
the While then to deny one’s Appetites ; but 
for Ten or a Dozen of Years more, it was but 
a poor Bur chafe-, and yet I have been told, 
that the fame Hero , when his Time came , would 


%66 The Englifli Malady. 

have parted with his great Eftate for a Re- 
prieve of a few Years. I own I am one of 
thofe poor mean-fpirited Wretches , who am 
contented to live as long as Nature defign’d me 
to laft, and defire to fubmit with the utmoft 
Peace and Refgnation I can arrive at when 
that Period is expired; but for Pain , Sicknefs , 
and efpecially for OppreJ/ion, Anxiety and Low- 
iiefs avoidable, they are my mortal AverJjon^ and 
no Means would I refufe to avoid them, but 
thofe, which, I am convinced, would infal- 
libly bring me into greater Mifery and Suf- 
fering ; and yet, if I miftake not my own 
Nature, I have the Appetites , Pajfions , and 
Feelings common to other Men ; and I ufu-' 
ally ask mvfelf the Queftion, and look into 
my own Pleart for an Anjwer , to any thing 
propoled concerning human Appetites , Paj- 
fions and Feelings that are natural and not 
forced: and give little Credit to what others 
fay contrary to fuch Sentiments. It is true 
indeed, there are as many and as different De- 
grees of Senfbility or of Feeling, as there are De- 
grees of Intelligence and Perception in human 
Creatures ; and the Principle of both may be 
perhaps one and the fame. One fball luffer more 
from the Prick of a £ P/w, or Needle , from their 
extreme Senfibility , than others from being run 
thro’ the Body; and th t frft fort, feem to be 
of the Clefs of thefe Jfhiick-Fhiilkers I have 
formerly mentioned ; and as none have it in 
their Option to choofe for themfel ves their own 


fhs Condufion. 167 

particular Frame, of Mind; nor Confutation of 
Body ; fo none can choofe his own Degree of 
Senfibility. That is given him by the Author 
of his Nature , and is already determined; and 
both are as various as the Faces and Forms of 
Mankind are. 1 imagine therefore, there muft 
be required a particular Make and Frame , both, 
of Mind and Body, to determine any one to 
receive heartily and purfue (i eadily this (as it 
were) material Metaphyficks of a Regimen . 
Therefeems tobe neceffary, previous to a Con- 
vidion of the Benefit and Neceffity offuch a 
State of Purification^ a fe nefai quoi , to make 
Men .comprehend, embrace, and profecute this 
Self-denying Dodrine, for the fake of fuch in- 
fenfible Trifles , as Health , clear Faculties y 
Cheerfulnejs , Activity, and Length of Hays , 
when they are in Danger. If this corporal Sen- 
fibility , as well as intellectual Delicacy is want- 
ing, they will prove but lhort-li v’d, diffident and 
daftardly material Spiriiualifs , and fall away 
in the Time of c f rials, tho’ he that hath Ears to 
hear will hear : and good and found Threfhing „ 
great and extream Mifery , Fain , Lownefs , and 
Anxiety , will go a great Way to beget this 
Senfibility and Conviction ; for the Means us’d 
by infinite fVifdom and Goodnefs towards re- 
claiming his wandering Creatures , feem only 
to be either Love or P uni foment : that thofe 
whom Love will not draw and allure, Punt fo- 
ment may drive and force ; but neither Frame , 
Difpqftion, Organ , nor Faculty can make their. 


368 The Englifli Malady. 

Objects, or alter their Nature, which arc 
'Things given and determined. The immu- 
table Laws of Nature ,< and the Relations of 
Things are con ft ant , and will fubiift in their 
Order, notwithftanding our Errors , Mi flakes, 
or Prejudices. And it will be eternally true, 
fo long as we have fuch Bodies, that only 
Temperance and Abftinence , Air , Exercife , 
Diet, and proper Evacuations can prefer veLife, 
Health , and Gayety , or cure Chronical Difeales : 
I mean in general and in the main ‘ and the 
contrary will always deftroy them ; and that 
they will ever mutually expel one another, 
like Eire and hVater. Even Homer , three 
thoufand Years ago, could obferve, that the 
Homolgians (thele Pythagoreans , thefe Milk 
and Vegetable Eaters) were the longefl liv'd, 
and h one f eft of Men. Milk and Honey was 
the Complexion of the Land of Fromife , and 
Vegetables the Diet of the Paradifiacal State: 
And lince fuch a Diet will (if any thing) 
certainly cure, by the ConfeiTion of all Phy- 
Jicians , learned and unlearned, ancient or mo- 
dern, High or Low-livers, the Gout , the Con - 
fumption, and the Scurvy , and fuch like atro- 
cious, otherwife incureable and mortal Dif- 
tempers ; it will be eternally true alfo, Gfaod 
potefi majus potefi minus, or that, what will do 
to the greater, will do the lefsofthe lame Kind: 
And let the Brave and Bold , the Free-living 
and Free-thinking Profejfors fneer or rail as 
they pleafe, there muft be an eafier, fimpler, 


and more natural Way of preferring Heafepp 
and Cheerfulnefs , of lengthning Life and cure- 
ing Dfempers , than that founded on deep 
Re fear ches, tedious Details , fludfd Ingenuity , 
and Fine fling, elfe the Poor , the Illiterate , the 
Laborious , and the Solitary (the far moft, if 
not the leaft corrupted Part of our Species) 
would be, of all Men, the moil miserable 
when Pick. And accordingly it is obferve- 
able, that Hippocrates , Galen , Celjus , and 
others of the primitive Fathers op' Phyfick 
cured by ^/>, Exercife , Diet , and Evacua- 
tion moftly, if not only, even as fuccefsfully, 
(tho’ not quite fo foon perhaps) as we by all 
our Mathematicks , Natural Philojophy , Chy- 
miftry , Anatomy , Knowledge of the Materia 
Medica , and Animal Oeconomy. Far be it from 
me, to lelfen the Value and Neceflity zzczy, of 
thofe Divine Sciences ; for fince our Luxury 
has kept Pace with our Knowledge \ the OZ>- 
ftinacy and Violence , the Number and Degrees 
of our Difeafes have increaled proportio- 
nally; and therefore He that would honeftly 
and fuccefsfully practife Phyfick , on the A?- 
and Dijeafes now as they'are, ought to 
know all thefe mentioned Sciences, to the 
greateft Degree he can poffibly, to enable 
him even to alleviate , mitigat , lejjen or care 
thefe unnatural and infernal Diftempers now 
extant \ and that Phyjfician will never arrive 
at true, natural and beautiful Simplicity , 
either of the theory or Practice of Phyfick , 

B b who 

370 The Englifh Malady. 

who has not pafled thro’ endlefs Multiplicity 
in Study, Obfervation, and Experiment in 
thefe Sciences \ fuch a Simplicity is the 
greateft Contradi&ion to Lazinefs y Foreign 
Studies , Negligence , Incuriojity and Ignorance 
in the ProfelTion ; but fueh a Simplicity (pro- 
duced by reje&ing Need-nofs) when (if ever) 
attained, is worth a Million of thefe little falje 
and foreign Ar ts fometimes us’d to rife in it ; 
for it is, in Truth and Reality, an Eminence 
of Light and Tranquillity . 

Difpicere , unde queas alios pajjtmque videre , 
Err are atque viam palantes queer ere vitce. 




Page 294, Line i 8 3 for and read but. 


; C s 




Ex Lib. ] . F. Fulton